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Topic: Soviet Mountain Republic


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In the News (Mon 17 Jun 19)

  
  Czech Republic - MSN Encarta
The Czech Republic is surrounded by four countries: Germany to the west, Poland to the north, Slovakia to the east, and Austria to the south.
The Erzgebirge in the north and the Šumava Mountains in the west are known for their spas and ski resorts.
The main rivers of the Czech Republic are the Elbe (known locally as the Labe), the Vltava, the Ohře, the Morava, the Lužnice, the Jihlava, and the Svratka.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761556878/Czech_Republic.html   (683 words)

  
 Soviet Sniper Articles
Soviet snipers were a part of the military planning and tactics long before the outbreak of the war.
Soviet field commanders feared the presence of Finn sharpshooters and snipers and recognized that these snipers were able to disrupt the communications and flow of battle and served to demoralize front line troops.
Soviet commanders reacted to this by concentrating their sniper teams on their flanks out away from the main body to impede Nazi advances on the flanks.
www.russian-mosin-nagant.com /soviet_sniper_article.htm   (6159 words)

  
 Sovereignty after Empire: Peaceworks: Publications: U.S. Institute of Peace
Russia, by far the largest of the former Soviet republics in terms of territory, population, and economic potential, did not face the danger of being torn apart by violent ethno-political conflicts during its first years of independence, unlike some of the other newly independent states.
The case of Georgia, the newly independent Trans caucasian republic that was engulfed for years in a bloody civil war, exemplifies the problems that arise in an emerging sovereign country trying to assert its territorial integrity in the face of ethnic minorities' self-determination claims.
Soviet officials developed such conspiracy theories to explain the motives of leaders in the Baltic, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Chechen independence movements, the latter two of which were denounced as "mafia operations" aimed at deflecting public attention away from their members' "underhanded" activities.
www.usip.org /pubs/peaceworks/pwks19/chap3_19.html   (13751 words)

  
 Ingushetia
Ingushetia, or "Galgaachia" in the native tongue, is the smallest constituent republic of the Russian Federation, located in the northern Caucasus.
From 1921 to 1924 it was part of the Soviet Mountain Republic established in the Caucasus.
While the Ingush were rehabilitated in the 1950s and allowed to return to their homes, Prigorodni remained part of North Ossetia, and the returning Ingush faced considerable animosity from the Ossetian population that has since settled there.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/in/Ingushetia.html   (345 words)

  
 Republicanism and Size | Second Vermont Republic
The Second Vermont Republic is not yet a reality, but is what Plato called “a republic in speech.” For this reason it is important to understand what could be meant in saying that it is a “republic.” This might seem an easy task, for we are quite familiar with the term.
(4) republics are morally intrusive; that is, they enjoy a distinctive way of life binding together generations; and this way of life is rooted in a law not made by the legislature, but is rooted in nature or sacred tradition.
The function of a republic, according to Plato and Aristotle, is to provide a form of social cooperation which makes possible the development of human excellence, namely economic prosperity, security, justice, practice of the arts and sciences, and philosophic institutions that critically explore the idea and conditions of human excellence.
www.vermontrepublic.org /republicanism_and_size   (1696 words)

  
 North Ossetia-Alania
The dissolution of the Soviet Union posed particular problems for the Ossetian people, which were divided between North Ossetia, which was part of the Russian SFSR, and South Ossetia, a part of the Georgian SSR.
Despite the inevitable economic burden of a sizeable refugee population, North Ossetia is the most well-to-do republic in the northern Caucasus.
There was also a sizeable Ingush population, but most left for Ingushetia with the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the outbreak of interethnic conflict in the region.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/n/no/north_ossetia_alania.html   (445 words)

  
 History of Czech Republic
The Czech Republic was the western part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic.
Under obvious Soviet duress, they were compelled to sign a treaty that provided for the "temporary stationing" of an unspecified number of Soviet troops in Czechoslovakia.
On January 1, 1993, the Czech Republic and the Republic of Slovakia were simultaneously and peacefully founded.
www.historyofnations.net /europe/czechrepublic.html   (1756 words)

