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Topic: Speleothems

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  Speleothems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The rate at which speleothems form depends upon the amount and rate of water entering the cave, the amount of acidity and minerals in the water, and the temperature and humidity conditions in the cave when it enters.
Cave pearls, are a fairly rare speleothem, formed similarly to a pearl, as a piece of sand or grit is rolled underwater, and coated on all sides with calcite.
Cracked speleothems, which are later recemented, often occur as a result of the clay cave floor drying out and shrinking, thus lowering the floor level.
www.umsl.edu /~joellaws/ozark_caving/mss/speleotm.htm   (1642 words)

 Palaeoclimatic Studies - Tanzania   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The speleothems in these caves were dirty and their growth conditions are probably affected by the anthropogenic activities.
Because of low uranium-content in the speleothems and contamination by initial thorium in some of the samples, the dating analysis are complicated and the results obtained so far are not very precise.
Speleothems are one of few potential archives for preserving palaeoenvironmental data in tropical regions, their validity is not yet fully explored.
karst.planetresources.net /palaeoclimate_tanzania.htm   (1356 words)

 DIALOG/DISCCRS Dissertation Abstracts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Carbonate cements deposited from groundwater in caves (speleothems) over recent geologic time can be used to understand mechanisms and timescales of variations in groundwater geochemistry and groundwater flow routes.
Speleothems are precisely datable over a range of timescales for the Pleistocene and Holocene, and may provide continuous temporal sequences of growth and corresponding records of aquifer and karst development, groundwater geochemistry, and paleoclimatic parameters over such timescales.
Speleothem and temporal series of cave dripwater samples were collected across the region from multiple caves.
aslo.org /phd/dialog/200012-33.html   (469 words)

 OZ fossils - The Age of the Megafauna - The Caves - Stalactites and Stalagmites
Stalactites and Stalagmites (Speleothems), sometimes referred to as formations or decorations, are cave features formed by the deposition of minerals.
Two important factors are the temperature outside (which affects the rate of decay of plants and animals, hence the amount of carbon dioxide in the soil), and the amount of rainfall.
The shapes of speleothems are determined by how the acidic water enters the cave (by dripping, seeping, or splashing) and how the water stands or flows after entering the cave.
www.abc.net.au /ozfossil/megafauna/caves/stalactites.htm   (403 words)

 Theoretical and Applied Karstology, vol. 9/1996
Seventy-four 230Th/234U dates on speleothems enable preliminary estimates to be made of the palaeoclimatic evolution of the north-western part of Romania.
The growth frequency of speleothems was examined using the cumulative distributed error frequency method (Gordon, 1989).
The climatic oscillations that are suggested by our curve correlate tentatively with known climatic events provided by pollen analysis, coral growth frequency and oxygen isotope records from both deep sea sediments and ice cores during the same timespan (the last 150,000 years).
www.geocities.com /karstology/TAK9.html   (2856 words)

 Paleoclimate - Israel   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Speleothems from the three groups representing the time periods between: 17,000-15,000; 15,000-12,000; 12,000 to 10,000 yr BP.
The period from 10,000 to about 7,000 yr BP is represented by relatively small numbers of speleothems, and their petrography and isotopic compositions are very different from the rest of the Holocene speleothems.
O values, the slow deposition rate, the rarity of speleothems, and the high concentrations of detritus indicate flooding events causing removal of the soil.
karst.planetresources.net /dating_climate_israel.htm   (1161 words)

 Speleothems Photo Index
Speleothem is the general term used to describe all the kinds of minerals and formations that have been added to the cave after the void was formed.
These delicate hairlike forms are made of calcium sulfate, commonly known as gypsum, that extrude directly from the mud in the cave walls because of the differing moisture levels in the cave mud and the cave air.
Different speleothem shapes are usually caused by differing surface conditions, which, in turn cause different rates of water movement through roof cracks and differing rates of dissolving and reforming of the mineral crystals.
www.bostongrotto.org /Grotto/bg-photo-owwow.html   (411 words)

 Monsoon in Arabia
Speleothems, such as stalagmites, stalactites and flowstones, are formed when calcium carbonate precipitates from degassing solutions seeping into limestone caves.
The oxygen isotope ratios of speleothem carbonate primarily reflect the isotopic composition of regional precipitation.
The hydrogen isotopic composition of fluid inclusions incorporated in speleothems can yield a direct measure of the isotopic composition of paleogroundwaters (Schwarcz and Yonge, 1983), which may then be combined with isotopic analyses of speleothem carbonate to directly calculate paleotemperatures.
www.geo.umass.edu /climate/speleo.html   (885 words)

 speleogenesis.net :: Thesis Abstracts
From Sichuan Province, China, five Speleothems were collected of which four were studied for their records of PSV.
Eight Spanish Speleothems from the Cantabrian coast were collected but their weak magnetisation allowed only one record of PSV to be produced.
Despite the dating errors associated with each speleothem the records of PSV compare well with each other and with contemporaneous records from China, Japan and also the UK (for the Spanish record).
www.speleogenesis.info /thesis/show_full_thesis.php?PubID=3206   (447 words)

