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Topic: Spoken language

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  Chinese spoken language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wu 吳語/吴语: spoken in the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang.
Min 閩語/闽语: spoken in Fujian, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Southeast Asia.
In addition, the Dungan language (東干語/东干语) is a language descended from Chinese spoken in Kyrgyzstan, and is akin to northwestern dialects of Mandarin.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chinese_spoken_language   (1861 words)

 Spoken language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A spoken language is a human language in which the words are uttered through the mouth.
Computer languages and sign languages are not spoken languages.
The term spoken language is often used in contrast to written language; the world's most widely spoken languages all have written forms.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Spoken_language   (89 words)

 MIT Project Oxygen: Spoken Interaction
The spoken language subsystem provides a number of limited-domain interfaces, as well as mechanisms for users to navigate effortlessly from one domain to another.
The spoken language subsystem stitches together a set of useful domains, thereby providing a virtual, broad-domain quilt that satisfies the needs of many users most of the time.
The spoken language subsystem is an integral part of Oxygen's infrastructure, not just a set of applications or external interfaces.
oxygen.lcs.mit.edu /Speech.html   (918 words)

 Spoken Language Processing and Multimodal Communication :
Spoken language communication with machines is a research topic per se, and includes speech recognition and synthesis as well as speaker or language recognition.
A similar statistical approach was also used for language modeling, using the counts of the succession of 2 or 3 words in large quantities of texts corresponding to the application task (such as large quantities of correspondence for mail dictation).
They were also imported in the field of Natural Language Processing, allowing for progress in the specific field of written language processing, as well as in the contribution of this field of research to speech understanding and generation.
www.ifp.uiuc.edu /nsfhcs/talks/mariani.html   (8148 words)

 FQS 1(3) Jens Allwood, Maria Björnberg, Leif Grönqvist, Elisabeth Ahlsén & Cajsa Ottesjö: The ...
FQS 1(3) Jens Allwood, Maria Björnberg, Leif Grönqvist, Elisabeth Ahlsén and Cajsa Ottesjö: The Spoken Language Corpus at the Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University
Presently he is heading projects concerned with the semantics of spoken language phenomena, multimodal communication, cultural variation in communication and the influence of social activity on spoken language.
The Spoken Language Corpus at the Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University [55 paragraphs].
qualitative-research.net /fqs-texte/3-00/3-00allwoodetal-e.htm   (5681 words)

 LDA- Spoken Language Problems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Problems with language development may not be recognized for a long time unless the child simply fails to begin talking.
Oral language is the basis for learning reading and written language and for benefitting from instruction in other areas.
Oral language is important for social development and effective communication, as well as being the foundation for school learning.
www.kidsource.com /LDA/spoken_language.html   (648 words)

 Spoken Language Understanding
The desire to model language understanding is often motivated by a desire to understand cognitive processes, and therefore the underlying theories tend to be from linguistics and psychology.
Telephone-based applications are particularly important, since their use in spoken language understanding systems can make access to crucial data as convenient as the nearest phone, and since voice is the natural and (except for the as yet rare video-phones) usually the only modality available.
Spoken language is still the means of communication used first and foremost by humans, and only a small percentage of human communication is written.
cslu.cse.ogi.edu /HLTsurvey/ch1node10.html   (3099 words)

 AIC Natural Language Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Multimedia/Multimodal Interfaces, including Natural Language, led by David Martin: The aim of this group is to understand the optimal ways in which natural language can be incorporated into multimedia interfaces.
Research ranges from empirical studies of how pen-voice systems are used most effectively, to the implementation of synergistic multimodal interfaces incorporating handwritten, verbal and gestural input, to multimedia communication between a user and a society of software agents arranged in a distributed Open Agent Architecture.
Spoken Language Systems, led by David Israel : This group does research on integrating linguistic processing with speech recognition, both to make speech recognition more accurate and to use the results of speech recognition in practical applications.
www.ai.sri.com /natural-language/natural-language.html   (327 words)

 ASHA: Questions & Answers about Child Language
Language is a code that we learn to use in order to communicate ideas and express our wants and needs.
Children learn language and speech by listening to the language around them and practicing what they hear.
Sometimes children are not exposed to enough language to learn the rules.
www.kidsource.com /ASHA/child_language.html   (596 words)

 KryssTal : The English Language
It is estimated that there are 300 million native speakers and 300 million who use English as a second language and a further 100 million use it as a foreign language.
Languages that have contributed words to English include Latin, Greek, French, German, Arabic, Hindi (from India), Italian, Malay, Dutch, Farsi (from Iran and Afganistan), Nahuatl (the Aztec language), Sanskrit (from ancient India), Portuguese, Spanish, Tupi (from South America) and Ewe (from Africa).
English belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, which is a large collection of languages with a common ancestor.
www.krysstal.com /english.html   (1240 words)

