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Topic: Spacecraft

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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  The Soyuz spacecraft
An "abbreviated" version of the Soyuz spacecraft, designated L1, was developed for a circumlunar mission launched by the Proton rocket.
Officially identified as Zond, the L1 spacecraft was essentially the Soyuz, minus a habitation module.
The reentry capsule of the Soyuz spacecraft, known by its Russian acronym as "SA." is the only section of the vehicle, which returns to Earth at the end of the mission.
www.russianspaceweb.com /soyuz.html   (1084 words)

  Spacecraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spacecraft are designed for a variety of missions which may include communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, planetary exploration, space tourism and space warfare.
Though not part of the spacecraft itself, the launch vehicle used to place a spacecraft in orbit, and the ground system used to send telecommands to the spacecraft and receive telemetry from the spacecraft, are frequently also considered subsystems.
Spacecraft may or may not have a propulsion subsystem, depending upon whether or not the mission profile calls for propulsion.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Spacecraft   (1098 words)

 World Almanac for Kids
SPACECRAFT, that do not have to carry humans may take a great variety of sizes, from a few centimeters to several meters in diameter, and many shapes, depending on the purposes for which they are designed.
The orbit of a spacecraft around the earth may be in the shape of a circle or an ellipse.
Galileo, the first spacecraft to orbit one of the outer planets, was launched in May 1989, flew by Venus in February 1991, and on its approach to Jupiter in July 1995 released a probe that reached the planet in December.
www.worldalmanacforkids.com /explore/space/spacecraft.html   (3284 words)

 Cassini-Huygens: Spacecraft
Loaded with an array of powerful instruments and cameras, the spacecraft is capable of taking accurate measurements and detailed images in a variety of atmospheric conditions and light spectra.
Two elements comprise the spacecraft: The Cassini orbiter and the Huygens probe.
Cassini-Huygens is a three-axis stabilized spacecraft equipped for 27 diverse science investigations.
saturn.jpl.nasa.gov /spacecraft/index.cfm   (554 words)

Spacecraft should be rated not according to speed, but rather the maximum acceleration of which they are capable.
Spacecraft "speed" is assumed to indicate the maximum speed that a ship with a constant rate of positive acceleration could reach in the time the ship travels to a jumpgate.
Fading Suns spacecraft are subject to the laws of inertia – they must accelerate to reach a certain velocity, and can’t just decide to suddenly be going 10% of lightspeed.
www.geoza.com /fadingsuns/spacecraft.htm   (3025 words)

 Mars Exploration Rover Mission: The Mission
The spacecraft is separate from the launch vehicle.
The spacecraft includes the mechanical units that safely carry and maneuver the rover as it enters the Martian atmosphere and lands on Mars.
The spacecraft design for the Mars Exploration Rover mission is largely based on the successful Mars Pathfinder system for entry, descent, and landing.
marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov /mission/spacecraft.html   (179 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Spacecraft Angular Momentum, h An ephemeris XE "ephemeris:defined"  for a spacecraft is a sequence of "snapshots" of the spacecraft's trajectory; each snapshot, called an ephemeris point XE "ephemeris point" , consists of the time of the snapshot and state of the spacecraft at that time.
Similarly the motion of a spacecraft in Earth orbit is predominately determined by the gravitational force between the spacecraft and the Earth.
The acceleration due to drag is proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the area of the spacecraft in the direction of its relative motion and is inversely proportional to the mass of the spacecraft.
msp.gsfc.nasa.gov /npas/documents/uGuide3.3/a1665v3b.doc   (8484 words)

 ICESAT Home Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The spacecraft is a fully redundant design that provides a probability of success of >86% for a 5-year mission life.
The spacecraft bus and payload are powered by two single-axis articulated solar array wings, consisting of three winglets each.
Spacecraft command and telemetry uplink/downlink on S-band frequency allows for simultaneous command and telemetry operation.
icesat.gsfc.nasa.gov /spacecraft.html   (329 words)

 USATODAY.com - NASA loses $159 millon spacecraft   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
PASADENA, Calif. (AP) — NASA sought to regain contact with a $159 million spacecraft it lost in space Thursday, when the robotic probe was to have left Earth orbit on a journey to explore several comets.
The spacecraft was in Earth orbit since its launch July 3, looping around the planet every 42 hours on an elliptical path.
Thursday's motor firing was designed to increase the spacecraft's velocity by 4,299 mph, releasing it from the Earth's grasp and sending it on a comet-chasing orbit around the sun.
www.usatoday.com /news/science/2002-08-15-spacecraft2_x.htm   (432 words)

