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Topic: Sputnik crisis

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In the News (Sat 17 Aug 19)

  Sputnik program - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3, 1957 and carried the first living passenger, a dog named Laika.
Sputnik 5 was launched into orbit on August 19, 1960 with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants on-board.
Sputnik 40 (Object Object 24958/97058C) was a 1/3 scale model Amateur Radio AMSAT satellite launched from the MIR space station on 3 November 1997 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Sputnik 1.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sputnik   (445 words)

 Sputnik 1 Encyclopedia Article, Information, History and Biography @ LaunchBase.net   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Coming at the height of the Cold War, the launching of Sputnik caught the West by surprise, and in the U.S. led to a wave of self-recriminations, the beginning of the space race, and a movement to reform science education.
Sputnik 1 spacecraft was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam (370 km southwest of the small town of Baikonur) in Kazakhstan, then part of the Soviet Union.
Sputnik crisis - The crisis in the US that this surprise launch of the world's first artificial satellite led to.
www.launchbase.net /encyclopedia/Sputnik_1   (1046 words)

 WalkerBooks.com - Books
Sputnik, all of 184 pounds with only a radio transmitter inside its highly polished shell, became the first man-made object in space; while it immediately shocked the world, its long-term impact was even greater, for it profoundly changed the shape of the twentieth century.
Sputnik owed its success to many people, from the earlier visionary, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, whose theories were ahead of their time, to the Soviet spokesmen strategically positioned around the world on the day the satellite was launched, who created one of the greatest public-relations events of all time.
Sputnik directly or indirectly influenced nearly every aspect of American life, from the demise of the suddenly superfluous tail fin and an immediate shift towards science in the classroom to the arms race that defined the cold war, the competition to reach the Moon, and the birth of the Internet.
www.walkerbooks.com /books/catalog.php?key=169   (517 words)

 Sputnik and the Origins of the Space Age
Sputnik 1, launched on 4 October 1957 from the Soviet Union's rocket testing facility in the desert near Tyuratam in the Kazakh Republic, proved a decidedly unspectacular satellite that probably should not have elicited the horrific reaction it wrought.
The Sputnik crisis reinforced for many people the popular conception that Eisenhower was a smiling incompetent; it was another instance of a "do-nothing," golf-playing president mismanaging events.
In this crisis the Army, featuring the handsome and charismatic Wernher von Braun and his rocket team of German immigrants to the United States after World War II, dusted off an unapproved plan for the IGY satellite effort, Project Explorer, and flew it within an amazingly short period of time.
www.hq.nasa.gov /office/pao/History/sputnik/sputorig.html   (2983 words)

 Encyclopedia article on Sputnik program [EncycloZine]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957.
Sputnik 2 was launched some months later, and carried the first living passenger, a dog named Laika.
Sputnik 5 was launched into orbit on August 19, 1960 with the dogs Belka and Strelka (Russian for "Squirrel", or more likely "Whitey" from Russian "belyj", which means "white", and "Little Arrow"), 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants on-board.
encyclozine.com /Sputnik   (357 words)

 Spaceflight :Sputnik and the Crisis That Followed
About 100 minutes later, the 184-pound (93-kilogram) Sputnik (translated as “satellite” or “traveling companion of the Earth”), trailing four metal antennas, passed through the skies over the launch site confirming that a human-made moon was now orbiting the Earth.
Sputnik was launched as part of the United Nations-sponsored International Geophysical Year (IGY), a collaboration by 67 nations to explore the unknowns of the physical world that actually 18 months, from July 1, 1957 to December 31, 1958.
The shock of Sputnik was also largely responsible for the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958 to conduct the United States' civilian space efforts.
www.centennialofflight.gov /essay/SPACEFLIGHT/Sputnik/SP16.htm   (1289 words)

 American Reactions to Crisis: Examples of Pre-Sputnik and Post-Sputnik Attitudes and of the Reaction to other Events ...
This response was similar to that of a large segment of the public at large, but the meaning for either group was unclear in the light of their ignorance about scientific and engineering matters vis-a-vis missile development.
Knowledge about earth satellites in general did not increase significantly after the first Russian sputnik, in spite of the large amount of scientific information published in popular form; and the news media regularly confused science with engineering.
Interpretations of the sputnikĀ¹s significance likewise show that public concern was not great.
www.hq.nasa.gov /office/pao/History/sputnik/oct58.html   (1507 words)

 Sputnik crisis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite.
Within 2 days, calculation of the Sputnik Orbit (joint work by UIUC Astronomy Dept. and Digital Computer Lab.)
By February 1958, the political and defense communities had recognized the need for a high-level Department of Defense organization to execute RandD projects and created the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which later became the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DARPA.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sputnik_crisis   (361 words)

