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Topic: Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire

The Inca Empire arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in early 13th century.
From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including large parts of modern Ecuador, Peru, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, and north and north-central Chile.
The Inca Empire was organized in dominions with a stratified society, in which the supreme ruler was the Inca.
www.machupicchu.info /machu_picchu_machupicchu_travel_tours_tourist_information/history_of_the_tahuantinsuyo_empire.html   (317 words)

  Inca Empire - MSN Encarta
Inca Empire, vast kingdom in the Andes Mountains of South America that was created by the Quechua, a Native American people, in the 15th century ad.
The Inca Empire was conquered by the Spanish in the early 16th century.
Inca society was strictly organized, from the emperor and royal family down to the peasants.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761560004/Inca_Empire.html   (1212 words)

 Britain.tv Wikipedia - Inca
The Inca Empire was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America, and one of the largest empires in the world at the time of its collapse.
In fact, the Inca Empire was conceived like an ambitious and audacious civilizing project, based on a mythical thought, in which the harmony of the relationships between the human being, nature and Gods was truly essential.
However, the Inca Empire cultivated a large variety of distinctly Andean crops that were not appreciated or adapted by Pizarro or the Spanish.
www.britain.tv /wikipedia.php?title=Inca   (2711 words)

 Spanish Empire - MSN Encarta
Spanish Empire, overseas territories in North and South America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania that were colonized and administered by Spain.
The Spanish Empire began in the 15th century as Europe began to expand overseas.
Spain's overseas empire dates from the joint rule of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragón, whose marriage in 1469 began the process of uniting their separate Iberian kingdoms into one Spanish nation.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761595536/Spanish_Empire.html   (1952 words)

 WHKMLA : Francisco Pizarro's Conquest of the Inca Empire, 1532-1533
The Incas also contemplated the possibility of the Spanish being gods (as one of several options), but decided not to attack them on their approach because the expedition's size was too small to pose a threat.
The Spaniards orchestrated the coronation of a new Inca, Tupac Hualpa, and marched on Cuzco; the new Inca died shortly afterward of disease.
The Inca culture was destroyed, her polytheistic religion replaced by christianity, Quechua and Aymara - the main Inca languages - reduced to a marginal role in society, while Spanish became the official language of Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile.
www.zum.de /whkmla/military/16cen/pizarro15321533.html   (728 words)

 The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, Peru. Francisco Pizarro, Huayna Capac, Atahualpa.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, Peru.
Huascár was appointed the ruler of the empire by the by the court elite.
Francisco's men were barbaric and merciless with the Inca population, their acts of terror and greed have led to the tumbling of the Inca civilization.
www.rediscovermachupicchu.com /04-05.htm   (1735 words)

Their territory was very diverse both in climate and in terrain, for it included the high peaks and fertile valleys of the Andes mountains, the tropical forests on the eastern edges of the mountains and a long strip of drought-stricken desert along the western coast.
The mighty empire of the Incas collapsed abruptly in 1532 with the arrival of a small band of Spanish conquerors led by Pizarro.
Beneath the Inca were the royal family, several levels of nobility, priests, the administrators and government experts, and the large mass of common people - craftsmen, farmers and soldiers.
lsa.colorado.edu /~lsa/texts/Incas.html   (1448 words)

The Inca leadership encouraged the worship of their gods, the foremost of which was Inti, the sun god.
In 1572 the last Inca stronghold was discovered, and the last ruler, Túpac Amaru, Manco's son, was captured and executed, bringing the Inca empire to an end.
Subjects of the empire were allowed to worship their ancestral gods as long as they accepted the supremacy of Inti, the sun god, which was the most important god worshipped by the Inca leadership.
www.solarnavigator.net /history/incas.htm   (4060 words)

 Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
At that moment, the Inca Empire was sunk in a five years war between two princes: Huáscar and Atahualpa.
On November 16, 1532, while the natives were in a celebration in Cajamarca, the Spanish Pizarro took the Inca Atahualpa prisoner by surprise, causing a great consternation between the natives and conditioning the future course of the fight.
It was at this critical moment in the empire's history that the Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro arrived and after three long expeditions had already established the first Spanish settlement in northern Peru, calling it San Miguel de Piura on July of 1532.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Spanish_conquest_of_the_Inca_Empire   (2518 words)

The Incas from the viewpoint of the conquistador, Pedro de Cieza de Léon.
Discovery of Inca ruins at the Headwaters of the Río Timpía
The rise and fall of the Incas, from their origin to the eventual conquest by the Spanish.
www.ontalink.com /archaeology/inca   (531 words)