  
 Mountain Tourism in Kstan
Mountains are the wealth of Kyrgyzstan, one of the most important development resources not only for the country but for the Central Asian region as a whole.
The development of mountain tourism can help reverse the trend of migration from the mountainous areas to the urban centers, but the challenge is to develop tourism in such a way that mountain communities benefit, not only the larger tour companies that are based in the urban centers.
Mountain areas such as the Inylchek glacier if left unregulated could continue to have trash thrown into glaciers, and popular Jailoo areas such as Lake Son Kul in Naryn could see more pollution as there are no regulations on waste disposal and resource use.
www.alpinefund.org /climb/kyz/potential.htm   (5570 words)

  
 The Ingush People
The Chechen term for the Chechen Republic, Ichkeria, is historically the name of a region in the eastern foothill and mid-highland part of Chechnya.
In Soviet times, some school instruction was in Chechen but none was in Ingush; both languages were taught in schools as subjects, but the medium of instruction was Russian.
Mountain areas prospered in these conditions, and the dialect geography of sound changes in Proto-Chechen-Ingush shows that the center of linguistic innovation (and the presumable center of economic power and cultural prestige) was the Ingush and western Chechen highlands, while the east and the lowlands lay at the periphery.
ingush.berkeley.edu:7012 /ingush_people.html   (3730 words)

  
 Soviet Union's forces tighten grip on Wakhan corridor in Afghanistan
The sealing-off and direct Soviet administration of the thinly populated Wakhan corridor is the most extreme example of the Sovietization of Afghanistan, which has been proceeding at a rapid clip ever since more than 80,000 Soviet troops invaded and occupied the harsh, landlocked country more than a year ago.
Soviet officers are planning and directing the military campaign against the Afghan nationalist insurgents, who continue to deny them control of all but major towns and roads, and Soviet troops do much of the fighting.
The forbidding mountain corridor is being administered directly by military authorities in the Soviet Union rather than the Soviet military command in Afghanistan, according to diplomatic sources.
www.csmonitor.com /1981/0304/030435.html   (776 words)

  
 University of Central Asia - About the University of Central Asia
The fall of the Soviet Union brought with it both the withdrawal of much-needed resources invested in education in Central Asia, and new opportunities to create innovative institutions that could respond to the needs of communities in the region.
The mission of UCA is to promote the socio-economic development of Central Asia’s mountain societies, while at the same time helping the diverse peoples of the region to preserve and draw upon their rich cultural traditions and heritages as assets for the future.
Emigration from these isolated mountain regions after the post-Soviet economic collapse is compounding the problem of creating the next generation of caretakers for these cultures and communities.
www.ucentralasia.org   (1793 words)

  
 Czech Republic (09/06)
The Czech Republic is gradually reducing its dependence on highly polluting low-grade brown coal as a source of energy, in part because of EU environmental requirements.
The Czech Republic is a member of the UN and OSCE and has contributed to numerous peacekeeping operations, including IFOR/SFOR in Bosnia and KFOR in Kosovo, as well as Desert Shield/Desert Storm and Enduring Freedom.
The Czech Republic is scheduled to host the rotating EU Presidency during the first half of 2009.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ei/bgn/3237.htm   (4716 words)

  
 How Soviet Strategists Rig Elections In ‘Russia’ (VERY IMPORTANT DOCUMENT)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Aleksei Koshmarov is another former member of the Soviet Communist Party elite who spent the bulk of his early professional life working at the Moscow-based Committee for Youth Organizations.(15) Koshmarov likes to joke that his firm is close to the Kremlin, because Novokom’s office is located just a few kilometers from Red Square.
The recent sensational Soviet invitation to the Reverend Billy Graham to preach in Soviet churches indicates that the Soviet strategists have already introduced this element and have not waited for the formal installation of Gorbachev as Party leader.
(5) The Yamantau Mountain project does not appear to be consistent with the lowering of strategic threats, openness, and cooperation that is the basis of the post-Cold War strategic partnership between the United States and Russia.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/1348005/posts   (4772 words)

