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Topic: Spacecraft propulsion

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  Spacecraft propulsion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spacecraft propulsion is used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites, or in short, to provide delta-v.
A short period of thrust in the direction of motion accelerates or decelerates the spacecraft into an elliptical orbit around the Sun which is tangential to its previous orbit and also to the orbit of its destination.
The spacecraft falls freely along this elliptical orbit until it reaches its destination, where another short period of thrust accelerates or decelerates it to match the orbit of its destination.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Spacecraft_propulsion   (3530 words)

 Encyclopedia :: encyclopedia : Spacecraft propulsion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
All current spacecraft use chemical rocket engines (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some (such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne) have used air-breathing engines on their first stage.
When launching a spacecraft from the Earth, a propulsion method must overcome the Earth's gravitational pull in addition to providing acceleration.
Burning the entire usable propellant of a spacecraft through the engines in a straight line would produce a net velocity change to the vehicle- this number is termed 'delta-v'.
www.hallencyclopedia.com /Spacecraft_propulsion   (3264 words)

 Basics of Space Flight Section II. Space Flight Projects
For an atmospheric spacecraft, the searing heat of atmospheric entry is typically controlled by an aeroshell whose surface may be designed to ablate or simply to insulate with high efficiency.
The Deep Space 1 spacecraft was a pioneer in the use of ion-electric propulsion in interplanetary space.
These devices may be used to separate a spacecraft from its launch vehicle, to permanently deploy booms, to release instrument covers, to jettison an aeroshell and deploy parachutes, to control fluid flow in propulsion and pressurization systems, and to perform many other such functions.
www2.jpl.nasa.gov /basics/bsf11-4.html   (1989 words)

 Category:Spacecraft propulsion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There are many different methods of spacecraft propulsion used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites.
This category includes technologies and concepts related to spacecraft propulsion systems, but not specific examples of such systems (such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine).
The main article for this category is Spacecraft propulsion.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Category:Spacecraft_propulsion   (125 words)

 Spacecraft operations - Home - SMART-1
Over a 14-month period, by means of solar-electric propulsion, the spacecraft is spiralling out to reach a point at which lunar gravity takes effect.
The contacts between the Mission Operations Control Centre (MOC) at ESOC and the spacecraft are therefore primarily useful for pre-programming of those autonomous operations functions on the spacecraft, and for housekeeping and payload data.
The spacecraft and payload commissioning continued over the next weeks, while its orbit was continuously modified by the effect of the electric propulsion engine.
www.esa.int /spacecraftops/ESOC-Article-art_print_friendly_1084173605660.html   (698 words)

 ipedia.com: Spacecraft propulsion Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
So one way to measure the "range" of a spacecraft in orbit is to give its, that is, the maximum amount by which it can change its velocity.
The launch of a spacecraft from the surface of a planet into space places requires that the spacecraft reach escape velocity.
This is the most important characteristic of the propulsion method as it determines the velocity at which exorbitant amounts of fuel begin to be necessary (see the section on calculations, above).
www.ipedia.com /spacecraft_propulsion_1.html   (2670 words)

 ESA Science & Technology: Electric Spacecraft Propulsion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A rocket-propelled spacecraft derives its acceleration from the discharge of propellant and its equation of motion (neglecting gravitation and drag) follows directly from the conservation of the total momentum of the vehicle and the propellant stream:
If a spacecraft is to deliver a large proportion of its initial mass to its destination, the deliverable mass fraction equation shows that the propulsion system exhaust velocity must be comparable to the required velocity increment.
Low Earth orbit satellites, such as the Iridium mobile communications cluster, have also used electric propulsion for orbit adjustments but the use of electric propulsion as a spacecraft's primary means of propulsion has been restricted to experimental vehicles such as NASA's Deep Space One, which was equipped with a xenon ion engine.
sci.esa.int /science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=34201   (655 words)

 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: The Mission
Mars orbit insertion, which captures the spacecraft into orbit upon arrival at Mars.
The propulsion subsystem is also used to control the spacecraft's position, as a backup to the reaction wheels.
These additional valves are necessary when technicians work around the spacecraft before launch, to provide a second line of defense against an accidental thruster firing.
mars.jpl.nasa.gov /mro/mission/sc_propulsion.html   (491 words)

