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Topic: Square waves


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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  
  Square wave - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
Square waves are universally encountered in digital switching circuits and are naturally generated by binary (two-level) logic devices.
The ratio of the high period to the total period of a square wave is called the duty cycle.
The average level of a square wave is also given by the duty cycle, so by varying the on and off periods and then averaging, it is possible to represent any value between the two limiting levels.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Square_wave   (860 words)

  
 Square Wave Signals - Mixed Frequency AC Signals
However, if a square wave is actually an infinite series of sine wave harmonics added together, it stands to reason that we should be able to prove this by adding together several sine wave harmonics to produce a close approximation of a square wave.
When a square wave AC voltage is applied to a circuit with reactive components (capacitors and inductors), those components react as if they were being exposed to several sine wave voltages of different frequencies, which in fact they are.
Square waves are equivalent to a sine wave at the same (fundamental) frequency added to an infinite series of odd-multiple sine-wave harmonics at decreasing amplitudes.
www.opamp-electronics.com /tutorials/square_wave_signals_2_07_02.htm   (2035 words)

  
 Rife Results Using Voltage Square Waves
Applying a voltage square wave (see Figure 1) to the bare skin using two electrodes (see Figure 2) means one electrode is at a relative positive voltage and the other is at a relative negative voltage and periodically the two electrodes switch polarity back and forth.
This reorganization process generates charge density waves of the various ion types present and these charge density waves travel away from the skin surface into the body.(1) A charge density wave is a moving ion concentration excess or depletion of an ion type.
These charge density waves are effectively traveling excess net charge and therefore have an electric field which interacts with charged structures such as the dipole charge layers on all of your body cell membranes.
educate-yourself.org /gw/gwrifevoltagesqwaves14nov00.shtml   (711 words)

  
 Heathkit Virtual Museum | AG-10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The square wave output impedance is 50 ohms at all settings (except in 10 volt range).
In making stage-gain measurements, the sine wave output can be connected to the input of a stage to me measured, and the square wave output connected to the external sync terminal of an oscilloscope.
On the extreme left and right under the square wave and sine wave drawn on the panel are the controls and output terminals for the square wave and sine wave outputs.
www.heathkit-museum.com /test/hvmag-10.shtml   (665 words)

  
 SQUARE WAVES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Square waves have an interesting mix of practice and theory.
And this is the expression for the residues of the square wave.
The square wave input, x(t), is applied to the RC network and the output, y(t) is measured across the capacitor.
www.dattalo.com /technical/theory/sqwave.html   (3683 words)

  
 HeadRoom Corporation Web | Product Measurements   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
In other words a 100 Hz square wave is a 100 Hz sine wave, plus a 300 Hz sine wave at 1/3 the fundamental's amplitude, plus a 500 Hz sine wave at 1/5 the amplitude of the fundamental, and so on to infinity, all in phase at the zero crossing of the fundamental.
The second square wave shows the opposite condition where the frequency response is tilted downward and the loss of high frequencies is similarly obvious.
Now at the same time, we'd like you to look at how linear the top of the square wave is: what we see as a generality is that as a headphone is able to compress air for long periods of time, it also tends to have the flat of the wave bow upward.
www.headphone.com /headphonegeek/theinterpretationofheadphonesquarewaveresponse.php   (1865 words)

  
 Notes on Modulation Techniques   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The square wave is built from many harmonics or sine waves at higher frequencies.
It becomes difficult to send square waves through a bandwidth limited channel, such as a phone line, because the higher frequencies are filtered out.
The blue wave represents the base or carrier wave and the red wave represents the signal that would be sent to transmit the specified bit pattern.
williams.comp.ncat.edu /Networks/modulate.htm   (890 words)

  
 Signal generators   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The square wave output impedance is 50 ohms at all settings (except in 10 volt range).
In making stage-gain measurements, the sine wave output can be connected to the input of a stage to me measured, and the square wave output connected to the external sync terminal of an oscilloscope.
On the extreme left and right under the square wave and sine wave drawn on the panel are the controls and output terminals for the square wave and sine wave outputs.
chem.ch.huji.ac.il /~eugeniik/instruments/test/signal_generators.htm   (528 words)

  
 Atrevida Tutorial 21: Introduction to Sound Waves
Sound waves are rather similar to waves in the ocean: the water molecules don't move along with the wave.
Square waves are easy for the computer to generate -- it just has to push the speaker cone out, wait for a while (a tiny fraction of a section, though), pull the speaker cone in, wait for the same duration of time, then push the speaker cone out, and so on.
When someone refers to the "amplitude of a wave", they normally mean the difference between the highest amplitudes (the peaks) on the graph and the lowest amplitudes (the valleys) on the graph.
atrevida.comprenica.com /atrtut21.html   (2050 words)