  
 Kyrgyzstan :: General information about Kyrgyzstan. History of Kyrgyzstan, pictures of Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyzstan Travel ...
Kyrgyzstan, officially Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy), landlocked republic in the eastern part of Central Asia that is bordered on the north by Kazakhstan, on the east by China, on the south by China and Tajikistan, and on the west by Uzbekistan.
In 1924 it was incorporated into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) as an autonomous region, and in 1936 its status was upgraded and it became one of the 15 constituent republics of the USSR, officially called the Kirgiz Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR).
Precipitation is between 100 and 500 mm (4 and 20 in) in the valleys and from 180 to 1,000 mm (7 to 40 in) in the mountains.
kyrgyzstan.orexca.com   (1159 words)

  
 North Caucasus Muslims under the Soviets
After liquidating the-free government of Northern Caucasians, the Soviets, it appears, began with a policy of pacification and by a decree of January 20, 1920 Autonomous Mountain Soviet Republic (Gorskaya A.S.S.R) was set up.
Obvious reasons for their alienation from Soviet machinery was the alphabet revolution which abolished the Arabic script and the massive anti-islamic campaign that started in 1928.
When Soviet army began to have the upper hand, the national army of North Caucassia carried on their liberation struggle in their homeland which continued for a few years after the termination of the Second War [68].
muslimsonline.com /babri/caucasus1.htm   (1992 words)

  
 Czech Republic Visa Information - Passports, Visas, Travel Documents - Czech Republic Page
With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The border between the Czech Republic and Slovakia is open for citizens of the former Czechoslovakia.
The Czech Republic has a well-educated population and a well-developed infrastructure, but much of its industrial plant and equipment dating from communist days is obsolete.
www.travisa.com /CzechRepublic/CzechRepublic_portal.htm   (692 words)

  
 Soviet Mountain Republic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Soviet Mountain Republic (Russian: Го́рская АССР, part of RSFSR) existed from January 20, 1921 to July 7, 1924.
It was formed from the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus after the Soviet Red Army invaded that country.
In early 1920s the SMR was divided into Soviet autonomous republics that became modern Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, Chechnya, Northern Ossetia and Ingushetia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Soviet_Mountain_Republic   (115 words)

  
 What Is A Soviet?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Definition of a Soviet: * A soviet is a system of councils that report to an apex council and implement a predetermined outcome, often by consensus, affecting a region or neighborhood.
Soviets were a diabolical means of putting eyes and ears of the Kremlin into the smallest community structures, so as to immediately snuff out any beginnings of dissent.
Soviets are the operating mechanism of a government-controlled economy, whether it be socialism or government-corporate ("public-private") partnerships.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/1377979/posts   (2364 words)

  
 Roots of Chechen Resistance - Islam America
With the establishment of Soviet rule, the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic; books, newspapers and periodicals were published in the Chechen language, but in Cyrillic letters.
While it is true that the Bolsheviks had some Chechen support in the northern part of Chechnya, anti-Bolshevik groups retained their strength in the south, especially after dissolution of the independent Caucasus Mountain Republic, which at that time extended from Cherkessiya to Dagestan.
Only Savgayev, the republic's last Communist Party chief (who was also appointed head of the pro-Moscow regime during the 1994-96 war), managed in the 1980s to create an administrative apparatus consisting largely of Chechens.
www.islamamerica.org /articles.cfm/article_id/4   (2398 words)

  
 Chechen Republic - History - THE CHECHENS AND THE INGUSH
According to the Soviet Union's Constitution of 1936, the territory (krai) of the North Caucasus consisted of the autonomous regions (oblast) of Cherkessia, Adyghe and Karachay, and the autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of Kabardino-Balkaria, Northern Ossetia, Chechnia- Ingushetia and Daghestan.
The Chechen-Ingush Soviet Republic occupied an area of 15,700 square kilometers with a population of 700,0V0.
He considered the Mountaineers' desire to organize their political life as they saw fit as equivalent to "national Bolshevism", which he deemed it his sacred duty to eliminate; hence his policy of burning down the auls and exterminating the rebellious Mountaineers.
chechen.8m.com /history/avtorh.html   (2925 words)