 Reflecting on Sputnik - Rutherford 1
The military and the politicians received the blame for Pearl Harbor, not educators; in the Sputnik instance, the finger of blame quickly and sternly pointed at the schools.
The point of this brief—and altogether inadequate—commentary is merely to emphasize that the Sputnik episode as it bears on science education cannot be understood well in isolation from the educational context in which it is embedded.
The same could have been said (but was not, for lack of time) in regard to the science context, for the growing importance of science and its applications (especially the changing relationship between science and government) has brought the question of the place of science in the schools to the forefront.
www.nas.edu /sputnik/ruther1.htm   (882 words)

 Space Race - Psychology Central   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
This reaction is nowadays known as the Sputnik crisis.
Sputnik helped to determine the density of the upper atmosphere and Explorer I flight data led to discovery by James Van Allen of the Van Allen radiation belt.
Some observers have argued that the high economic cost of the space race, along with the extremely expensive arms race, eventually deepened the economic crisis of the Soviet system during the late 1970's and 80's and was one of the factors that led to the collapse of the Soviet Union.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Space_race   (5189 words)

 Project Apollo Annotated Bibliography
This is an important discussion of early efforts to develop civil space policy in the aftermath of the Sputnik crisis of 1957.
This is a short and rather simplistic account by a journalist of the major points of the international rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union on the use of space for prestige purposes.
It discusses in elementary fashion the Sputnik crisis and the Gagarin 1961 orbital mission before describing the Kennedy decision to enter the Moon race and NASA's early efforts to accomplish it through Project Apollo.
www.apolloexplorer.co.uk /books/apollobib/ch2.html   (3105 words)

 Origins of Federal Control Over Education   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The usual explanation of the NDEA is that it was a logical, necessary, and perhaps inevitable reaction to the Soviet Union's successful launching of Sputnik I (the first earth-orbiting satellite) on October 4, 1957, followed shortly thereafter by a dog-carrying Sputnik II.
But the crisis was a sham, sold to the American public by politicians who knew it was a sham.
With the NDEA, the bill's ostensible justification was the "Sputnik crisis"; with the ESEA, it was the "war on poverty." But those fanning public apprehension about the Sputnik crisis did not believe it was a crisis, just as those promoting the ESEA as an antipoverty measure understood that it would disproportionately benefit the wealthy.
www.libertyhaven.com /politicsandcurrentevents/educationhomeschoolingorchildren/originsfederal.shtml   (2286 words)

 Step on the moon   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
October 1, 1958 the official start of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was the begining of the great history of unique scientific and technological achievement in human space flight.
crisis because on October 4, 1957 Russians launched the first artificial Satellite from Balkonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan which demonstrated the technological superiority of Communism.
They equipped the Sputnik with transmitters to broadcast on frequencies at 20 and 40 Mhz so everyone will know it's up there.
www.thaitechnics.com /lunar/stepon.html   (293 words)

 Core Knowledge - Lesson Plans
Sputnik's beeps were coded messages of the observations it was making as it sailed through the skies.
Sputnik circled the globe every 96.2 minutes and, because of the earth's rotation ranged over every continent and nearly all inhabited areas.
Sputnik's electronic beep could be heard coming from their radios and television sets.
www.coreknowledge.org /CK/resrcs/lessons/898AdaptKennedy.htm   (6079 words)

 Amazon.com: The Sputnik Challenge: Books: Robert A. Divine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the world's first artificial satellite, on October 4, 1957, many Americans believed that this epochal Cold War event signaled dangerous weaknesses in American science, the failure of American schools and complacency in American political leadership.
The principal focus of this succinct, clear-sighted study is President Dwight Eisenhower's moderate, balanced response to the Sputnik crisis.
At the same time, Ike's leadership in the crisis winter of 1957-1958 yielded some of the most sweeping governmental reorganizations and new programs to be undertaken at the federal level since the New Deal.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0195050088?v=glance   (1359 words)

The logical beginning is the launching of the Soviet Sputnik in 1957; the ending comes with the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963.
The time between Sputnik's launch in October 1957 and the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962, after all, was a mere five years, hardly sufficiently lengthy to be awarded the status of a distinctive era.
For many scholars, the Cuban crisis marks the denouement to a Cold War that began in 1945 or 1946, which lapsed into wary detente, at least insofar as the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. were concerned, only after the two rivals had pulled back from the brink of nuclear catastrophe.
www.clas.ufl.edu /users/rzieger/coldwar813.htm   (8055 words)

 Eisenhower Memorial Commission
After the Soviet Union placed a 184-pound satellite – the famous Sputnik -- 550 miles high in earth orbit, Ike simply congratulated the USSR on its achievement.
He repeatedly stated that the launching of Sputnik did not increase his concern about our national security “by one iota.” As the harmless little satellite passed over American territory, President Eisenhower calmly endured the public clamor that challenged his leadership.
But as it circled the earth and passed over the Soviet Union, Moscow could hardly object since Sputnik had passed over Washington hundreds of times — with Eisenhower’s public blessing.
www.eisenhowermemorial.org /stories/sputnik-crisis.htm   (974 words)