  
 Chronogram - Grand Square Dancing - Jul 2006   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Squares are 90-degree astrological aspects that, depending on who you ask, are associated with challenges, associated with character building, or are a colossal pain in the ass.
Marc Edmund Jones described the square as the sense of a "last chance," but as this aspect is in the first-quarter (waxing) phase, I would say it represents a very large opportunity.
And all in Saturnian square or opposition aspects (4th harmonic, in 90-degree increments).The setup covers Leo, Scorpio, and Aquarius (though there are important minor planets in Taurus, such as newly discovered Sedna, which is square Neptune).
www.chronogram.com /issue/2006/07/planetwaves/index.php   (1013 words)

  
 A Sine Wave to Square Wave Converter for Rife/Bare Systems
The sine wave signal is then sent through a conversion process which converts the sine wave to a clean, symmetrical square wave.
The sine wave signal played from the CD or MP3 file must then be sent through a processing circuit which will convert the sine wave to a clean, symmetrical square wave for use with the Rife/Bare system.
The incoming sine wave audio input signal is fed into the non-inverting input of the LM324 Op-Amp through a high pass filter composed of a 270 ohm resistor, a 220 uf capacitor and a 680 ohm resistor.
w5jgv.com /rife/wavshap2/wavshap2.htm   (2202 words)

  
 Signals
value is the square root of the mean, or average, of the square of the voltages during a complete cycle of the a.c.
Although the square wave may change very rapidly from its minimum to maximum voltage, this change cannot be instantaneous.
In a triangular wave, the rate of voltage change is equal during the two parts of the cycle, while in a sawtooth wave, the rates of change are unequal.
www.broadeducation.com /htmlDemos/AbsorbElect/Signals/page.htm   (3352 words)

  
 Rife and Ultrasound   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
One was a sine or square wave oscillator which supplied the driving voltage and current to a gas filled tube.
The second oscillator was of a lower frequency and was probably a square wave oscillator used to turn on and off (modulate) the higher frequency being supplied to the X-ray tube.
I = (P)2 / (2D V) ; where I is intensity in watts / meter squared, P is the maximum pressure in Newton / meter squared, D is the density of the medium in kilograms / meter cubed, and V is the velocity of sound in meters / second in the medium.
home.earthlink.net /~vibrnthealth/Misc/GaryWadeArticle1.htm   (3743 words)

  
 diyAudio Forums Archive - Sine and square waves percieved pitch, why?
When you have a square wave at low frequency, there is time for the system (ear brain-air) to re-stabilize at the either positive DC point or the negative one.
A square wave is a sine wave plus a series of harmonics (a perfect square wave would have an inifinite series.) Below 200Hz the ear perceives the first harmonic present in the square wave as being louder than the fundamental of the square wave.
I suggest the single wideband driver because the presence of crossovers smearing a square wave might have some effect on the perceived transition frequency, and that would be interesting to note because the total energy in each harmonic would not be changed by the crossover.
www.diyaudio.com /forums/showthread/t-52862.html   (3796 words)

  
 Square waves resolve better?
Right - for example, square waves are not differentiable functions, and thus can't be solutions, as functions, to the (differential) wave equation.
But, square waves are perfectly valid weak solutions to the differential wave equation, and, as Patricks says, it is along these lines that physiscists often think.
To generate a square wave you must sum ALL of the odd harmonics (of appropriate amplitude) of the desired fundamental frequency.
www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?t=114356   (1008 words)

  
 Square waaves for A/s - Transparent Community Forum
Square wave photic stimulation tends to produce harmonics in the brain.
Basically this means that if you stimulate 10 hz square waves with LED glasses, it may also stimulate 20,30,40.
Sine waves are pure, and pure waves don't produce harmonics.
www.transparentcorp.com /community/forum/index.php?act=findpost&pid=9987   (866 words)

  
 ENSONIQ SQ-80 Waves
The "Cross wave" part comes from the philosophy of adding an attack sound (a pluck for example) to the sustain part of a sound that originally didn't go with the attack.
There is nothing to keep you from using any wave for the attack, and with the "sync" feature on OSC2 you can even use the attack waves in the sustain portion of the sound.
Waves in this section are generally used for Sustain and have been "selected for maximum usability".
www.dulcimoo.com /SQ80/waves.html   (1371 words)

  
 squaresaw.html
The sound waves from a clarinet are Square waves.
Listen again to the Square wave sound on the screen at the start of lesson 4.
So, a Square wave is composed of only odd-numbered harmonics with amplitudes in the ratio 1/n (f, 3f, 5f, 7f...
www.teachnet.ie /amhiggins/squaresaw.html   (311 words)

  
 Oscillators
It is possible to generate square waves, saw tooth waves and triangular waves with electronic circuits.
A square wave can be implemented by using amplitudes of 1/f on the odd harmonics only and amplitudes of zero for the even harmonics.
This is due to the bumps that occur at the corners of the square wave.
www.csounds.com /ezine/spring1999/beginner/index.html   (1326 words)