  
 Caucasus Foundation
According to the both Soviet and post-Soviet terminology there are five titular nationalities in the three republics concerned that are the Adyge, Kabardians, Cherkess, Karachay and the Balkars.
The republic was on the verge of a civil war.
As mentioned previously, the Soviet policy of dividing nations into two or more sub-nations and then forcing them to live within the same administrative unit with ethnically and culturally unrelated national groups is the single most important factor for the presence of deep ethno-political divisions and social unrest in the Northwest Caucasus.
www.kafkas.org.tr /english/tarih/circassian_karachai_essay_.html   (2669 words)

  
 Workshop 6 TimeLine
The Soviet Union establishes the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR).
The Chechen-Ingush ASSR is established, leading to the modern-day Chechnya or Chechen Republic.
However, the survivors could not resettle in their traditional mountain villages, but rather had to live in the lowlands under Russian control.
www.learner.org /channel/workshops/geography/wkp6time.html   (507 words)

  
 Lunar Republic : Lunar Glossary and Dictionary
The Luna program, which began with the launch of Luna 1 in January 1959 (the first man-made probe to reach the Moon), also sent back the first crude photographs of the far side (Luna 3, October 1959).
orogenies, The process of forming mountains, usually as a result of the folding of the surface of a region.
At apogee, the Moon appears slightly smaller (left) to the human eye, while at perigee it appears slightly larger (right), owing to the elliptical shape of its orbit around Earth.
www.lunarrepublic.com /info/glossary.shtml   (1802 words)

  
 ABKHAZIA.ORG - The Caucasus - An Overview
Soviet power came to Transcaucasia in 1921, and Abkhazia emerged as a full Union Republic (albeit with special treaty-ties to Georgia), enshrined in its 1925 constitution.
An early Soviet Mountain Republic was divided and re-divided into various administrative units, sometimes fluctuating in status between 'autonomous republic' and 'autonomous region'.
Across the mountains in Georgia, however, unofficial opposition-leaders, notably Merab K'ost'ava and Zviad Gamsakhurdia (Mingrelians both), played the card of Georgian nationalism: a fatal error, for in 1989 Georgia's Kartvelians formed only 70.1% of the population (ethnic Georgians constituting considerably less), whilst various minorities live compactly in strategic border-regions.
www.abkhazia.org /overview.html   (2156 words)

  
 Chechnya: A Study in Nationalism & Identity
Some of the "Sovietization" tactics involved the use of geographical space to influence the national identities of groups found at certain locations.
In ways similar to the ethnic cleansing that would be carried out when Yugoslavia disintegrated in the 1990s, the Soviets tried to erase even the memory of the Chechen people from the landscape when they were expelled from their homeland.
During the 1950s, under Kruschev, the deportations were condemned as the Soviet Union tried to create a sense of normalcy after the authoritarian excesses of the Stalin era.
www.unc.edu /~aneurysm/soviet.html   (359 words)

  
 Background Information
on the '3 Rooms'
Chechnya is a small area situated in the north-eastern part of the central Caucasian mountain chain.
Only in 1957 were the survivors given permission to return to their homeland and re-establish an autonomous Chechen-Ingush Socialist Soviet Republic.
Many of the families who lost their homes when they were forced to leave Chechnya because of the armed conflict that began in 1999 are now living in appalling conditions in the neighboring Russian Republic of Ingushetia.
www.frif.com /new2005/3r3.html   (1640 words)

  
 The MOUT Homepage
The Mujahideen knew the terrain intimately, were natural scouts, and were capable of rapidly transmitting the necessary information about secret Soviet unit and sub-unit movements over great distances using rudimentary communications gear and signaling devices.
Among the guerrilla forces’ tactical strong suits were all types of night actions, the ability to rapidly and clandestinely move in the mountains, and fielding of a very broad agent reconnaissance network.
It must be remembered, however, that the experience of Soviet forces in the Republic of Afghanistan is specific to that locality.
www.specialoperations.com /mout/soviet16.html   (617 words)

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