Each of these tribes was ruled independently by a council of elders; the tribe as a whole gave its allegiance to the ruler, or "Inca." The "Inca" was divine; he was the descendant of the sun-god.
Below the Inca was the royal family which consisted of the Inca's immediate family, concubines, and all his children.
The Incas cultivated corn and potatoes, and raised llama and alpaca for food and for labor.
www.wsu.edu /~dee/CIVAMRCA/INCAS.HTM   (785 words)

 Grade 6 Inca Projects & Resources
There is a section on the conquest of the Incas and growth of the Inca Empire.
The Conquest of the Inca Empire: Francisco Pizarro - is part of a larger website about the Age of Discovery and Exploration and has other pages about a wide variety of Europeans who explored the "New World".
Incas and the Fall of the Inca Empire, Aztec Mythology: Quetzalcoatl, and Quetzalcoatl and Viracocha: How These Myths Resulted in the Downfall of the Aztec and Inca Tribes.
www.internet-at-work.com /hos_mcgrane/inca/eg_inca_intro.html   (861 words)

 Inca Empire IV. Spanish Conquest   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The Inca civilization was at its height around 1493, as Spaniards began arriving in the Americas.
The Incas at first believed Pizarro to be their creator god Viracocha, just as the Aztecs of Mexico had associated the Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés with their god Quetzalcoatl.
The Inca kingdom at Vilcabamba survived for another 36 years, protected by the difficult terrain of the region.
www.angelfire.com /realm/shades/nativeamericans/incaempire4.htm   (545 words)

 The Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire (part 4)
The Spanish couldn't believe their eyes and started to wonder what more was there to be found in Cusco, they had to wait a year more to find out.
The Inca understood that as a convert he would be brought to death by strangulation, so his body would still be able to be mummified.
Those who survived the variola epidemic, died by forced labour imposed by the Spanish at dragging cargo from the coast region to the high lands or by working in the silver and gold mines.
www.infoperu.com /en/view.php?lang=en&p=164   (1298 words)

 European Voyages of Exploration: The Inca Empire
Francisco Pizarro was born in 1474 in Trujillo, Spain, as the illegitimate and poorly-educated son of a minor noble.
Two of the emperor's sons laid claim to the throne: Huáscar was selected by the court elite to rule from Cuzco, the traditional Inca capital, and Atahualpa had control of his father's professional army and the newly conquered regions of Ecuador and Columbia.
Pizarro appointed Huáscar's brother, Manco Capac, as nominal ruler of the Inca Empire.
www.acs.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/inca.html   (611 words)

 Tahwantansuyo   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
It was considered by the Inca to be the naval of the earth.
This great organizing empire sprang up without the benefit of a written language; however they did have a way of communicating their intent over the thousands of miles and a network of roads and messengers to speed this process.
In this way, the Inca were able to track their vast resources and spread them over their empire in such a way that no one died of famine.
www.spanish.sbc.edu /MMLatAm/Tahwantansuyo.html   (237 words)

 Inca - The real meaning from Timesharetalk wikipedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Tawantin is a group of four things (tawa "four" with the suffix -ntin which names a group); suyu means "region" or "province".
In one, Ticei Viracocha of Colina de las Ventanas in Pacaritambo sent forth his four sons and four daughters to establish a village.
The proximate and ultimate causes of the fall of the Inca Empire were discussed in Jared Diamond's "Guns Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies" (1997).
www.timesharetalk.co.uk /wiki.asp?k=Inca   (2723 words)

 Spanish in Cusco. Spanish courses in Cusco, Peru.
After the conquest, the Spanish built their colonial churches and houses on top of the Inca foundations and this fascinating mix of architectural styles is still much in evidence.
The city, the former capital of the Inca empire, has enough to hold the interest of even the most demanding of tourists: the convents, the churches, the museums, the Temple of the Sun, the Cathedral and the ruins in and around Cusco (Sacsahuaman, Kenko, Puca Pucara, Tambomachay).
The Sacred Valley of the Incas and Machu Picchu
www.spanishinperu.com /peru/cusco.asp   (511 words)

 Amazon.com: The Conquest of the Incas: Books: John Hemming   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Hemmings is clearly sympathetic to the Incas (it is almost impossible not to be), but he gives due credit to the do-or-die bravery of the Spanish, who rarely if ever backed out of a fight, even after the Incas' revised tactics had greatly evened the odds.
John Hemming's "Conquest of the Incas" is a fascinating and detailed read of how Francisco Pizarro and his brotherhood of sixteenth century conquistadors wantonly crushed Peru's Inca Indian civilization.
The conquest of the Incas is perhaps the most defining moment in the history of South America and remains so today.
www.amazon.com /Conquest-Incas-John-Hemming/dp/0156223007   (2164 words)

