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Topic: Soviet collapse


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  Explaining the Soviet Collapse
What is puzzling is that it collapsed so quickly, in the space of two to five years, and that it collapsed when it did, in 1991, and not in 1933, 1953, or 2003.
On the ideology front, glasnost and democratization revealed that the ideological underpinnings of Soviet socialism had eroded, such that a vocal democratic minority was able to win a foothold in the elections of 1989 and 1990 and propel the reformer Boris Yeltsin to the Russian presidency in June 1991.
Of the 140 million non-ethnic Russians (48 percent of the Soviet population), mass ethnic movements were largely confined to the Baltic states, the Caucasus, and western Ukraine, encompassing perhaps 10 percent of the Soviet population.
www.cla.wayne.edu /polisci/kdk/Comparative/SOURCES/collapse.htm   (3500 words)

  
 Print View   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Soviet Union and the United States are either winner or runner-up in the following categories: the space race, the arms race, the jails race, the hated evil empire race, the squandering of natural resources race, and the bankruptcy race.
The Soviet Union was almost entirely self-sufficient when it came to labor; not so with the United States, where not only is most of the manufacturing done abroad, but a lot of service back home is provided by foreigners and immigrants as well.
In the Soviet Union, as this thing called normalcy wore thin due to the stalemate in Afghanistan, the Chernobyl disaster, and general economic stagnation, it continued to be enforced through careful management of mass media.
www.survivingpeakoil.com /preview.php?id=soviet_lessons   (14391 words)

  
 Collapse of Soviet Union
The collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980's was a great blow to the hopes of revolutionaries.
The immediate cause of the Soviet collapse was economic, as the Soviet Union lost the arms race and international competition with the West.
The Soviet collapse has also shown that a socialist culture of war cannot win out over a capitalist culture of war on economic terms, and we need a new strategy for revolution in the 21st Century.
sfr-21.org /collapse.html   (835 words)

  
 Post-Soviet Lessons for a Post-American Century
Russia was able to survive the collapse and stage a comeback because it was largely a political and economic collapse.
Soviet money ceased to have value, since there was so little that could be bought with it, and people still felt skittish around foreign currency.
The Soviet Union and the United States are each either the winner or the first runner-up in the following categories: the space race, the arms race, the jails race, the hated evil empire race, the squandering of natural resources race, and the bankruptcy race.
www.fromthewilderness.com /free/ww3/060105_soviet_lessons.shtml   (4806 words)

  
 Post-Soviet Lessons for a Post-American Century Part II
The U.S. and the Soviet Union were at two extremes of a continuum between the public and the private.
Whereas before the collapse, parents were often in a position to provide some financial help to their adult children, now the opposite is true.
This sort of disposition may seem like a cop-out, but when there is a collapse on the horizon, it works as psychological insurance: instead of going through the agonizing process of losing and rediscovering one's identity in a post-collapse environment, one could simply sit back and watch events unfold.
www.fromthewilderness.com /free/ww3/062805_soviet_lessons_part2.shtml   (6953 words)

  
 JRL - Russia, Soviet Collapse
His central interest in ''Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, 1970-2000'' is the breakdown of the planned economy and the institutional problems that were left for the transition to a market system after 1991.
The Soviet Union was transformed from a predominantly rural society in the 1930's to one in which, by the 70's, the urban population outnumbered the rural one by almost two to one.
The Soviet apparatchiks of the second and third tier, who had been the most upwardly mobile in the 1980's, emerged in the 90's as the business and political leaders of the new post-Soviet states.
www.cdi.org /russia/johnson/6031-4.cfm   (1468 words)

  
 History of the Soviet Union (1985-1991) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Following the death of the elderly Konstantin Chernenko, the Politburo elected Mikhail Gorbachev to the position of General Secretary of the Soviet Union in March 1985, marking the rise of a new generation of leadership.
In all, the very positive view of Soviet life which had long been presented to the public by the official media was being rapidly dismantled, and the negative aspects of life in the Soviet Union were brought into the spotlight.
On December 8, 1991, the leaders of the Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian republics met in Belavezhskaya Pushcha to issue a declaration that the Soviet Union was dissolved and replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Collapse_of_the_Soviet_Union   (2945 words)

