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Topic: Spherical Earth

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Second, the earth's shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse was always the arc of a circle.
The spherical earth, however, postulates an earth that is both endless and yet finite, and it is the latter postulate that is consistent with all later findings.
Therefore, although the notion of the earth as a sphere is wrong, strictly speaking, it is not as wrong as the notion of the earth as flat.
home.earthlink.net /~dayvdanls/relativity.htm   (2415 words)

 Does the Bible Teach a Flat Earth
Scholarly opinion throughout the Renaissance was divided on the issue of the shape of the earth with adherents of the spherical earth in the majority.
After defending the sphericity of the earth on the grounds of Scripture, he turned to a geometrical argument, noting that the geometer's speaking of the higher and lower parts of a sphere parallels the Biblical references to the "higher" and "lower" parts of the earth.
Another way of saying the "ends of the earth" is to refer to the "extremites of the earth." In this case, as is also the case for the four corners of the earth, the word "earth" refers to the land mass, country, or continents (as opposed to the globe).
www.geocentricity.com /astronomy_of_bible/flatearth/doesbibleteach.html   (3220 words)

 Spherical Earth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It replaced widespread belief in a flat Earth: In early Mesopotamian thought the world was portrayed as a flat disk floating in the ocean, and this forms the premise for early Greek maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus.
The final two parts of his Sanskrit magnum opus the Aryabhatiya, which were named the Kalakriya ("reckoning of time") and the Gola("sphere"), state that the earth is spherical and that its circumference is 4,967 yojanas, which in modern units is 24,835 miles, very close to the current value of 24,902 miles.
The equatorial circumference is the simplest, as its radius equals the equatorial radius, "a" (for Earth, 6,378.135 km);
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Spherical_Earth   (1281 words)

 Map Projections: From Spherical Earth to Flat Map
Polyconic projection A conic projection projects information from the spherical Earth to a cone that is either tangent to the Earth at a single parallel, or that is secant at two standard parallels.
Conic—A map projection where the Earth's surface is projected onto a tangent or secant cone, which is then cut from apex to base and laid flat.
Spherical – Approximating the shape of a sphere.
nationalatlas.gov /articles/mapping/a_projections.html   (2154 words)

 Round Earth Day
Although most elementary school children know that the earth is spherical, some do not.
And for those smart-aleck students who roll their eyes, Round Earth Day is a good time to remind everyone that once upon a time most if not all cultures on the planet believed (rather strongly) that the Earth was flat.
And it is a good day to remind them that even today, people in some areas on Earth that have been relatively unreached by modern technology and knowledge still retain a belief in a flat earth.
www.swarthmore.edu /NatSci/cpurrin1/evolk12/slm/roundearthday.htm   (631 words)

 1421 - Evidence - Chinese Knowledge of the Spherical Earth Centered on the Sun by Gunnar Thompson, Ph.D.
In most societies where artists or astronomers portray earth as a circle, it is usually an indication that the astronomers have come to the realization that the world is round.
The existence of such artifacts in China confirms the fact that astronomers realized the sphericity of earth by 200 BCE--although such knowledge was probably not very common throughout the rest of society.
Chaucer says that if the earth and not the sun were at the center of the universe, with both sun and moon orbiting earth every day, then the phases of the moon would also occur every single day.
www.1421.tv /pages/evidence/content.asp?EvidenceID=457   (1296 words)

 Earth-Fixed Coordinate Systems
This is because the Earth is actually an oblate spheroid, slightly flattened at the poles.
And second, radius from the Earth's center is an unwieldy coordinate.
In such cases, it is appropriate to model the Earth as a plane half-space rather than an oblate spheroid.
www.aerojockey.com /papers/meng/node7.html   (404 words)

 Bartlett: The New Flat Earth Society   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
But there are problems with a spherical earth, and a now a new paradigm is emerging which seems to be a return to the wisdom of the ancients.
A spherical earth is finite and hence is forever unappealing to the devotees of perpetual growth.
This indicates that the population of the Earth, growing at 1% per year, would grow to a number equal to the number of atoms estimated to be in the known universe, in a period of time something like the period since a recent ice age.
www.hubbertpeak.com /bartlett/flatearth.htm   (1836 words)

 Did Bible writers believe the earth was flat? - ChristianAnswers.Net
In the Old Testament, Job 26:7 explains that the earth is suspended in space, the obvious comparison being with the spherical sun and moon.
The circle on the face of the waters is one of the proofs that the Greeks used for a spherical earth.
This spherical earth concept did not prevail; the Romans drew the earth as a flat disk with oceans around it.
www.christiananswers.net /q-eden/edn-c015.html   (607 words)

 Measuring the Earth's Curvature Background
With increasing exposure to images of Earth from space, students are often very convinced of the fact that the Earth is spherical.
Students must forget their preconceptions of a spherical Earth and use only their scientific observations to prove that the Earth is spherical, as was done in ancient times.
The Earth's shadow on the surface of the Moon is obviously curved during these eclipses, which gave ancient astronomers the idea that the Earth must be spherical.
www.astro.princeton.edu /~clark/MeasECBkgd.html   (510 words)

 NASA's Cosmicopia -- Ask Us -- Earth and Moon
The Earth is not a perfect sphere, so the distance to the center of the Earth varies from 6378 km (3963 miles) at the equator to 6357 km (3950 miles) at the poles.
For the case of the Earth, R is its radius and Theta = 0 deg at the equator and 90 deg at the poles.
From The Nine Planets, the diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km, and the diameter of the Moon is 3,476 km.
helios.gsfc.nasa.gov /qa_earth.html   (12152 words)

