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Topic: Sputnik

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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  Sputnik 1 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coming at the height of the Cold War, the launching of Sputnik caught the West by surprise, and in the U.S. led to a wave of self-recriminations, the beginning of the space race, and a movement to reform science education.
Sputnik was the first of several satellites in the Soviet Union's Sputnik program, the majority of them successful.
The Sputnik 1 spacecraft was the first artificial satellite successfully placed in orbit around the Earth and was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam (370 km southwest of the small town of Baikonur) in Kazakhstan, then part of the Soviet Union.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sputnik_1   (964 words)

 MSN Encarta - Sputnik
The first three Sputnik satellites each carried instruments to measure the temperature and density of the earth's upper atmosphere, the electron density of the ionosphere, and the size and number of micrometeorites (tiny particles in space).
Sputniks 5, 6, 9, and 10 all carried dogs, most of which reentered the earth's atmosphere safely and were recovered.
Sputniks 7 and 8, launched in February 1961, served as launching platforms for the Venera spacecraft, which were sent toward Venus.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761569642/Sputnik.html   (561 words)

 Encyclopedia: Sputnik
Sputnik 2 was launched some months later, and carried the first living passenger, a dog named Laika.
Sputnik 5 was launched into orbit on August 19, 1960 with the dogs Belka and Strelka (Russian for "Squirrel", or more likely "Whitey" from Russian "belyj", which means "white", and "Little Arrow"), 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants on-board.
Sputnik also led to the creation of NASA and major increases in U.S. Government spending on scientific research and education.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Sputnik   (336 words)

 Sputnik2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Sputnik 2 was the whole last stage of the rocket, in which all the scientific and measuring instruments were installed.
On a special frame in the forward part of the last stage of the rocket were installed an instrument for measuring solar radiations in the ultra-violet and X-ray regions of the spectrum, a spherical container with the radio transmitters and other apparatus, and the hermetically sealed chamber in which the dog was kept.
Reports from these amateurs proved that signals from the sputniks could be reliably received by ordinary amateur receivers at ranges, in some cases, of nearly 10,000 miles.
www.zarya.info /Diaries/Sputnik/Sputnik2.htm   (541 words)

Sputnik 1, launched on Oct.4, 1957, became the first artificial satellite to successfully orbit the Earth.
The last Sputnik installment was intended to be a space laboratory for study of Earth's magnetic field and radiation belt.
The Sputnik missions all happened during the midst of the Cold War between the U.S.S.R. and the United States.
www.windows.ucar.edu /cgi-bin/tour_def/space_missions/sputnik.html   (230 words)

History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path.
While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race.
The story begins in 1952, when the International Council of Scientific Unions decided to establish July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958, as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) because the scientists knew that the cycles of solar activity would be at a high point then.
www.hq.nasa.gov /office/pao/History/sputnik   (432 words)

Sputnik was the forerunner of military weapons that could attack from space (i.e.
Sputnik was launched on Oct. 4, 1957 from Baikonur cosmodome in Kazakhstan, Russia.
Sputnik let out beeps every few seconds because it was equipped with transmitters.
www.angelfire.com /stars/lunareclipse/sputnikfinal.htm   (268 words)

Sputnik was launched 1957 October 4 to become the world's first artificial satellite.
Sputnik 2, with the dog 'Laika' aboard was not designed to return safely to Earth so the animal was destined to die in orbit.
Sputnik 3 - backup of Korolyov's satellite - launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome by Sputnik (R-7) rocket into 216 x 1863 kilometre orbit at 65.2 degrees inclination - an immediate failure of its onboard tape recorder means that data can only be gathered when the satellite is within range of a ground-based radio receiving station
www.zarya.info /Diaries/Sputnik/Index.htm   (942 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | First dog in space died within hours
The animal, launched on a one-way trip on board Sputnik 2 in November 1957, was said to have died painlessly in orbit about a week after blast-off.
Sputnik 1, the world's first satellite, had been launched less than one month before.
Despite surviving for just a few hours, Laika's place in space history is assured and the information she provided proved that a living organism could tolerate a long time in weightlessness and paved the way for humans in space.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/sci/tech/2367681.stm   (600 words)

 Experiences with the Sputnik Stereo Camera
The Sputnik is the stereo version of the famous Lubitel of which more than 3 million have been produced.
As all former Soviet cameras, the Sputnik is somewhat crude regarding design as well as manufacturing quality (see also my page about quality aspects of Russian and Ukrainian cameras).
Michel Spruijt has replaced the frontparts of his Sputnik with frontparts of the Lubitel 166 (see the result) so that he can now use 40.5 mm screw-in filters and lens shades.
www.pauck.de /marco/photo/stereo/sputnik/sputnik.html   (1488 words)