 KryssTal : Language Families
Languages in the same family, share many common grammatical features and many of the key words, especially older words, show their common origin.
There is no correlation between the life of a people speaking a language and the complexity or otherwise of their language.
The languages of southern India (in contrast to the Indo-European languages of northern India).
www.krysstal.com /langfams.html   (1206 words)

 Turkish Language and the Native Americans
Similarly, a proto-Altaic language spoken by the members of an Altaic community who became separated from each other, in time by thousands of years and in space by thousands of kilometres, would definitely develop independently of each other in a way that when examined at present, they would appear alien to each other.
In spite of the evolutionary forces that act upon a language and cause changes in its structure and in the pronunciation of its words, one can still recognise these two words in languages which are related to each other.
However as the language develops in time, the vowels in a word may change into other vowels such as "a" into "e", "o", "u" while consonants of the words, in general, would tend to maintain their identity in the word through time.
ireland.iol.ie /~afifi/Articles/turkic.htm   (4848 words)

 Farsi, the most widely spoken Persian Language, a Farsi Dictionary, Farsi English Dictionary, The spoken language in ...
It is the language of Iran (formerly Persia) and is also widely spoken in Afghanistan and, in an archaic form, in Tajikistan and the Pamir Mountain region.
Avestan, probably spoken in the northeast of ancient Persia, is the language of the Avesta, the sacred scriptures of Zoroastrianism.
Parthian was the language of the Arsacid or Parthian Empire (circa 250 BC-AD 226).
www.farsinet.com /farsi   (1134 words)

 Language page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Aanishnaabeg languages were originally spoken by what is known as the Three Fires Confederacy Nations and they are the: Ojibwe, Potawatomi and Odawa.
The Ogwehoweh languages are written using the English Roman Writing System with the addition of various diacritic marks to emphasize certain sounds not found in English.
These two Official languages received further protection when they were entrenched in the Constitution of Canada (1982) in sections 16 to 23 of the Canadian Constitution's Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
www.woodland-centre.on.ca /languages.html   (550 words)

 Chinese Cultural Studies: The Chinese Language and Pronunciation
There are two elements to the Chinese language: the written language, based on individual symbols called characters, each of which represents an idea or thing; and the spoken language, which includes a number of different dialects.
The written language originally had no alphabet, but it was easily understood by literate people no matter what dialect they spoke.
Mandarin, which is spoken in the Beijing region and in northern China generally, has four common tones.
acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu /~phalsall/texts/chinlng1.html   (645 words)

 Spoken Language Series Courses
Major Chinese language spoken in Southeast China, Hong Kong, Macao and by ethnic Chinese in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia and Singapore.
Spoken Language Services, Inc. proudly announces publication of Tales from Kalila wa Dimna for Students of Arabic by Munther A. Younes.
Munther Younes is Senior Lecturer in Arabic Language and Linguistics at Cornell University.
pro.spidergraphics.com /spo/spo_start.taf?_function=list&catID=72&...   (930 words)

 The Center for Spoken Language Research (CSLR)
To train tomorrow's leaders in human language technology.
She is currently directing projects for PropBanking English, Chinese and Korean, and sense tagging English and Chinese, both manually and automatically.
Several natural language processing (NLP) tools have been developed at CSLR in research projects funded by ARDA and NSF.
cslr.colorado.edu   (446 words)

 Most Widely Spoken Languages in the World
ON COURSE...SPANISH; Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the business world.
Namibia struggles to break free of its past: Afrikaans, derided as the tongue of the oppressor, is still widely spoken at the expense of 'neutral' English.(World) (The Christian Science Monitor)
General Language Performance Measures in Spoken and Written Narrative and Expository Discourse of School-Age Children With Language Learning Disabilities.
www.infoplease.com /ipa/A0775272.html   (241 words)

 Automatic Language Identification Bibliography
Barnard, "Language Identification of Six Languages Based on a Common Set of Broad Phonemes", in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 94), Yokohama, Japan, September 1994.
Trancoso, "Spoken Language Identification Using the Speechdat Corpus", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
Giguet, "Multilingual Sentence Categorisation according to Language", in Proceedings of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics SIGDAT Workshop "From text to tags: Issues in multilingual Language Analysis", Dublin, Ireland, March 1995.
speech.inesc.pt /~dcaseiro/html/bibliografia.html   (3287 words)

 South African Languages | Afrikaans
Up until the 19th century Afrikaans acted only as the spoken language and Dutch was used as the formal and written language.
The language was promoted alongside Afrikaner nationalism after 1948 and played an important role in minority white rule in Apartheid South Africa.
It is important to note that Afrikaans is spoken by all races and ethnic groups in South Africa and much has been done in recent years to promote varieties of this language that were suppressed during the years of Apartheid.
www.cyberserv.co.za /users/%7ejako/lang/afr.htm   (278 words)

