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Topic: Standard Model

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  Theory: The Standard Model (SLAC VVC)
The Standard Model is the name given to the current theory of fundamental particles and how they interact.
The Standard Model was the triumph of particle physics of the 1970's.
Thus, this one aspect of the Standard Model does not yet have the status of "theory" but still remains in the realm of hypothesis or model.
www2.slac.stanford.edu /vvc/theory/model.html   (331 words)

  Particle Physics Today: the Standard Model
The Standard Model is by now a well-tested physics theory, used to explain and exactly predict a vast variety of phenomena.
The standard model includes three types of forces acting among particles: strong, weak and electromagnetic.
A big success of the Standard Model is the unification of the electromagnetic and the weak forces into the so-called electroweak force.
public.web.cern.ch /public/Content/Chapters/AboutCERN/WhyStudyPrtcles/StandardModel/StandardModel-en.html   (0 words)

  Standard Model - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the Standard Model, the theory of the electroweak interaction (which describes the weak and electromagnetic interactions) is combined with the theory of quantum chromodynamics.
In the Standard Model, matter and antimatter are related by the CPT symmetry, which suggests that there should be equal amounts of matter and antimatter after the Big Bang.
The Higgs boson, which is predicted by the Standard Model, has not been observed as of 2006 (though some phenomena were observed in the last days of the LEP collider that could be related to the Higgs).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Standard_Model   (1785 words)

 Standard data model - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The more effective standard models have developed in the banking, insurance, pharmaceutical and automotive industries, to reflect the stringent standards applied to customer information gathering, customer privacy, consumer safety, or just in time manufacturing.
The most complex data models known are in military use, and consortia such as NATO tend to require strict standards of their members' equipment and supply databases.
An emerging area of standard data model is in the identity card arena, where a vast number of security engineering solutions for public spaces, e.g.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Standard_data_model   (387 words)

 Easy Encyclopedia - Online Encyclopedia. Knowledge is Power
Each of these theories are gauge field theories, meaning that they model the forces between fermions by coupling them to bosons which mediate (or "carry") the forces.
The Higgs boson, which is predicted by the Standard Model, has not been observed as of 2002.
Confusingly, this new model is still called by the same name as the old one; the Standard Model.
www.easyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/s/st/standard_model.html   (1518 words)

 The Standard Model
From the experimental point of view, the Standard Model is studied and confirmed so well that things are, well, almost boring.
The Standard Model consists of elementary particles grouped into two classes: bosons (particles that transmit forces) and fermions (particles that make up matter).
The Standard Model is from a technical standpoint incompatible with gravity, and that's why string theory became an active field of theoretical physics.
superstringtheory.com /experm/exper2.html   (327 words)

 Standard Model curriculum
The body of theory known as the Standard Model, which emerged in its current form in the early 1970s, is a combination of two major developments in particle physics.
This, in turn, is unified in the Standard Model with the effects of the strong force that binds quarks together.
Even so, the inclusion of the Standard Model in the mandated core curriculum is a significant upgrade, bringing the concepts taught in New York state classrooms far closer to the physics currently being taught, researched and debated in universities.
www.news.cornell.edu /Chronicle/02/8.22.02/Standard_Model.html   (721 words)

 BBC - h2g2 - The Standard Model of Particle Physics
The model was developed mainly around 1960 to 1980, and was extensively tested in high energy experiments at the end of the century.
In the standard model, matter is made up of two classes of elementary particles: leptons, which include electrons, muons and neutrinos; and quarks, which come in six varieties and stick together in twos or threes to form heavier particles such as protons, neutrons and pions.
The standard model may be able to explain CP violation - the asymmetry between matter and antimatter - believed to explain why the universe is made solely of the former, but this is not yet confirmed.
www.bbc.co.uk /dna/h2g2/A666173   (2607 words)

 Open Questions: The Standard Model
The "standard model" refers to the synthesis that physicists achieved in the early 1970s of the knowledge which had been rapidly accumulating in the preceding decades regarding the elementary particles and forces of nature.
Treating gravity as a field in the standard model requires the existence of the graviton as the quantum of the field.
The emphasis is on the standard model, with a skeptical attitude towards string theory.
www.openquestions.com /oq-ph005.htm   (11825 words)

 Problems for the Standard Model
The only fundamental force not included in the Standard Model of particle physics is gravity: Physicists have been unable to construct a consistent quantum theory of gravity although string theory holds some promise.
In the Standard Model, symmetry breaking is achieved using a field called the Higgs particle.
The Standard Model appeared to be in perfect shape, much to the dismay of inventive theorists, who had hoped to find small imperfections that would indicate new physics such as supersymmetry, compositeness or undiscovered subnuclear forces.
www.jupiterscientific.org /sciinfo/smtrouble.html   (1122 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
B. As an outline of the Standard Model, we have illustrated in Table A its spectrum of elementary particles, along with some of their basic properties [including their electric charge, their spin, and their mass, expressed in units of one billion electron volts (GeV), which is roughly the mass of a proton].
D. A testable prediction of the minimal Standard Model is the existence of a neutral spin-zero elementary particle H called the Higgs boson, associated with the Higgs field.
The model on which it is based is unstable against quantum corrections when embedded in a theory of gravity or grand unified theory.
www.hep.net /documents/drell/sec3.html   (4135 words)

 Standard Model   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Standard Model is the combination of two theories of particle physics into a single framework to describe all interactions of subatomic particles, except those due to gravity.
The two components of the standard model are electroweak theory, which describes interactions via the electromagnetic and weak forces, and quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong nuclear force.
The present standard model, for example, cannot explain why there are three generations of quarks and leptons.
abyss.uoregon.edu /~js/glossary/standard_model.html   (318 words)