 Venezuelan Cave Minerals: A Review   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The first mineralogical work of Venezuelan speleothems is that of William B. White, J. Haman and G. Jefferson (1963) in Guácharo Cave describing several types of calcite speleothems and also being the first to identify gypsum in several types of occurrences.
The origin of such rare speleothems is related to the reducing and acid environment of the forest soil surrounding this limestone cave, which allows for the migration of Fe and Mn in the reduced state and their precipitation as chelated-metallic compounds in the aerated cave conditions.
As brown 1-1.5 mm thick crusts on calcite speleothems and on the limestone bedrock.
www.pdvsa.com /lexico/museo/minerales/urbani1996.htm   (6126 words)

 Speleothem Paleoclimate records from Isthmus of Panama
Unlike ice cores however, speleothems have the benefit that they can be precisely dated by U/Th radiometric methods, and hence can provide comparable or better isotopic records.
Moreover, speleothems are widespread and can be collected and analyzed in replicate at a fraction of the cost associated with ice core programs, giving a high 'data to dollar' ratio.
The U/Th dating reveals that speleothem growth was initiated ~8.8 ka BP (ages in calendar years) and ceased around 4.8 ka BP.
www.unlv.edu /faculty3/lachniet/speleothems.html   (872 words)

 Speleothem Microfabrics: Introduction
Part 5 presents detrital minerals, the minerals that are present in speleothems but that previously formed elsewhere and were physically transported to the surface of the growing speleothem.
Speleothems, especially stalagmites, were increasingly used as records of past cave conditions in the late 1900s, and that use is expected to continue and increase as the demand for records of past climates increases and as techniques for study of speleothems improve.
Speleothems provide a remarkably variety of petrographic fabrics that have great aesthetic appeal in addition to their scholarly application.
www.gly.uga.edu /railsback/speleoatlas/SAintro1.html   (1007 words)

 Mercer Gallery: Speleothems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
"Speleothems" are cave "decorations" formed by the precipitation of minerals from water.
The majority of the formations in the Caverns are Speleothems.
The term is derived from the Greek speleos for caves and thema meaning deposit.
www.mercercaverns.com /Html/Speleothems.htm   (48 words)

Temporal changes in groundwater chemistry, as recorded in carbonate cements deposited from groundwater in caves (speleothems) over recent geologic time, may be utilized to used to understand mechanisms and time scales of variations in groundwater chemistry and their relation to climatic and hydrologic factors.
Speleothem and temporal series of cave drip water samples have been collected across the region from multiple caves.
Over 50 uranium-series ages have been analyzed to date on the speleothem samples, which indicate that the total period of record available covers the period from the present back to approximately 350,000 years before present (which is the limit of the uranium-series dating method).
es.epa.gov /ncer/fellow/progress/97/musgrovema99.html   (573 words)

 Speleothems (DesertUSA)
Calcite is the primary mineral component of speleothems as well as limestone, the sedimentary rock in which most caves are formed.
Curtain: A speleothem in the form of a wavy or folded sheet hanging from the roof or wall of a cave, often translucent and resonant.
Flower: Speleothem with crystal petals radiating from a central point,usually composed of gypsum, epsomite or halite.
www.desertusa.com /mag99/feb/papr/speleothems.html   (650 words)

 87SR/86SR AND SR/CA IN SPELEOTHEMS FOR PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Limestone cave deposits (speleothems) provide archives for past changes in regional temperature, precipitation and moisture source over a range of time scales.
Sr) in speleothems are such proxies that have been explored.
gsa.confex.com /gsa/2004AM/finalprogram/abstract_74655.htm   (284 words)

 UGA Laboratory for Speleothem Studies
Speleothems are fascinating in themselves as growing and often beautiful mineral deposits from within the earth.
Speleothems, on the other hand, provide a valuable paleoenvironmental record because they form near the earth surface and respond to changing earth-surface conditions, but they reside below the surface and thus are protected from erosion and destruction for millenia.
His interests in speleothems include the recognition of annual or other layers, the distinction between diagenetic and primary fabrics, and the identification and significance of detrital materials in speleothems.
www.gly.uga.edu /railsback/SpeleoLabMain1.html   (1116 words)

 Environmental pressures on conserving cave speleothems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Speleothems (stalagmites, stalactites, etc.) have long drawn visitors underground to visit limestone caves throughout Europe, and since the start of the twentieth century many public show-caves have been established.
Data are presented here for both cave air CO2 concentration and temperature, as well as a third variable, that of the drip-water calcium concentration, which is also a key determinant of speleothem growth and may be affected by surface land use changes.
It is demonstrated that cave speleothems may be at risk from the increased passage of tourists, but that this risk is highest in caves where ventilation is poor and where either the calcium ion concentration of the drip waters is low,
www.cancaver.ca /conserv/speleothem.htm   (211 words)