  
 Sample Chapter for Stent, A.E.: Russia and Germany Reborn: Unification, the Soviet Collapse, and the New Europe.
The history of Soviet relations with the Nazis prior to 1939 involved both attempts to contain the spread of German power and the knowledge that, in order to stay out of a European war, which the USSR was ill-equipped to fight, there were good reasons for once again making a separate deal with the Germans.
The traditional Soviet argument (and that of some Western revisionist historians) until the Gorbachev era was that Stalin genuinely desired an alliance with the British and the French, but that their dilatory tactics and anticommunism forced him to turn to the Nazis and sign an agreement with them in August 1939.
Nevertheless, West Germany challenged Soviet security for two reasons: it was the United States' key NATO ally and therefore central to the effectiveness of the Western alliance; and it was the only western country that maintained a persistent interest in a close relationship with an Eastern-bloc country, the German Democratic Republic.
www.pup.princeton.edu /chapters/s6426.html   (5888 words)

  
 After the Collapse
Although the already-inefficient centrally planned Soviet economy was increasingly strained by the absence of strong guidance from the top — as evident in the USSR's growing social problems, especially expanding alcohol abuse and declining life expectancy — the economy did not appear to have reached the breaking point.
As I traveled widely in the Soviet Union on lecture tours, I was also able to see life outside of Moscow's "beltway." By the time I left the Soviet Union for the United States in January of 1973, I thought the Soviet totalitarian system was ugly, overbearing, and inefficient.
Despite its internal problems, the Soviet Union had tens of thousands of nuclear warheads and a global force-projection capability; it was certainly not a "paper tiger." I could not imagine that the process of reform would, rather than strengthening the Soviet Union, become unstoppable and destroy it altogether.
partners.nytimes.com /books/first/s/simes-collapse.html   (5253 words)

  
 Did U.S. Build-Up Cause Soviet Collapse? - SciForums.com
The discussion was the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Certainly, by the time Gorbachev took office the Soviet economy was stuck in horrible stagnation, with much of the populace turning towards the fl markets as the source for their real income and goods.
The collapse of that empire, beginning with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and paralleled by the rise of independence movements in the Baltics, Armenia and other Soviet republics, was stunningly rapid.
www.sciforums.com /showthread.php?t=6513   (2790 words)

  
 Economic Collapse of Soviet Union
The Soviet distractive economy, on the other hand, developed alongside a contributive economy and society horrendously damaged by the war and struggling hard to develop.
To explain the greater vulnerability of the Soviet economy, there is another factor that Dumas fails to mention - the foreign profits of imperialism.
Their contracting firm, the RAND Corporation, estimated that the Soviet Union was losing $30 billion to $50 billion a year by the beginning of the 80s.
www.culture-of-peace.info /soviet-collapse/page9.html   (607 words)

  
 The Collapse of the Soviet Union   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Causes and Consequences of the Collapse of the Soviet Union
Archive of the August 1991 Soviet Coup (FUNET)
Russia and the Former Soviet Republics Maps (University of Texas at Austin)
newarkwww.rutgers.edu /guides/glo-sov.html   (216 words)

  
 Anniversary of Soviet Collapse Reminds Us of Danger of Collectivism, Relativism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Soviet Union lumbered on for more than four decades after the fall of fascism, with little check on its murderous ways.
Prior to the fall of the Soviet Union, some Western Sovietologists argued such high numbers could not possibly be true, but revelations from post-Soviet Russia clearly showed that if anything, the extent of Stalin's crimes had been underestimated in the West.
The former Soviet republics will take decades to recover from the effects of 70 years of Soviet domination, but the U.S.S.R. also had an enormous impact on politics in the United States.
www.leftwatch.com /soviet_union/soviet_001.html   (948 words)