 EADS Spacecraft Propulsion Heritage.
Details on each of these spacecraft, together with our propulsion contribution, are featured in a 385 page Heritage Catalogue that is accessible online.
The Heritage Catalogue also features our propulsion contribution to both present and future international spacecraft to the year 2014 - a span of 45 years, featuring hundreds of spacecraft.
Slides are displayed in chronological sequence of spacecraft lunch date, starting from 1969 through to 2014.
cs.space.eads.net /sp/SpacecraftPropulsion/Heritage/sc-files/intro.html   (168 words)

 Artemis Project: Spacecraft Propulsion Tech Committee Task List
The Spacecraft Propulsion Technical Committee is based around detailing and working on the design of the Reference Mission's spacecraft propulsion systems.
Propulsion systems can be very complex, and thus have myriad minor subsystems that need to be detailed.
If you are willing to give it a try, even if you don't have any experience in the area you would like to work in, please send mail with the task you want to help with to OSF Admin osf-admin@asi.org.
www.asi.org /adb/06/07/04/11/propulsion-tc-tasks.html   (1289 words)

 Spacecraft Propulsion @ LaunchBase.org (Launch Base)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The mission's primary purpose was to test a new propulsion system and better spacecraft automation for future interplanetary missions.
To reach a given velocity, one can apply a small acceleration over a long period of time, or one can apply a large acceleration over a short time.
Since the weight on Earth of the reaction mass is often unimportant when discussing vehicles in space, specific impulse can also be discussed in terms of impulse per unit mass.
www.launchbase.org /encyclopedia/Spacecraft_Propulsion   (3180 words)

 RedOrbit - Space - Five Aerojet Boosters Set to Lift New Horizons Spacecraft
Aerojet also provided the spacecraft propulsion system, comprised of a propellant tank, 16 thrusters and various other components, which will control pointing and navigation for the spacecraft on its journey and during encounters with Pluto-Charon and, as part of a possible extended mission, to more distant, smaller objects in the Kuiper Belt.
The spacecraft propulsion system was designed, produced and tested in Washington, and will support the spacecraft through the duration of the mission -- approximately 16 years.
The spacecraft propulsion system uses technology developed by Aerojet for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Voyager 1 and 2 spacecrafts, launched in 1977 and now the farthest distant man-made objects in the solar system.
www.redorbit.com /news/space/358232/five_aerojet_boosters_set_to_lift_new_horizons_spacecraft/index.html?source=r_space   (718 words)

Ion propulsion has been unable to provide the levels of thrust required to be considered for the role as primary propulsion systems, due to the lack of suitable ultra-high power/mass ratio power supplies.
Ion propulsion systems have historically been unable to perform as primary propulsion systems for spacecraft due to the lack of sufficiently high power/mass ratio power supplies with dedicated ion primary propulsion programs of theoretical modeling and experimental development considered unfruitful.
Dual Beam Ion propulsion systems developing thrust levels equivalent to lesser thrust values which are comparable with the various types of thrusters encountered on STS class craft are also set forth.
www.angelfire.com /co/rwrwrw/prop01.html   (8204 words)

 EADS Lampoldshausen - Satellite and Spacecraft propulsion.
Expertise is within the fields of ion, cold gas, monopropellant hydrazine and bipropellant thrusters ranging from 0.02 N to 500 N thrust.
However, the redundant ion propulsion system was called into service and succeeded in raising Artemis into a circular 32,000 km orbit in January 2003, thereby allowing the communications satellite to fulfil its nominal 10-year life.
Galileo's propulsion system comprised a 400 N engine and twelve 10 N thrusters and controlled Galileo's six year journey to Jupiter.
cs.space.eads.net /sp/lampoldshausen.html   (1599 words)

 Spacecraft propulsion | TutorGig.co.uk Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Artificial satellites must be launched into orbit, and once there they must accelerate to circularize their orbit.
Burning the entire usable propellant of a spacecraft through the engines in a straight line would produce a net velocity change to the vehicle- this number is termed ' delta-v'.
Rocket and Spacecraft Propulsion: Principles, Practice and New Develop..
www.tutorgig.co.uk /ed/Spacecraft_propulsion   (3282 words)