 [No title]
In the Standard Model, the electroweak theory undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking, and becomes the electromagnetic and weak force.
The fact that Standard Model fermions of different charges are accommodated into irreducible representations of SU(5) implies there is a basis for relating the charges of those fermions in the same multiplet.
By that standard, the extensions of the Standard Model, such as grand unification, supersymmetry, or string theory, are as successful as any theory we've ever had in physics, and there is not a shred of experimental evidence against them.
www.geocities.com /jefferywinkler/beyondstandardmodel.html   (3275 words)

This standard will specify a conceptual model for identifying physical road segments that are temporally stable and independent of any cartographic representation, scale, level of detail or network application, and a process for combining the road segments to create topologically connected analytical networks.
The model will include a set of locational descriptors for each road segment included in the NSDI framework road layer, and a format for a unique identification code to be assigned to each identified segment.
The user of the standard does not have to follow the guidelines to be in conformance with the standard.
www.fgdc.gov /standards/status/sub5_7.html   (408 words)

 Information For the Public
The discovery of the top quark at Fermilab in March, 1995, provided strong evidence for the Standard Model, the prevailing theory that describes the elementary particles and forces.
The gauge bosons include the gluon that transmits the strong force that holds quarks together in the nucleus; the W and Z bosons that transmit the weak nuclear force responsible for radioactive decay; and the photon that transmits electromagnetic force.
Although the Standard Model now assigns zero mass to neutrinos, it does not rule out the possibility that they might have mass.
www-numi.fnal.gov /public/standardmodel.html   (517 words)

 The Standard Model
From the experimental point of view, the Standard Model is studied and confirmed so well that things are, well, almost boring.
The Standard Model consists of elementary particles grouped into two classes: bosons (particles that transmit forces) and fermions (particles that make up matter).
The Standard Model is from a technical standpoint incompatible with gravity, and that's why string theory became an active field of theoretical physics.
www.superstringtheory.com /experm/exper2.html   (327 words)

 Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standard,
Standards are required to be set at least 18 months prior to the beginning of the model year.
This factor, along with the statutory requirement to issue the 2004 model year standard not less than 18 months before the model year begins, limited the information we were able to gather and the analysis we were able to perform in setting the MY 2004 standard.
The agency notes, however, that the standard it is setting for the 2004 model year will not make it necessary for the manufacturers with a substantial share of the market to change their product plans.
www.nhtsa.dot.gov /cars/rules/rulings/Cafe/LightTruck/NPRM-final.htm   (7337 words)

 The Standard Model
The standard model is divided into three sections: quarks, leptons and force carriers.
The standard model is not a complete theory; in fact it is far from being so.
Also the standard model does not have a place for gravity, the fourth force, which does not play a significant part in atomic and subatomic processes because it is so weak on those scales.
www-donut.fnal.gov /web_pages/standardmodelpg/TheStandardModel.html   (967 words)

 The Standard Hot Big Bang Model   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Championed by Sir Fred Hoyle and others, this model posited that although the universe was expanding, matter was being created everywhere in the universe so that the overall density of matter in the universe remains constant.
As data began to accumulate on the large scale structure of the universe, the steady-state model began to be in increasing difficulty.
In the Standard Hot Big Bang model, each part of the mass-energy of the universe is gravitationally attracted by all the other mass-energy of the universe, so the rate of expansion is expected to be slowing down.
upscale.utoronto.ca /GeneralInterest/Harrison/GenRel/BigBangModel.html   (1735 words)

 Possible Violation of Standard Model
The Standard Model, in development since the 1960s, explains and gives order to the menagerie of subatomic particles discovered throughout the 1940s and 1950s at particle accelerators of ever-increasing power at Brookhaven and other locations in the United States and Europe.
Using Standard Model principles, theorists have calculated with great precision how the spin of a muon, a particle similar to but heavier than the electron, would be affected as it moves through a magnetic field.
However, we don't really know why we have the basic particles, and the model is not able to predict such things as their masses (the masses are believed to come from the so-called Higgs mechanism, the subject of study of many high-energy experiments, yet to be demonstrated).
www.bnl.gov /bnlweb/pubaf/pr/2001/bnlpr020801.htm   (1135 words)

 The Standard Application Model for Topic Maps
Certain properties in the model are specified as computed properties, which means that they are specified in terms of a procedure by which their values may be gathered from other properties in the model.
Precisely how a subject defines a context is not constrained by this standard, but left for those creating topics representing subjects used in scopes to define as part of the definition of their subjects.
In model terms, this means that if an information item has a source locator item that is equal to one of the subject identifiers of a topic, that topic item reifies the information item.
y12web2.y12.doe.gov /sgml/sc34/document/0299.htm   (6156 words)

 A "Lose-Lose Theorem" Challenges the Standard Model of Physics
The Standard Model provides a theoretical framework for describing the fundamental particles of matter and all of the forces that interact with them except gravity.
Through the years, the Standard Model has been used to predict particle properties even before the particles were experimentally found.
Among the measurements used to predict the mass of the Higgs particle is the direction of the decay of Z particles into bottom quarks and antibottom quarks, the bottom quark's antimatter counterparts.
www.lbl.gov /Science-Articles/Archive/Phys-lose-lose.html   (768 words)

 -Edison Standard Model D Phonograph-
The Standard Model D was also known as a "Combination Standard" because it was designed to play 2-Minute and 4-Minute wax cylinder records.
However, because the Model H reproducer stylus is much smaller than the Model C, it can wear a notch in the bottom of the groove and damage the record over time.
Because the Model H was designed to play molded 4-Minute wax cylinders, it's floating weight is not sufficient to contend with Blue Amberol cylinders that are excessively out-of-round due to swelling or improper reaming of the plaster core.
www.engineeringexpert.net /standard.htm   (928 words)

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