  
 Soviet collapse a 'tragedy,' Putin says - World News - MSNBC.com
While lamenting the fall of the former Soviet Union, the Russian leader vowed that he would not halt progress to democracy.
MOSCOW - Russian President Vladimir Putin told the nation Monday that the collapse of the Soviet empire “was the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the century” and had fostered separatist movements inside Russia.
In his annual state of the nation address to parliament and the country’s top political leaders, Putin said the Soviet collapse also was a tragedy for Russians.
www.msnbc.msn.com /id/7632057   (918 words)

  
 Impact of Soviet collapse on Eastern Europe
Describe the impact of the breakup of the Soviet Union on the emerging Eastern European countries.
When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the citizens of the newly-formed countries of Eastern Europe found themselves suddenly thrust into a new era.
By the time the USSR collapsed in 1991, Eastern Europe was prepared for something different, and the new freedoms in its formerly suppressed countries opened the doors for new ideas to circulate openly.
www.hyperhistory.net /apwh/essays/cot/t2w34ussrbreakup.htm   (1048 words)

  
 AEI - Short Publications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The failure of U.S. Sovietologists to anticipate the Soviet collapse may in part be attributed to the "Cold War revisionism" and anti-anticommunism that tended to exaggerate the Soviet regime’s stability and legitimacy.
Yet there, too, Soviet difficulties were far from lethal and had a reasonable chance of being redressed by inevitable changes in U.S. public opinion and the occupancy of the White House.
For Gorbachev, the prototype of such “socialism with a human face” was a mythologized version of the Soviet Union during the period of the New Economic Policy that Lenin began in 1921 and Stalin ended in 1929.
www.aei.org /publications/filter.all,pubID.24215/pub_detail.asp   (5061 words)

  
 THE "SOVIET COLLAPSE": WHAT REALLY HAPPENED   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Soviet asset Harry Hopkins, Roosevelt's closest confidant, supervises "Lend-Lease," in which about $13 billion is sent to the Soviet Union, to "save it from collapse." Remember that we're talking about the early 1940s.
So, now that we have the necessary history, we are ready to examine the specific proof that this latest "Soviet collapse" is a fraud, leading to another look at the question of whom we are fighting in the present "war on terror." Be with your reporter next week for more.
One observation from the Soviet "collapse" is the still recurring annual event celebrating Mikhail Gorbachev's March 17th elevation to the post of General Secretary of the Russian Communist party.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/news/717288/posts   (2314 words)

  
 Putin calls Soviet collapse a 'geopolitical catastrophe' | The San Diego Union-Tribune
MOSCOW – President Vladimir Putin lamented the demise of the Soviet Union in some of his strongest language to date, saying in a nationally televised speech before parliament yesterday that it was "the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the century."
His statements on the collapse of the Soviet Union and its effects on Russians, at home and abroad, come as the country is awash in nostalgia just two weeks before the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II in Europe – a conflict Russians call the "Great Patriotic War."
"If I was in the place of the authors of the statement, I would say that the biggest event of the 20th century was the collapse of the Soviet Union, which completed the process of the emancipation of nations," Rotfeld said in Luxembourg.
www.signonsandiego.com /uniontrib/20050426/news_1n26russia.html   (528 words)

  
 Amazon.ca: Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?: Understanding Historical Change: Books: Robert Strayer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The reversion of the Soviet Union to Russia has generated a cottage industry of assessments.
Robert Strayer does a wonderful job of communicating the changes in the Soviet Union, and the Communist Bloc, and foreshadwoing the eventual downfall of the role of communism.
It is interesting to follow the major changes which occurred mainly at the powerful hands of the Soviet leaders during the Cold War.
www.amazon.ca /Why-Soviet-Union-Collapse-Understanding/dp/076560003X   (526 words)

  
 cbs2.com - Putin: Soviet Collapse A Tragedy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
(AP) MOSCOW Russian President Vladimir Putin told the nation Monday that the collapse of the Soviet empire "was the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the century" and had fostered separatist movements inside Russia.
In his annual state of the nation address to parliament and the country's top political leaders, Putin said the Soviet collapse was "a genuine tragedy" for Russians.
Putin's statements were some of his strongest language to date about the Soviet collapse and come a month before the nation celebrates the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II in Europe, a conflict Russians call the "Great Patriotic War."
cbs2.com /topstories/topstories_story_115141131.html   (833 words)