 New spacecraft propulsion method could be out of this solar system
There is enough power in the solar wind to move a 300-pound spacecraft at speeds up to 180,000 miles per hour or 4.3 million miles a day.
Adding the device to a spacecraft might cost $1 million, but it would provide substantial cost savings for the overall mission and would provide easier access to the planets and beyond, Winglee said.
However, Star Trek's warp drive and the hyperdrive propulsion from Star Wars, both of which can exceed light speed (186,000 miles per second in a vacuum), are not possible under the current understanding of the laws of physics.
www.washington.edu /newsroom/news/1999archive/08-99archive/k081699.html   (687 words)

 Antimatter Space Propulsion at Penn State University (LEPS)
These issues are being addressed by the NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP), which is currently investigating new ways to propel a unmanned spacecraft to Alpha Centauri in the span of a human lifetime of 50 years.
For the latter case, the spacecraft only needs to obtain the velocity necessary to get to Mars within 3-6 months; however, the mass of a manned payload once again places a burden on the size of the booster engine.
Last, electric propulsion, as used for Deep Space I, cannot accelerate a spacecraft fast enough for the tasks mentioned above due to its low thrust-to-weight ratio.
www.engr.psu.edu /antimatter/introduction.html   (505 words)

 New engine powers a new spaceship
The repulsion of opposites is supposed to drive a spacecraft called Deep Space 1 on a wide orbit of the sun.
chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft.
While Deep Space 1 is the first mission to use ion propulsion as its primary engine, an ion thruster, flew in 1964 and worked for 31 minutes.
whyfiles.org /shorties/ion_thruster.html   (1034 words)

 Subject Category - 20 Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
Spacecraft Propulsion - The action or process of imparting motion to a spacecraft by means of a force such as a thrust of air or energy released by burning fuel.
Spacecraft Power Supplies - Sources of electrical energy, including batteries, generators, and energy conversion devices, that support the normal operation of spacecraft.
Selective Interest: Propulsion and mobile or stationary power sources for earthbound use or transportation, e.g., ship, locomotive, automobile, aircraft, and truck propulsion; mobile or stationary electric power plants, unless directly applicable to spacecraft use.
www.sti.nasa.gov /sscg/20.html   (182 words)

 Spacecraft Propulsion (Hardback) [Charles D. Brown - 1996] - 1280H
This companion to Brown's Spacecraft Mission Design emphasizes the fundamentals of spacecraft propulsion design from the systems engineering viewpoint, including subsystems such as propellants, pressurization, and thrust vector control.
Vehicle launch propulsion and a general history of rocket propulsion are included, but the main focus is on spacecraft propulsion and all the equipment required to generate thrust.
AIAA's PRO propulsion design software is included to allow readers to perform hands-on, real-life computations, and to enhance the book's value as a self-teaching tool.
www.astrobooks.com /index.asp?PageAction=VIEWPROD&ProdID=959   (119 words)

 Spacecraft Propulsion - Free English Encyclopedia from Turkcebilgi
Exhaust toxicity or other side effects can also have detrimental effects on the environment the spacecraft is launching from, ruling out other propulsion methods, such as most nuclear engines, atleast for use from the Earths surface.
* Aerobraking allows a spacecraft to reduce the high point of an elliptical orbit by repeated brushes with the atmosphere at the low point of the orbit.
If the intent is to remain in orbit, then at least one more propulsive maneuver is required after aerocapture - otherwise the low point of the resulting orbit will remain in the atmosphere, resulting in eventual re-entry.
www.turkcebilgi.com /ansiklopedi/english/Spacecraft_propulsion   (3632 words)

 Wikinfo | Spacecraft propulsion
There are many different ways to accelerate spacecraft.
The first is the specific impulse which is the amount of thrust that can be produced using a unit of fuel.
Images, some of which are used under the doctrine of Fair use or used with permission, may not be available.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Spacecraft_propulsion   (342 words)

 Space Electric Propulsion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Unlike chemical propulsion, which relies on the stored internal energy in the molecular bonds of its propellant, in electric propulsion the energy is obtained from an external power source.
In chemical propulsion, the dependence on internal energy limits the maximum specific impulse to about 450 s, whereas in electric propulsion specific impulses of over 17,000 s have been obtained in the laboratory [2, 3].
This limited the application of electric propulsion on-board spacecraft until the 1990s as spacecraft power finally began to increase to meet the growing needs of communication satellites [5].
richard.hofer.com /electric_propulsion.html   (1414 words)

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