  
 Self-powered Sine to Square wave Converter - RED - Page17   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
This circuit is intended to provide good square waves converting a sine wave picked-up from an existing generator.
Output square wave amplitude is proportional to input amplitude.
Output square wave amplitude with 1V RMS input: 3V peak to peak, with R2 set at max.
www.redcircuits.com /Page17.htm   (248 words)

  
 ELECTROMAGNETISM EXPERIMENTS
They connect a signal generator producing square waves to an interface and the PC displays the component waves they have just superimposed.
Path lengths are measured and the wavelength of the waves is calculated.
The source moves slower than the waves and the students discover the frequency difference between the waves ahead and the waves behind the source and develop the formula to calculate the frequency ahead and behind the source.
www.hsphys.com /waves_and_sound.html   (893 words)

  
 The Wavelet Digest :: View topic - Preprint: Two Papers on Easily-generated Function Analysis
This paper concerns square wave analysis, which is in no small part a
square waves and the fundamental theory of square wave analysis.
triangular waves and the fundamental theory of triangular wave
www.wavelet.org /phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=3939   (429 words)

  
 Uninterruptible Power Supplies: Waveform
The square wave then switches on in a series of steps that not only approximates the peak-to-average ratio of sine waves, but even approaches the sine-wave shape.
The stepped square waves not only minimize overheating, but because each step is less abrupt, also reduce the noise and spikes generated in reactive circuitry.
True square waves are apt to cause linear power supplies to overheat, but the problem arises only after long periods of operation.
www.extremetech.com /article2/0,1697,1155204,00.asp   (1316 words)

  
 Building an Analog Computer
The integrator held the proper waveform longer when a square wave was the input and the shortest when a sine wave was an input.
The DC offset on the function generator had to be tweaked for each different wave that we used as input to the circuit in order to achieve a stable output.
When triangle waves and sine waves are put into the circuit, this inability to match the input shows up in a phase shift.
www.owlnet.rice.edu /~elec301/Projects99/anlgcomp   (1750 words)

  
 Square Wave Generator - Oscillator - Electronic Circuit Projects
Any square-wave-conversion circuit is more valuable when the square wave's duty cycle is variable and controllable.
We had a plating facility that required square waves to drive the high-voltage plating operation.
The challenge was that the square wave's pulse width had to be variable, along with the duty cycle.
www.hobbyprojects.com /S/Square_Wave_Generators.html   (241 words)

  
 Self-powered Sine to Square wave Converter
This circuit is intended to provide good square waves converting a sine wave picked-up from an existing generator.
Output square wave amplitude is proportional to input amplitude.
Output square wave amplitude with 1V RMS input: 3V peak to peak, with R2 set at max.
www.electronics-lab.com /projects/oscillators_timers/003   (251 words)

  
 DTMF - Decoding
One between the digitized input signal and a square at the detection frequency, the other between the digitized input signal and a square wave shifted 90 degrees with respect to the first square wave.
The DC component in this case is one-half of the amplitude of the square wave.
A square wave is hardly equivalent to a sine wave.
www.dattalo.com /technical/theory/dtmf.html   (1697 words)

  
 No. 12 Pepperdine Opens Three-Game Series at San Diego State Friday Night :: Waves, Aztecs Square off at 6 P.M. on ...
Since the WCC was re-instituted for baseball prior to the 1985 season, the Waves have either won or shared 12 of the last 21 league championships.
The Waves have advanced to the NCAA Championships on 22 occasions, and Pepperdine has participated at the College World Series twice--finishing third in 1979 and winning the national title in 1992.
The Waves were 9-12 in the inaugural season of 1973 and since then has produced 31 winning seasons in the last 33 years, including a 19-9 record in 2005.
www.cstv.com /sports/m-basebl/stories/030206acu.html   (3403 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
To have the surface waves entirely within the seismogram frame, the magnification must be lowered to the point that most of the seismogram (including "smaller" earthquakes) are straight lines.
Roots generally run from the 1.1th root to the 2.0th root (square root) and rarely from the 2.1th root to the 3.0th root (cube root).
This is done with signed power expansion in which the deflection of the trace is raised to a power (for example the power 2.0 is the same as squaring the trace deflection and then restoring the positive or negative sign).
www.okgeosurvey1.gov /seis/signed.root.html   (632 words)

  
 Sweetwater inSync
A waveform shape does not have to be a perfect geometric square to be considered a square wave, but in general they do approximate the shape.
Square waves are used in all kinds of digital equipment because they are ideal for representing the ones and zeros of digital.
In audio, square waves have a very specific type of harmonic structure and thus a very distinctive sound to them.
www.sweetwater.com /insync/word/squarewave   (252 words)

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