 Children Follow Same Steps To Learn Vocabulary, Regardless Of Language Spoken   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Regardless of the language they are learning to speak, young children learn vocabulary in fundamentally the same way, according to a study by researchers at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health.
The researchers found that, for the seven languages studied, nouns comprise the greatest proportion of 20-month-old children's vocabularies, followed by verbs and then adjectives.
All of the children were firstborn, had been born at term and spoke only one language (the main language of the community they lived in.) The mothers filled out a standardized questionnaire designed to gauge the extent of their children's vocabularies.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2004/09/040915113243.htm   (663 words)

DON'T PLAN TO DO If after going through the language of your choice on this page, you still feel like learning more on that language, you can check the more on language page on this site, and also of course, check out the language resources listed at the bottom of this page.
In the written language, these consist of the following options, and are placed on top of the letters, usually on top of the vowels.
Here are some common phrases in the language, written (once again, since I do not know the language, I can not speak it, but if you want to send me sound samples, please send them to webdiva@motherlandnigeria.com).
www.motherlandnigeria.com /languages.html   (892 words)

 The British Academic Spoken English corpus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus is being developed at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi (Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading).
BASE will remain a record of British spoken academic discourse at the turn of this century, and may also be compared with corpora compiled in the future to investigate diachronic change in academic language use.
Sarah Creer and Paul Thompson at a Workshop on Compiling and Processing Spoken Language Corpora, 24th May 2004, LREC 2004.
www.rdg.ac.uk /AcaDepts/ll/base_corpus   (780 words)

 Amazon.com: Japanese: The Spoken Language (Part 1): Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Japanese: The Spoken Language textbook includes brief and natural core conversations, drills, and explanations of linguistic analysis and of how the language is used within Japanese society today.
They are not literate in their native language because it is not a written language.
That is, they get the "sense", the "pattern" of the language through its grammar being heard over and over again with different vocabulary in an actual context.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0300038348?v=glance   (2206 words)

 Learning Nahuatl
Ideally, one would learn any new language in an environment where that language is spoken.
In Mexico, there are strong social pressures AGAINST speaking a native language, and this has affected the degree of expression and development of the native languages spoken in various regions of the country.
Such individuals typically have invested decades to decipher native languages in order to translate and teach natives how to read the Bible in their own languages.
www.public.iastate.edu /~rjsalvad/scmfaq/nahuatl.html   (2033 words)

 Maasai Language Project
The lexicon (words) of a language express concepts central to the culture.
As socio-cultural changes occur, the language is also facing the probability of considerable change.
To help document the language and Maasai culture (both traditional and modern), we are working on cross-dialect lexicographic (dictionary) and text data bases of the Maa (Maasai) language.
www.uoregon.edu /~dlpayne/maasai/madict.htm   (415 words)

 Studying Phonetics on the Net
The Varieties of English page by The Language Samples Project at the University of Arizona has descriptions and samples of distinguishing differences for seven varieties of North American English.
The Center for Spoken Language Understanding (CSLU) at the University of Oregon also has an excellent tutorial on Spectrograph reading.
The Center for Spoken Language Understanding has put up version 2.0 of a huge Toolkit (minimum 31M) which gets Windows users into the speech synthesis and recognition game along with faces.
faculty.washington.edu /dillon/PhonResources/PhonResources.html   (3561 words)

 Improved Spoken-Language Understanding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This technology combines speech recognition (determining what sequence of words has been spoken) with natural-language understanding (determining what a given sequence of words means).
Specific goals are to improve the accuracy, robustness, generality, and speed of spoken-language understanding systems; to reduce the effort required to port to new applications; and to apply spoken-language understanding technology to real problems of military and commercial interest.
Innovative techniques include a retrieval algorithm using a statistical language model for each information segment to rank information segments in order of relevance to the query, and an algorithm for automatically determining a set of key words that discriminate well between news stories.
www.ai.sri.com /natural-language/projects/arpa-sls   (453 words)

 Quechua Language Homepage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Quechua ("qheshwa") is an indigenous language of the Andean region, spoken today by approximately 13 million people in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Northern Chile, Argentina, and Southern Colombia.
It was the official language of Tawantinsuyu, the Inca Empire.
Much as I love the Quechua language, it is not the center of my life; I spend most of my time as a robotics researcher and director of the robotic theater troupe Ullanta Performance Robotics, named of course for the lead character of the famous Quechua play, "Ollantay".
www-robotics.usc.edu /~barry/quechua   (473 words)

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