 Center for Science Education:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Shape of Earth All your students will know that the Earth is roughly spherical in shape, but how many of them will be able to suggest any of the ways that we know the Earth is spherical (the Earth is actully not perfectly spherical.
Due to forces generated by the Earth's rotation, the Earth is slightly oblate, meaning the Earth is slightly wider across the equator than it is from North Pole to South Pole.
In this case, the larger mass is the mass of the Earth, the smaller mass is the mass of the object, and the distance between them is the radius of the Earth.
www.luc.edu /faculty/dslavsk/classnotes/earthparameters.shtml   (1661 words)

 Is the earth flat? Here's what the Bible teaches.
Augustine did have problems accepting that there were populated lands on the other side of the earth — not a weird belief at all for the time, because Australia and New Zealand, for instance, were not known to exist — but he acknowledged that a spherical earth seemed to have been scientifically demonstrated.
… although it be supposed or scientifically demonstrated that the world is of a round and spherical form, yet it does not follow that the other side of the earth is bare of water; nor even, though it be bare, does it immediately follow that it is peopled.
There might have been debate about a flat earth among some of the ancients, but from our own research of over 5000 books from ancient times we have to say that Professor Russell seems to be correct when he says the flat-earth myth flourished only recently.
www.users.bigpond.com /rdoolan/flatearth.html   (1160 words)

 Flat Earth in the Bible
Certainly, if the earth were flat, standing atop "an exceedingly high mountain" would allow Jesus to see the whole earth, but there is no mountain tall enough to allow him to see the other side of a spherical earth.
The tree grew and became strong, and its top reached to heaven, and it was visible to the end of the whole earth.
If the Bible writer had meant for us to believe that "circle of the earth" meant that the earth was round, the writer would have used the Hebrew word for "ball," which is duwr.
sol.sci.uop.edu /~jfalward/Flat_Earth.htm   (729 words)

Sir Francis Drake was the first person who proved that the earth is spherical when he sailed around it in 1597.
If the earth was flat, there would have been a sudden change from night to day and from day to night.
Thus the Qur’an correctly describes the shape of the earth, though the prevalent notion when the Qur’an was revealed was that the earth was flat.
www.islamisforyou.com /static/EEkAEuupEEQregcEoH.shtml   (297 words)

 The Flat-Earth Bible.
The earth was created on the first day, and it was “without form and void (Genesis 1:2).” On the second day, a vault the “firmament” of the King James version was created to divide the waters, some being above and some below the vault.
In Daniel, the king “saw a tree of great height at the centre of the earth...reaching with its top to the sky and visible to the earth's farthest bounds.” If the earth were flat, a sufficiently tall tree would be visible to “the earth's farthest bounds,” but this is impossible on a spherical earth.
Also strained is Bouw's interpretation of “the ends of the earth” as the points most distant from Jerusalem, and his identification of the Chukchi Peninsula of the Soviet Union, Alaska, Cape Horn, and the southeastern tip of Australia as the “four corners” of the earth.
www.lhup.edu /~dsimanek/febible.htm   (4466 words)

 Who invented the flat Earth?
Next was sixth century Eastern Greek Christian, Cosmas Indicopleustes, who claimed the Earth was flat and lay beneath the heavens (consisting of a rectangular vaulted arch).
Its theme was the victory of a lone believer in a spherical Earth over a united front of Bible-quoting, superstitious ignoramuses, convinced the Earth was flat.
In fact, not only did the church not promote the flat Earth, it is clear from such passages as Isaiah 40:22 that the Bible implies it is spherical.
www.christiananswers.net /q-aig/aig-c034.html   (1197 words)

 theflatearthsociety.org :: View topic - Is the penguin thing a joke?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
We are not arguing here whether or not the earth is spherical, but rather WHY the government would cover up the spheroid nature of the planet.
Ultimately, of course, your winning this argument scores points in favour of a spherical earth and my winning this argumetn scores points in favour of a flat earth.
But whether or not the earth is flat or not does not enter the picture of this very focused discussion.
www.theflatearthsociety.org /forums/viewtopic.php?t=4296   (1802 words)

 Lecture 4: Measuring the Earth
Ancient Egyptian: The sky was a tent canopy stretched between mountains at the four corners of the Earth.
The shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse is round.
The fact that objects fall to Earth towards its center means that if it were constructed of small bits of matter originally, these parts would naturally settle into a spherical shape.
www-astronomy.mps.ohio-state.edu /~pogge/Ast161/Unit2/measearth.html   (934 words)

 World Sunlight Map
Watch the sun rise and set all over the world on this real-time, computer-generated illustration of the earth's patterns of sunlight, darkness, and cloud cover based on current weather satellite data.
The Mercator projection used here is one way of looking at the spherical earth as a flat map.
Used since the 16th century for navigation, straight lines on this map can be used accurately as compass bearings but the size and shape of continents are distorted.
www.die.net /earth   (118 words)

 Terrain LOD on Spherical Grids
Square heightfields are fine for many purposes, but eventually we need spherical surfaces like the earth.
A planetary rendering demo (closed source) which shows spherical LOD, bump mapping, noise detail texture, atmospheric glow.
Spherical Earth, Continuous LOD and Paging of Elevation and Texture
www.vterrain.org /LOD/spherical.html   (511 words)

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