 The Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire
Their huge empire has historically fallen because of an epidemic of smallpox brought to their world be early visitors of Europe (mainly Spanish), the civil war between Atahualpa and Huascar, the last two Sapa Incas, and last but not least, the conquista of the Spanish invaders.
Again the Spanish heard stories concerning the tremendous wealth of the rulers up South where there existed replicas in gold of corncobs, shepherds in pure gold, the many amazing temples with walls of gold, their powerful leader called the Sapa Inca and their god the Sun called the Inti.
The tragedy of the fall down of the Inca empire had started and their power briefly became soon nothing more than a myth.
www.infoperu.com /en/view.php?lang=en&p=161   (871 words)

 Cusco Peru, Travel information on Cuzco, Peru Tours, Sacred Valley
This entire region, punctuated by Cusco, was the heart of the Inca Empire from the 14th to the 15th centuries.
The empire extended from Lake Tititcaca in the south to Lake Junin (currently Ecuador) in the north.
The cross represents the different levels of existence: The lower level signifies the underworld, and snake god; the higher level, human existence, represented by the jaguar or puma god; and the highest level, the celestial plane, represented by the condor.
www.destination360.com /peru/cusco.php   (1223 words)

Between 1200 and 1535 AD, the Inca population lived in the part of South America extending from the Equator to the Pacific coast of Chile.
The Inca society was arranged by a strict hierarchical structure.
By 1535, the Inca society was completely overthrown, and Pizzaro moved the capital from Cuzco to Lima.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/prehistory/latinamerica/south/cultures/inca.html   (763 words)

 The Inca civilization. The Inca Empire.
The Inca aqueducts are ancient water distribution systems, well preserved and parts of the network still function today, villagers still water their plantations with them.
The idea that stood at the basis of these waterways was that if rivers could be diverted and fountains exploited to the maximum, then the irrigation of the plantations could be insured, drought would not endanger the lives of those dependent on the crops and other plants...
In the early 1530s, the mighty Inca Empire was crushed with ease by the Francisco Pizarro conquistador-led Spanish army.
www.rediscovermachupicchu.com /04.htm   (347 words)

 Spanish Conquest of Native America
The Azteca and the Inca empires in Mexico were conquered by Spain in the 16th century, while North America was invaded by two Spanish explorers, Hernando de Soto and Cabeza de Vaca.
The Spanish fleet had landed in Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz in February 1519, and by the month of November, commanded by Cortés, they entered Tenochtitlán and arrested the Aztec Emperor, Moctezuma.
In 1532 the Inca Empire was conquered by Francisco Pizarro, whose men kidnapped Emperor Atahualpa in exchange for a ransom of gold and silver; once the ransom was paid, however, Atahualpa was murdered.
www.donquijote.org /culture/spain/history/conquest.asp   (402 words)

 News in Science - Wax clues to Inca history - 13/10/1999
Researchers at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) have dated two wax samples, from documents of the period, for Italian historians investigating the conquest of Peru by Francisco Pizzaro in the early 1530s.
The letters, from which the samples were taken, found their way into a Spanish library and were rediscovered last century.
The letter, dated August 5, 1533, was addressed to the King of Spain, Carlo V. Pizarro, fearing that the defeated Inca king Atahuallpa would reveal to the Spanish monarch the atrocities committed during the conquest, had him assassinated by strangulation and his generals poisoned, the letter says.
www.abc.net.au /science/news/stories/s59110.htm   (564 words)

 Machu Picchu travel, Machu Picchu tour and tourist information, Peru
The Spanish invaders at the time of the Conquest and during centuries of colonial rule, never discovered the city, and nobody ever led them there.....
The Inca Trail to Machu Pichu is rated among the ten best trekking trails in the world.
Any visit to Machu Picchu begins in Cusco, the capital of the Inca empire......
www.machu-picchu.info   (487 words)

 Lost Cities Of Incas - A Lost cities of incas - Holidays from Realworld Travel UK   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The aim of this trek is to reach Choquequirao, after Machu Picchu one of the best-preserved major Inca ruins.
Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, most of the surviving Inca royalty fled into the Vilcabamba range and beyond, and survived for several decades.
The Inca shrines and highways throughout the Vilcabamba were maintained until 1572 when a Spanish expedition finally reached the most remote refuge of the surviving Manco Inca and put an undisputed end to the dynasty.
www.4real.co.uk /trips/Lost-Cities-Of-Incas.html   (886 words)

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