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Topic: Spinoza

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  Baruch Spinoza: Tutte le informazioni su Baruch Spinoza su Encyclopedia.it   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A questa data (1661), egli si è già formato una cerchia di amici e discepoli, con i quali intrattenere un nutrito scambio epistolare, fonte preziosa sull'andamento della sua riflessione.
Nel 1670 Spinoza aveva pubblicato, anonimo, il Trattato Teologico-Politico, opera che suscita un clamore ed uno sdegno generali, in quanto presenta un'accurata analisi dell'Antico Testamento e in special modo del Pentateuco, tendente a negare la sua origine divina.
Nononostante l'anonimato, Spinoza viene presto riconosciuto come autore dell'opera, che viene messa al bando dalle autorità olandesi a partire dal 1674, insieme con il Leviatano di Thomas Hobbes.
www.encyclopedia.it /b/ba/baruch_spinoza.html   (752 words)

 Baruch Spinoza - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spinoza was a thoroughgoing determinist who held that absolutely everything that happens occurs through the operation of necessity.
Spinoza's philosophy has much in common with Stoicism inasmuch as both philosophies sought to fulfil a therapeutic role by instructing people how to attain happiness (or eudaimonia, for the Stoics).
Spinoza's portrait featured prominently on the older series of the 1000 Guilder banknote, which was legal tender in the Netherlands until the euro was introduced in 2002.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Spinoza   (915 words)

 Baruch Spinoza
Spinoza engages in such a detailed analysis of the composition of the human being because it is essential to his goal of showing how the human being is a part of Nature, existing within the same causal nexuses as other extended and mental beings.
Spinoza's aim in Parts Three and Four is, as he says in his Preface to Part Three, to restore the human being and his volitional and emotional life into their proper place in nature.
Spinoza, therefore, explains these emotions -- as determined in their occurrence as are a body in motion and the properties of a mathematical figure -- just as he would explain any other things in nature.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/spinoza   (11082 words)

 Malaspina Great Books - Benedictus de Spinoza (1632)
Spinoza's political views were largely inspired by Jan de Witt and his friends; the same opinions are to be found in the writings of other Dutch political writers of the same period, e.
According to Spinoza the Holy Scriptures of the Old Testament are not without error and are not inspired in the strict sense.
Spinoza's view of the world is so constructed that the final results can be reached with equal logic from its epistemological and psychological assumptions, and from its ethical and metaphysical axioms.
www.malaspina.org /home.asp?topic=./search/details&lastpage=./search/results&ID=171   (3346 words)

 Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza was one of the great philosophers of the age of Rationalism and a major influence thereafter, as on, paradoxically, both of the bitter enemies Arthur Schopenhauer and G.W.F. Hegel.
Spinoza's God is not the God of Abraham and Isaac, not a personal God at all, and his system provides no reason for the revelatory status of the Bible or the practice of Judaism, or of any religion, for that matter.
Spinoza's sympathy for Christianity, like Thomas Jefferson's, was entirely for the moral teachings of Jesus, not for the theology, Christology, or the promise of the means of salvation.
www.friesian.com /spinoza.htm   (2606 words)

Spinoza's first published work was a systematic presentation of the philosophy of Descartes, to which he added his own suggestions for its improvement.
Spinoza disavowed anthropomorphic conceptions of god as both logically and theologically unsound, proposed modern historical-critical methods for biblical interpretation, and defended political toleration of alternative religious practices.
Spinoza preferred the designation "Deus sive Natura" ("god or nature") as the most fitting name for this being, and he argued that the its infinite attributes account for every feature of the universe.
www.philosophypages.com /ph/spin.htm   (777 words)

 The Philosophy of Benedict Spinoza
In a pantheistic metaphysics such as that of Spinoza, in which there is a single substance and all things are but finite and temporal modifications of this substance, there is no place for the traditional concept of man as a separate substance existing in himself and composed of a rational soul and a material body.
For Spinoza, this love of man for God is returned by God, not as love between persons (for personality is excluded from his metaphysics), but inasmuch as man is identical, in a pantheistic sense, with God.
Spinoza holds that the state arose from a pact entered into by men, who at first lived in a condition of irrational nature and in perpetual war.
radicalacademy.com /philspinoza.htm   (1878 words)

 Spinoza' Ethics
Spinoza asserts that ethics can be based on a geometric model in which axioms and propositions follow each other with logical necessity.
Spinoza argues that to live according to reason is to live freely, and is not to live in servitude to the emotions.
Spinoza’s answer is that evil is a lack of good and that falsehood is a lack of truth.
www.angelfire.com /md2/timewarp/spinoza.html   (1451 words)

 Spinoza's Psychological Theory
Although Spinoza repeatedly insists that the variety of affects is innumerable, he nevertheless does characterize, in his own terms, many of the traditional passions, each of which is either a kind of joy, sadness or desire or a hybrid of two different affects.
Spinoza's predominant egoism, together with some of his still stronger statements of psychological egoism such as that at I Appendix, suggest that individuals are not, or are not often, altruistic.
Spinoza needs, in his ethics, to explain how aiding others is virtuous, and, in his political theory, to explain why a person, even a rational one, would want to come to the aid of others.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/spinoza-psychological   (7569 words)