 Abstract 37(2), p. 103   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
We report preliminary results of a long-term systematic study intended to gather paleoclimatic records from precisely dated speleothems.
The research project is limited to speleothems deposited in caves of the Cracow-Wielun Upland, the largest and best-explored karst region in Poland, covering ca.
Speleothem samples were selected from collections of the Geological Museum of the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow.
www.radiocarbon.org /Journal/v37n2/Abstracts/103.html   (135 words)

 Cave Welcome
The term speleothem refers to the way the mineral was formed, not what it is composed of.
Gypsum is the third most common speleothem in TAG and is easily recognizable in caves as gypsum crusts, flowers, needles, hairs, beards, crystals, and stalactites.
The tiny, clear hairs and the larger, white growth in the center are definately organic and living on the surface of the speleothem and are not an actual part of it.
www.cumberlandadventures.com /cave/form.html   (2502 words)

 Caves Task Force Report, Appendix C
Speleothems are commonly composed of calcite, aragonite, epsomite, gypsum, celestite, and other similar minerals.
(f) "speleothem" means a natural mineral formation or deposit occurring in a cave, including, but not restricted to, stalagmites, stalactites, helectites, anthodites, gypsum flowers, gypsum needles, angel's hair, soda straws, draperies, bacon, cave pearls, popcorn (coral), rimstone dams, columns, palettes, and flowstone.
It shall be unlawful to store in caves or sinkholes any chemicals and other materials which may be detrimental or hazardous to caves or sinkholes, to the mineral deposits therein, to the wildlife inhabiting caves, to the waters of the State, or to the persons using such phenomenon for any purposes.
www.state.hi.us /dlnr/hpd/reports/cavesapndx_c.htm   (15900 words)

 Atlas: Rapid climate change during the Holocene from Norwegian Speleothems by Lauritzen, Stein-Erik
Carbonate speleothems (cave dripstones) as well as many surface travertines are formed by degassing of supersaturated groundwaters, thus depositing calcium carbonate.
The fact that speleothems and many travertines can be dated very precisely by means of uranium-series dating techniques, which cover timespans from less than 100 years up to some 700,000 years, makes them extremely valuable as terrstrial climatic archives, Figure 1.
Using the ‘speleothem delta function’ as a calibrated transfer function, a time-series of annual mean temperature can be constructed for the site through the last 9,000 years.
atlas-conferences.com /cgi-bin/abstract/camu-28   (638 words)

The speleothems, from the Greek spelleo = cavern and thema = deposit, are mineral formations that occur in caverns, for example stalactites, stalagmites, columns, curtains and innumerable other typologies.
These formations, which might present both delicate and fragile gypsum flowers or gigantic mineral structures, ornate the cavities, increasing their tourist and sometimes religious potential, due to the similarities, in the popular imagination, of some speleothems to sacred or zoomorphic images.
Their richness in speleothems puts many Brazilian caverns among the most beautiful in the world.
www.mre.gov.br /cdbrasil/itamaraty/web/ingles/meioamb/ecossist/caverna/espeleot/apresent.htm   (108 words)

 Journal of the Geological Society: Annual to sub-annual resolution of multiple trace-element trends in speleothems
The technique allows estimation of growth rate of speleothems at any interval of interest, which is one of several possible uses in palaeoclimatology.
Trace element data are presented from several types of calcitic speleothem, all forming from drip waters: stalagmites (Ballynamintra, Tartair and Ernesto), a soda straw stalactite (Crag) and a crust that formed on an aluminium cave monitoring installation (Pere-Noel).
Frisia et aL (2000) stressed the importance of documenting the crystal fabrics of speleothems, because of the relationship of certain fabrics with disequilibrium growth and hence modified geochemistry.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3721/is_200109/ai_n8995622   (1214 words)

 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
It takes many years to develop a layer of calcite deposit that is noticeable, and many speleothems you see in caves are thousands of years old.) Tell the students that there are many different types of speleothems that are visually distinct from one another.
Explain that the type of calcite decoration that is deposited is dependant upon the amount of water, the rate of water flow, the concentration of calcite in the water, and the temperature and environment of the cave.
The explanation of how speleothems are formed through calcite deposits might be difficult for ELL students to follow so using pictures and drawings will help as well as having a bilingual buddy for each beginning level ELL students.
t3.preservice.org /T0300836/lesson2.html   (813 words)

 Onondaga Cave State Park - Speleothems - Missouri State Parks and Historic Sites, MoDNR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Much less important to the geologist, but much more fascinating to the tourist are the speleothems, commonly called "cave formations." (We try to use "speleothem" to avoid confusion with the geologic rock formations like the Eminence.)
If it is a dry year, speleothems may not grow at all, and if we have optimum conditions they may grow a lot.
Such drafts result in "photo-tropic (light-loving) cave coral," such as that in Cathedral Cave, where the coral deposits are largely on the side of the speleothem facing the entrance.
www.mostateparks.com /onondaga/speleothems.htm   (1642 words)

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