 Deep Impact - Flyby Spacecraft   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Spacecraft optical navigation and conventional ground-based navigation facilitated maneuvering the flyby spacecraft as close as possible to the collision course with the comet Tempel 1.
When the impactor was released from its union with the flyby spacecraft, the flyby fired thrusters in a braking maneuver, aligning itself to observe the impact, ejecta, crater development, and crater interior as it passed within 500 km of Tempel 1.
As the spacecraft passed through the inner coma of the comet, there was concern that small particles could damage the control and communications systems.
www.ballaerospace.com /di_flyby.html   (377 words)

 Spacecraft   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The spacecraft, built by the Naval Research Lab, was launched on January 25 1994 to a 425 km by 2950 km orbit of the Moon for a 2 month mapping mission.
In early May the spacecraft was to have been sent out of lunar orbit toward a flyby of the asteroid 1620 Geographos but a failure prevented the attempt.
The PFF spacecraft would be highly a miniaturized descendant of the present class of outer solar system platforms, breaking the trend of increasingly complex and expensive probes such as Galileo and Cassini.
www.kirdkao.org /edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/spacecraft2.html   (4892 words)

 Basics of Space Flight Section II. Space Flight Projects
Flyby spacecraft may be designed to be stabilized in 3 axes using thrusters or reaction wheels, or to spin continuously for stabilization.
Lander spacecraft are designed to reach the surface of a planet and survive long enough to telemeter data back to Earth.
In the future, communications and navigation spacecraft may be deployed at Mars, Venus, or other planets, dedicated to communications with orbiters, rovers, penetrators, and atmospheric spacecraft operating in their vicinity.
www2.jpl.nasa.gov /basics/bsf9-1.html   (1580 words)

 Phoenix Mars Lander - Spacecraft   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
During the 10-month cruise to Mars, the spacecraft must be able to withstand the vacuum of space with potential radiation hazards from solar storms and micro-meteor impacts from interplanetary dust.
During entry, descent, and landing, the spacecraft will be heated to thousands of degrees during aeroshell braking, jerked with tremendous force as the parachute is deployed, and finally will come to a soft touchdown using controlled thrusters.
Finally, during surface operations, the spacecraft must withstand the extremely cold temperatures of the martian arctic and the dust storms that potentially affect the area.
phoenix.lpl.arizona.edu /technology/spacecraft.php   (433 words)

 Vostok spacecraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as East) was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight.
The craft consisted of a spherical descent module (mass 2.46 tonnes, diameter 2.3 meters), which housed the cosmonaut, instruments and escape system, and a conical instrument module (mass 2.27 tonnes, 2.25 m long, 2.43 m wide), which contained propellant and the engine system.
The Vostok spacecraft was originally designed for use both as a camera platform (for the Soviet Union's first spy satellite program, Zenit) and as a manned spacecraft.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vostok_spacecraft   (268 words)

 ESA Science & Technology: Spacecraft
The Mars Express spacecraft has been designed to take a payload of seven state-of-the-art scientific instruments and one lander to the red planet and allow them to record data for at least one Martian year, or 687 Earth days.
The instruments sit inside the spacecraft bus which is a honeycomb aluminium box just 1.5 m long by 1.8 m wide by 1.4 m high.
The lander, Beagle 2, was attached to the outside of the bus.
sci.esa.int /science-e/www/category/index.cfm?fcategoryid=4532   (175 words)

 Stardust | JPL | NASA
This new lightweight spacecraft incorporates components, virtually all of which are either currently operating in space or are flight qualified and manifested to fly on upcoming missions.
The STARDUST spacecraft encountered comet Wild 2 early in 2004 and collected samples of cometary dust and volatiles while flying through the coma at a distance of approximately 250 km on the sunlit side of the nucleus.
The Stardust spacecraft structure is in the form of a rectangular box, with approximate dimensions of 1.6 meters long by a square cross-section of 0.66 meters on each side.
stardust.jpl.nasa.gov /mission/spacecraft.html   (937 words)