 Spinoza, Baruch. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Spinoza became known in spite of his retiring mode of life; he had wide correspondence and was visited by other philosophers.
Spinoza’s rationalism, unlike that of later idealists, does not proceed at the expense of empirical observation.
To be free is to be guided by the law of one’s own nature (which in Spinoza’s rational universe is never at variance with the law of another nature); bondage consists in being moved by causes of which we are unaware because our ideas are confused.
www.bartleby.com /65/sp/Spinoza.html   (971 words)

 Glossary of People: Sp   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Spinoza's principal amendment to Descartes' theory was that he eliminates the problem of the "coordination" of extension-less thought and unconscious matter (Descartes' "dualism") by proposing a world made up of "Substance" which has attributes of both extension and thought.
Spinoza must be regarded as a Materialist, as for him thought is but an attribute of objectively existing Substance; Substance may or may exhibit the attribute of thought.
Spinoza was a contemporary of the British Empiricists, Hobbes and Locke; his predecessors were Descartes and Galileo; Isaac Newton was a young man when Spinoza died of consumption in 1677.
www.marxists.org /glossary/people/s/p.htm   (1381 words)

 Spinoza: the first modern pantheist.
Spinoza was born in Amsterdam in 1632, into a family of Jewish emigrants fleeing persecution in Portugal.
Spinoza was offered 1000 florins to keep quiet about his views, but refused.
Spinoza refused all rewards and honours, and gave away to his sister his share of his father's inheritance - keeping only a bedstead for himself.
members.aol.com /Heraklit1/spinoza.htm   (1211 words)

 Benedict de Spinoza (1632-77).
Spinoza is the Dutch philosopher who is the founder of the Spinozistic or Naturalistic School of philosophy.
As a pantheistic monist, Spinoza was of the belief that there is no dualism between God and the world; we need not go beyond the immediate present experience to seek for a being outside of it.
While Descartes had declared earlier that man possessed "freewill," a necessary position for any religionist to take, Spinoza "ridiculed" this notion1 and declared that the notion of freewill "is due to the fact that people are conscious of their actions, but not of the causes of their actions." In this regard Spinoza was a determinist.
www.blupete.com /Literature/Biographies/Philosophy/Spinoza.htm   (391 words)

 Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) - By Miles Hodges   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Spinoza was born in 1632 in Amsterdam of a Jewish family that had moved to the Netherlands from Portugal to escape persecution.
Spinoza found himself becoming more deeply interested in these matters--and in 1660 he moved to a village outside Leyden, Rijnsburg, (a gathering place of Cartesian scholars) to devote more time to his thoughts.
To Spinoza, good and bad are determined not by some sort of transcendent ideals, some code of law that we all must aspire to, but out of the very logic of our personal being, a quality which will differ somewhat from person to person.
www.newgenevacenter.org /biography/spinoza2.htm   (2367 words)

 Spinoza and Late 18th/Early 19th Century Germany   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Rather, he is beloved for a combination of his reputation as a secular saint, his obvious devotion to truth and the faculty of reason, and the extent to which his philosophical conclusions harmonize with the ethics of mysticism and joie de vivre.
Schlegel was inspired by Spinoza to adopt the philosophy of immanence — and to seek the goal of "an immediate and intuitive knowledge of nature in God." Schelling also was bitten by the bug.
And Spinoza’s philosophy, thought Hegel, suffered from its lack of respect for the principle of the dialectic that is needed to explain all the seeming contradictions inside the Absolute.
www.spinoza.net /TSNMain.htm   (3153 words)

Spinoza was born in Amsterdam on 24th November, 1632.
At any rate, Spinoza became a member of a circle of intellectuals, who combined a deep respect for Descartes and modern science, with a reputation for heresy and atheism.
Spinoza suffered from failing health, probably from glass dust in his lungs, and he died on 23rd February 1677, at the age of 44.
www.philosophy.leeds.ac.uk /GMR/hmp/resources/biographies/spinoza/spinoza.html   (709 words)

 Benedict de Spinoza
Spinoza shares with Hobbes a powerful negative analysis of popular religion and the view that an individual operates in their own self interest.
Little is known of Spinoza's early years except that he studied at the Amsterdam Jewish school where he learned Hebrew and was instructed in Jewish Orthodoxy as it was his father's wish for him to become a Rabbi.
Spinoza was so outraged that his friends had to lock him in his house to keep him from running out into the crowd with a sign declaring them the ultimate barbarians which would have surely brought about his own death.
oregonstate.edu /instruct/phl302/philosophers/spinoza.html   (834 words)