 Sputnik started space race, anxiety   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Sputnik, which took its name from the Russian word for “fellow traveler,” went into a 98-minute orbit around Earth — and the Soviets exulted in their success.
Sputnik fell off the active list long ago, but there are 8,600 other human-made objects currently being tracked by the Colorado-based military command.
One of the ironies of the Sputnik phenomenon is that America’s paranoia about its technological gap led to a “first renaissance” in science education, says Bill Colglazier of the National Academy of Sciences.
www.msnbc.com /news/114664.asp   (1449 words)

 Sputnik: Launch plus 40
Sputnik I replica at the National Air and Space Museum.
(Sputnik 1 is long dead, but we found it in a long list of satellites.
Sputnik orbited the Earth every 96.1 minutes, at a height of 227 to 945 kilometers, and incinerated upon entering Earth's atmosphere Jan. 3, 1958.
whyfiles.org /047sputnik/main1.html   (489 words)

 SPACE.com -- The True Story of Laika the Dog
Sputnik 1, a 40-pound sphere, carried a simple transmitter and was considered very heavy compared to the U.S. spacecraft under development at the time.
With Sputnik 2, the Cold War politics left no time for designers to develop a life-support system for a long-duration flight, not to mention to protect a spacecraft for a fiery reentry.
In the West, Sputnik 2 renewed the debate over the treatment of animals, while in the U.S.S.R., the flight was widely ridiculed by ordinary citizens as propaganda.
www.space.com /news/laika_anniversary_991103.html   (815 words)

 Sputnik Launch Shocks World, American Disbelief
Sputnik, meaning 'fellow traveller of the Earth' was blasted into orbit from the Baikonur space centre in Kazakhstan aboard an R-7 rocket and is currently orbiting our planet every 92 minutes.
Sputnik, on the other hand weighs in at a bulky 180 pounds.
Sputnik, scientists, and Eisenhower: A memoir of the first special assistant to the President for science and technology
www.dailypast.com /europe/sputnik.shtml   (742 words)

 Sputnik 40   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This didn't quite happen; Sputnik 40 was ferried up to Mir on a Progress flight on 9 October 1997, and cosmonauts Anatoly Solovyov and Pavel Vinogradov finally tossed it out the airlock on 3 November 1997.
Sputnik 40 was a joint effort, with the spaceframe built in Russia, carrying French-made electronics.
Sputnik 40 carried a VHF beacon transmitter, which was last heard in late-December 1997.
mypage.direct.ca /v/ve7ldh/sputnik40.html   (168 words)

 Sputnik and the Origins of the Space Age
The inner turmoil that Hagen felt on "Sputnik Night," as 4-5 October has come to be called, reverberated through the American public in the days that followed.
Sputnik 1, launched on 4 October 1957 from the Soviet Union's rocket testing facility in the desert near Tyuratam in the Kazakh Republic, proved a decidedly unspectacular satellite that probably should not have elicited the horrific reaction it wrought.
The Sputnik crisis reinforced for many people the popular conception that Eisenhower was a smiling incompetent; it was another instance of a "do-nothing," golf-playing president mismanaging events.
www.hq.nasa.gov /office/pao/History/sputnik/sputorig.html   (2983 words)

 Spaceflight :Sputnik and the Crisis That Followed
About 100 minutes later, the 184-pound (93-kilogram) Sputnik (translated as “satellite” or “traveling companion of the Earth”), trailing four metal antennas, passed through the skies over the launch site confirming that a human-made moon was now orbiting the Earth.
Sputnik was launched as part of the United Nations-sponsored International Geophysical Year (IGY), a collaboration by 67 nations to explore the unknowns of the physical world that actually 18 months, from July 1, 1957 to December 31, 1958.
The shock of Sputnik was also largely responsible for the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958 to conduct the United States' civilian space efforts.
www.centennialofflight.gov /essay/SPACEFLIGHT/Sputnik/SP16.htm   (1289 words)

 SpaceViews November 1997: Articles
The launching of Sputnik on the night of October 4, 1957 was virtually a total success.
The now-inert Sputnik 2 and the spent core of the R-7 launch vehicle remained in Earth orbit for a total of 162 days with reentry coming on April 14, 1958.
While the historic flight of Sputnik 2 was not a total success, it did prove that extended periods of weightlessness were survivable and thus opened the way for the human exploration of space.
www.seds.org /spaceviews/9711/articles2.html   (2007 words)

 "1998" The International Year of Air and Space   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Sputnik 41 is a joint project of Aéro-club de France, the Russian Aeronautical Federation and AMSAT-France.
SPUTNIK 40 was launched on November 4th, 1997 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the first earth artificial satellite.
SPUTNIK 40 was released in space from MIR space station by cosmonaut Pavel Vinogradov during an extra vehicular walk.
www.ccr.jussieu.fr /physio/Satedu/sputnik41.html   (714 words)