 Mars Exploration: Missions
Mariner 3 and 4 were identical spacecraft designed to carry out the first flybys of Mars.
Mariner 3 was launched on November 5, 1964, but the shroud encasing the spacecraft atop its rocket failed to open properly, and Mariner 3 did not get to Mars.
The Mariner 4 spacecraft was not expected to survive much longer than the eight months to its Mars flyby encounter, but actually lasted about three years in solar orbit, continuing long-term studies of the solar wind environment and making coordinated measurements with Mariner 5, a sister ship launched to Venus in 1967.
mars.jpl.nasa.gov /missions/past/mariner3-4.html   (276 words)

 NASA - Stardust - Closing in on a Comet
Stardust is the first spacecraft with the ability to retrieve samples obtained in space and return them to Earth for research.
Spacecraft's shielding is breeched 10 times during flyby through comet's particles.
Stardust is the first robotic spacecraft to fly by a comet and return extraterrestrial material to Earth.
www.nasa.gov /missions/solarsystem/stardust_main.html   (298 words)

 Phoenix (spacecraft) Terminology @ LaunchBase.com (Launch Base)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The spacecraft will be launched by a Boeing Delta 7925 vehicle, with the launch window starting August 3, 2007.
It will carry improved versions of University of Arizona panoramic cameras and volatiles-analysis instrument from the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander, as well as experiments that had been built for the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander, including a JPL trench-digging robot arm and a chemistry-microscopy instrument.
The camera is being made by the University of Arizona and Max Planck Institute, Germany.
www.launchbase.com /encyclopedia/Phoenix_(spacecraft)   (1457 words)

 ESA - Cassini-Huygens - Cassini spacecraft
Of all interplanetary spacecraft, only the two Phobos spacecraft sent to Mars by the former Soviet Union were heavier.
Cassini was the first planetary spacecraft to use solid-state recorders without moving parts instead of the older tape recorder.
The magnetometer instrument is mounted on an 11-metre boom that extends outward from the spacecraft.
www.esa.int /SPECIALS/Cassini-Huygens/SEM9D2HHZTD_0.html   (379 words)

 Deep Impact - Spacecraft on a mission - Telescopes.com
The Deep Impact spacecraft prior to its being loaded aboard the Delta rocket that hurled it aloft on its 82-million-mile journey.
The instrument platform is the payload on the flyby spacecraft.
The flyby spacecraft, about the size of a VW Beetle, was observing as all this took place.
www.telescopes.com /deep-impact/spacecraft-on-a-mission.php   (451 words)

The spacecraft, built by the Naval Research Lab, was launched on January 25 1994 to a 425 km by 2950 km orbit of the Moon for a 2 month mapping mission.
In early May the spacecraft was to have been sent out of lunar orbit toward a flyby of the asteroid 1620 Geographos but a failure prevented the attempt.
Later in the mission, the Wind spacecraft will be inserted into a special halo orbit in the solar wind upstream from the Earth, at the unique distance which allows Wind to always remain between the Earth and the Sun (about 930,000 to 1,050,000 miles, or 1,500,000 to 1,690,000 kilometers, from the Earth).
www.seds.org /nineplanets/nineplanets/spacecraft.html   (3254 words)

 NASA - JPL Solar System Simulator
Cassini spacecraft from SPACE rendering package, built by Michael Oberle under NASA contract at JPL.
Accurate except no thermal blanketing is shown (this would cover most of the central structure of the spacecraft).
Accurate (to a fault) except no thermal blanketing is shown (this would cover most of the central structure of the spacecraft).
samadhi.jpl.nasa.gov /models   (411 words)

 ESA - Mars Express - The spacecraft
The spacecraft used its on-board means of propulsion solely for orbit corrections and to slow the spacecraft down for Mars orbit insertion.
The main engine on the underside of the spacecraft body (or 'bus') is capable of delivering a force of 400 Newtons, which will reduce the speed of the spacecraft by 2880 kilometres per hour in 30 minutes (400 Newtons is equivalent to the force needed on Earth to suspend a 40 kilogram weight above the ground).
The circular dish attached to one face of the spacecraft bus is a 1.6-metre diameter high-gain antenna for receiving and transmitting radio signals when the spacecraft is a long way from Earth.
www.esa.int /SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMC785V9ED_0.html   (494 words)

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