 Spinoza: Metaphysics Philosophy of Spinoza, One Infinite Substance (God Nature Space) Spinoza Quotes Ethics
Spinoza's Ethics is written in five parts, in a highly logical style of definitions, propositions and proofs.
So from Spinoza's Metaphysics, we can understand that humans (and our minds) are necessarily united to the whole, since there is only one substance; reality is a unity which we call God or Nature.
Spinoza (with Aristotle) understood the importance of Motion, most significantly, Spinoza was particularly aware of the importance of the relative and interconnected Motions of Matter; (as becomes evident when we later consider the Human Body and Mind, and our unique Human Identity).
www.spaceandmotion.com /Philosophy-Spinoza-Philosopher.htm   (12492 words)

 :: BDSweb > Spinoza & Spinozism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Haserot, F.S. Spinoza and the status of universals.
Spinoza's critique of Machiavelli and its source in van den Enden.
Schrigner, L.S. Benedict Spinoza - ontology for the new millennium.
bdsweb.tripod.com /en   (776 words)

Spinoza now frequented almost exclusively the society of Christians, i.
But neither the doctrine of the one and only Divine substance, nor the higher unity of "extension" and "thought" in the infinite and the finite, nor the instinct of self-preservation, is clearly expressed in it.
When in the second half of the eighteenth century the reputation of Spinoza was again revived both in Germany and France simultaneously, the effort was once more made to reconcile Spinozism and Christianity.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/14217a.htm   (3513 words)

 Tempus Spinozanum
Spinoza probably meets Clara Marie van den Enden (the master’s daughter) with whom he later falls in love.
Spinoza is accused of heresy (materialism and "contempt for the Torah") before the Tribunal of the Congregation.
Spinoza is invited by the Elector Palatine to accept a Professorship of Philosophy at the University of Heidelberg; Spinoza declines the offer.
frank.mtsu.edu /~rbombard/RB/Spinoza/chrono4.html   (1020 words)

 Spinoza on Mind and Body (Rachel Florence)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
            Much of the critical literature on Spinoza’s theory of mind and body spends a great deal of time simply trying to clarify what exactly Spinoza means in claiming that mind and body are identical and the implications of his argument that mind and body are not causally related to one another.
            Spinoza’s theory on the relationship between the mind and the body obviously raises many issues that need to be addressed and have been heavily debated among the academics that look at his philosophy.
  This article examines the issues of substance monism and attribute dualism in Spinoza’s mind-body argument and points out that, according to his analysis of Spinoza, the attributes of things are equated with their essence thus making it possible for mind and body to be made up of the same substance.
www.trinity.edu /cbrown/modern/litrev/Spinoza-mindbody.html   (2142 words)

 Philosophers - Spinoza
He, Herbert Spencer, knew that people would not relish a philosophy whose last word was not God and heaven, but equilibration and dissolution; and in concluding this First Part he defended with unusual eloquence and fervor his right to speak the dark truths that he saw.
Spinoza's trust in his reasoning (though what other guide could he have?) was his sole immodesty.
Leibniz was for a decade (1676-86) strongly influenced by Spinoza.
www.yesselman.com /Columbia.htm   (8294 words)

 Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza, one of the greatest Dutch philosophers of his time, was born on november 24th, 1632 Amsterdam.
In 1656 he was expelled from the synagogue at Amsterdam on charges of heretical thought and practice, after which he Latinized his name to Benedict.
During his lifetime Spinoza was a controversial figure, largely because his philosophical pantheism was not widely appreciated in either Jewish or Christian religious circles.
spinoza.mine.nu   (272 words)

 Open Directory - Society: Philosophy: Philosophers: S: Spinoza, Baruch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A Dedication to Spinoza's Insights - Joseph B. Yesselman's tribute to Spinoza as an intellectual source of human joy, love, and peace of mind.
Spinoza according to Duff - Contains excerpts from "Spinoza's Political and Ethical Philosophy," by Robert A. Duff, Glasgow 1903 (reprinted 1970).
Spinoza Institute - The Spinoza Institute hosts a number of selected research programs and aims to stimulate research in physics from a unifying perspective.
dmoz.org /Society/Philosophy/Philosophers/S/Spinoza,_Baruch   (545 words)

 A Dedication to Spinoza's Insights - Joseph B. Yesselman's Home Page
Spinoza defined "sorrow, boredom, joy" with one definition.
Spinoza is not to be read, he is to be studied;
I stumbled upon Spinoza after I studied Calculus in college.
www.yesselman.com   (1436 words)

 Philosophers : Baruch Spinoza   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A member of the Sephardic Jewish community of Amsterdam, Spinoza received a thorough education in the tradition of medieval philosophical texts as well as in the works of Descartes, Hobbes, and other writers of the period.
A powerful, or virtuous, person acts out of understanding; thus freedom consists in being guided by the law of one's own nature, and evil is the result of inadequate understanding.
He saw the supreme ambition of the virtuous person as the "intellectual love of God." Spinoza shared with Descartes an intensely mathematical appreciation of the universe: truth, like geometry, follows from first principles, and is accessible to the logical mind.
www.trincoll.edu /depts/phil/philo/phils/spinoza.html   (289 words)

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