 2nd Term Bibliography: Secondary Sources Cited - The Presidential Papers - The Eisenhower Memorial Commission
Brainpower for the Cold War: The Sputnik Crisis and National Defense Education Act of 1958.
Sputnik, Scientists, and Eisenhower: A Memoir of the First Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology.
Kingseed, Cole C. Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis of 1956.
www.eisenhowermemorial.org /presidential-papers/second-term/bibliography-secondary.htm   (4838 words)

 Sputnik program - TheBestLinks.com - August 19, Dog, February 3, Laika, ...
Sputnik program - TheBestLinks.com - August 19, Dog, February 3, Laika,...
Sputnik, Sputnik program, August 19, Dog, February 3, Laika, May 15, NASA...
The surprise launch of Sputnik 1, coupled with the spectacular failure of the first two Project Vanguard launch attempts, shocked the United States, which responded with a number of early satellite launches including Explorer I, Project SCORE, and Courier 1B.
www.thebestlinks.com /Sputnik.html   (355 words)

 sputnik consequences - Books, journals, articles @ The Questia Online Library
When Sputnik I, the Soviet Unions first satellite...generated by Senator Joseph McCarthy, Sputnik, the Suez Canal crisis, and the whole...THE ECONOMIC SITUATION The economic consequences of Johnsons desire to protect his Great...
Sputnik I, launched on 4 October 1957 was the...which coincided with the launching of Sputnik I, continues the theme, while assessing...
Only since Sputnik has concern for academic achievement eclipsed the focus on...and the most important in terms of intensity of exposure and consequences for later success.
www.questia.com /search/sputnik-consequences   (1386 words)

 Complex Systems and Education Meeting   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Steve Small pointed out that there is a new initiative, responding to the recent alarming study on medical safety, to introduce systems thinking to doctors and the medical profession.
At this point there is no parallel disaster report in public education, (although there have been generic calls for action in the past - Sputnik, Crisis-reports of the early 80's, and the more recent Goals 2K stuff based in international comparisons.
The latest has transmogrified into the accountability/high stakes testing wave that may, in fact, lead to the next big disaster and point of departure.
www.comdig.org /print_article.php?id_article=720   (319 words)

 The Library - NASA & Other Space Agencies
Formed on October 1, 1958 as a result of the Sputnik crisis of confidence, NASA inherited the earlier National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), and other government organizations, and almost immediately began working on options for human space flight.
With Energia's launch of the Sputnik satellite on October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union stunned the world, started the Space Age, and ignited the "space race" with the United States.
Almost all the early space "firsts" were made by the Soviets, including the first intercontinental missile, first satellite, first robotic spacecraft to the Moon, first man in space, first woman in space, and the first spacewalk.
www.lunaroutpost.com /library/nasa.htm   (580 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Program Evaluation and Review Technique
The Program Evaluation and Review Technique commonly abbreviated PERT is a model for project management invented by United States Department of Defense's US Navy Special Projects Office in 1958 as part of the Polaris mobile submarine launched ballistic missile project.
This project was a direct response to the Sputnik crisis.
PERT is basically a method for analyzing the tasks involved in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task, and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Program_Evaluation_and_Review_Technique   (197 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Although much impressive scholarship touches on this distinctive period, historians have not acknowledged the distinctive contours of the perceived crisis in national interests and national values that transfixed men as diverse in outlook and perspective as Walter Lippmann, John and Robert Kennedy, James Bryant Conant, Nelson Rockefeller, and the Reverend Billy Graham.
Indeed, examination of the domestic reverberations of perceived diplomatic crisis during this period are few.
The widespread sense of the Communist-created crisis that characterized the post-Sputnik years thus contrasted sharply with the post-World War II version.
www.clas.ufl.edu /users/rzieger/cw106.htm   (8243 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Biotechnology: Science, Engineering, and Ethical Challenges for the 21st Century (1996)
The infusion of funds into universities by the NSF focused the attention of the university science community on basic research and, indirectly, pulled academia away from industry collaborations.
The initial funding of basic research at universities by NSF was modest, but with the launching of the Soviet satellite, Sputnik, in 1957, Congress became intensely concerned about the capability of the American research establishment.
One year after Sputnik, NSF's basic research appropriation was increased threefold to $137 million.
www.nap.edu /books/0309052823/html/137.html   (662 words)

 Moon Deep Background: Bibliography
On the impact of Sputnik, the papers presented at a conference dedicated to its 40
Two good insiders view on Sputnik's impact on the upper reaches of the U.S. Government are: James Killian, Jr.
Sputnik, Scientists, and Eisenhower (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982); George B. Kistiakowsky, A Scientist at the White House (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976).
www.pbs.org /redfiles/moon/deep/moon_deep_biblio.htm   (1462 words)

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