 St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture: Sputnik
A 22-inch, 184-pound, beeping sphere, Sputnik ("Fellow Traveler") marked the beginning of a new chapter in the Cold War, where national prestige would be measured by a race in space.
Before Sputnik, there was a widespread belief by Americans that the Soviets were far behind the United States in such areas, relying on espionage rather than originality.
Sputniks 5 through 10 (four of which carried dogs) were launched 1960-61; these were working models of the spacecraft that carried Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin, the first human passenger,; into space in 1961.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419101141   (914 words)

 The Sputnik resource for the annotation of clustered plant ESTs
Sputnik is now hosted by Stephen Rudd at the Center for Biotechnology, Turku, Finland.
Sputnik is a pipeline that has been implemented to extract the essence firstly from within discrete EST collections, and secondly to compare the features between the EST collections.
The data is assembled into a relational database schema, and an object inheritance is implemented so that a peptide sequence will derive the annotative attributes of the underlying cluster assembly sequence and the EST sequences contained within.
mips.gsf.de /proj/sputnik   (207 words)

 Sigue Sigue Sputnik - The Regeneration of Rock And Roll
Sputnik made music to soundtrack their image and their masterplan, thrusting thieving hands into the pot of rock n roll history and emerging with a sound that mixed punk with glam, 50s rock rebellion with new wave futurism.
Degville's orgasmic yelps and sighs, coupled with the relentless electronic throb conjured up by James' bass and all backed with the divine sound of two drummers: all this added up to a sharp and sexy parent-offending glam racket, one that truly did represent the 5th generation of rock and roll.
Then, like a dying super-nova, Sigue Sigue Sputnik were gone, forgotten by most as the second summer of love and acid house took over.
web.ukonline.co.uk /keith.dumble/hopper/sputnik1.html   (745 words)

 SPACE.com -- Sputnik 1: The Satellite That Started It All   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Sputnik came as a surprise to most Americans - but it should not have, observes John Logsdon, Director, of the Space Policy Institute, Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University in Washington, D.C. "Our movies and television programs in the fifties were full of the idea of going into space.
When Sputnik 1 went up, it was a night in America when "Leave It to Beaver" premiered on television, Dickson said.
Sputnik 1 was soon to be followed by Sputnik II, a far-heavier satellite that carried a passenger - the dog Laika.
www.space.com /missionlaunches/sputnik_45th_anniversary_021004.html   (1277 words)

 Flak Magazine: Review of Sputnik Sweetheart, 05-18-01
"Sputnik Sweetheart," Murakami's seventh translated novel, is reminiscent of a number of his earlier works in its use of the narrative techniques of detective novels to introduce meditations on themes of identity and the place of the individual in Japanese society.
The theme of isolation and the impossibility of love is a typical one in Murakami's previous work — his characters exist within a loveless, unfeeling world, bounded by monolithic social structures preventing them from making nourishing human contact (a theme seen even in his recent nonfiction effort, "Underground").
The narrator in "Sputnik Sweetheart" is a recurring character type in Murakami's work, possessing a strong internal voice but no social identity.
www.flakmag.com /books/sputnik.html   (510 words)

 Sputnik Products
Sputnik Control Center, running in your data center, enables you to monitor and control your wireless network from any web browser.
Sputnik Modules add optional business functions, such as the ability to use pre-paid cards, accept credit cards or PayPal payments for wireless Internet service, or integrate with RADIUS servers.
The Sputnik AP 160™ is an affordable 802.11g wireless access point with a built-in 4-port router and external antenna capability.
www.sputnik.com /products/scg.html   (1198 words)

 Read Reviews of Sputnik: The Shock of The Century   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
"Sputnik is an insightful look at the way Sputnik changed the world, especially the United States-boosting its education and research.
The Soviet Sputnik was, as the book's subtitle says, "The Shock of the Century," with an impact 44 years ago something like that of Pearl Harbor.
Sputnik, after all, went at the peak of the Cold War.
sputnikbook.com /reviews.php   (1321 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: The Sputnik Challenge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the world's first artificial satellite, on October 4, 1957, many Americans believed that this epochal Cold War event signaled dangerous weaknesses in American science, the failure of American schools and complacency in American political leadership.
The principal focus of this succinct, clear-sighted study is President Dwight Eisenhower's moderate, balanced response to the Sputnik crisis.
"The Sputnik Challenge" is one of several very fine works published since 1990 that have reinterpreted the history of the first years of the space age.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0195050088?v=glance   (1246 words)

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