  
 EurasiaNet Eurasia Insight - A Reflection on the Soviet Collapse: Ten Years After
After the collapse, an atmosphere of naìve hope and inflated expectations prevailed in both the East and the West.
Immediately after the Soviet collapse, Russia attempted to build democracy and a market economy almost overnight—an effort marked by rampant corruption and emergence of robber-barons.
Symbolically, Lenin still lies unburied in the Red Square while the Soviet anthem plays, the two-headed eagle of the Romanovs decorates the Kremlin towers, and hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on Kremlin renovations and rebuilding the Konstantine Palace in St. Petersburg as Putin’s northern official residence.
www.eurasianet.org /departments/insight/articles/eav081601a.shtml   (1111 words)

  
 Economic Collapse of Soviet Union   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The article excerpted in the following pages was written in 1991 before the final collapse of the Soviet Union, but it describes some of the economic processes that were most responsible for it.
Some idea of the psychological effect can be obtained from accounts of what the soldiers went through during the ten years of the war (see US military analysis).
In the end, however, the Soviet Union had devoted its economy to the arms race with the West, and it was a losing cause.
www.culture-of-peace.info /soviet-collapse/introduction.html   (275 words)

  
 Comparison: USA v. USSR: Is the federal government poised for a “Soviet-style” collapse? - eXile MM - Christians in ...
The collapse of the USSR could have been predicted, even though it was not.
Like their predecessors who missed the harbingers of the Soviet collapse during the 1980s, they are so invested in the status quo that they are blind to the forces that imperil it.
But the undeniable decline of the Soviet economy was not necessarily reflected in all of its official statistics.
www.exilemm.com /e-sub-ussr2.shtml   (2120 words)

  
 H-Net Review: Roger E. Chapman on Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?: Understanding Historical ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
To argue that the Soviet Union collapsed is as problematic as to report that it disappeared, another word circulating in book titles.[3] The government obviously changed, but the new system is forged out of the old.
Soviet money was still in use in Russia through the summer of 1993; Soviet passports were not replaced until 1997.
This talk of "collapse" or "disappearance" is a type of fiction, which should be seen for what it is: Western discourse consisting of Cold War victory ritual.
www.h-net.msu.edu /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=22045935440635   (1834 words)

  
 Princeton - Weekly Bulletin 02/18/02 - Communist ideology one cause of Soviet collapse   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Soviet Union had a larger arsenal than the United States -- an army of 5.3 million, 350,000 troops in the KGB, 40,000 nuclear weapons and 40,000 tons of chemical weapons.
In the Soviet Union, the coup leaders -- which included the head of the KGB and the head of the Soviet army -- arrested five people.
The Soviet era continued to collapse throughout the 1990s, and a lot of it is still there, decaying.
www.princeton.edu /pr/pwb/02/0218/7a.shtml   (1600 words)

  
 The Hindu : International : Putin regrets collapse of Soviet Union
— PHOTO: AP The Russian President, Vladimir Putin, described the break-up of the Soviet Union as the biggest political catastrophe of the 20th century and rejected Western sermons on democracy in Russia.
"It must be admitted that the collapse of the Soviet Union was the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the century," Mr.
He said the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 was "a true drama" which left tens of millions of Russians stranded outside Russia, destroyed old ideals and robbed people of their savings.
www.hindu.com /2005/04/26/stories/2005042603251400.htm   (332 words)

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