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Topic: Standard gravitational parameter

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In the News (Wed 20 Mar 19)

  Gravitation Summary
Gravitation is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature, the other three being the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force, and the strong nuclear force.
Moreover, gravitation is the reason for the very existence of the earth, the sun and other celestial bodies; without it matter would not have coalesced into these bodies and life as we know it would not exist.
Gravitation is also responsible for keeping the earth and the other planets in their orbits around the sun, the moon in its orbit around the earth, for the formation of tides, and for various other natural phenomena that we observe.
www.bookrags.com /Gravitation   (7851 words)

The mass of a star after gravitational collapse is less after the compression, which must lead to an explosion with the removal of the surpluses of material from the star.
With the gravitational collapse the substance of star is compressed to Schwarzschild's radius, which is considerably less than a radius of the atomic nucleus of that formed by the same substance.
The forces of gravitational compression will again exceed the forces of the internal pressure of substance, will begin collapse, in consequence of which enormous energy in the form of explosion is separated, and the surpluses of material leave star.
www.holetheory.com /blackhole.html   (2453 words)

 Physics > Gravitational Force
Gravitation is the force of attraction that exists between all particles with mass in the universe.
If one wishes to be precise, one should distinguish between gravitation, the universal force of attraction, and gravity, which is the resultant, on the Earth's surface, of the attraction by the earth's masses, and the centrifugal pseudo-force caused by the Earth's rotation.
The gravitational attraction of protons is approximately a factor 10
www.physics.teleactivities.net /forces/gravity.html   (1438 words)

 NOVA | The Elegant Universe | Glossary | PBS
Planck's constant: Planck's constant is a fundamental parameter in quantum mechanics.
Generalizes the principle of relativity by showing that all observers, regardless of their state of motion, can claim to be at rest, so long as they acknowledge the presence of a suitable gravitational field.
standard model of particle physics, standard model, standard theory: an enormously successful theory of the three nongravitational forces and their action on matter.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/elegant/glossary.html   (1697 words)

 ENZO parameter list   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Generally the external parameters are the only ones that are modified or set, but the internal parameters can provide useful information and can sometimes be modified so I list them here as well.
This result is then stored in the next parameter (unless it is set directly in which case this parameter is ignored), and this defines the mass resolution of the simulation.
Later, the normalization as a separate input parameter was dropped for all cases by using the rates computed in RadiationFieldCalculateRates() with one exception: The molecular hydrogen (H2) dissociation rate.
cosmos.ucsd.edu /enzo/amr_guide/parameters.html   (6872 words)

 CGNS Standard Interface Data Structures - Miscellaneous Data Structures
Standard atmospheric conditions at sea level are assumed for static quantities, and all stagnation variables are obtained using the isentropic relations.
For global parameters, such as forces and moments, a set of standardized data-array identifiers is used.
The standard interface data structure identifies the CAD systems used to generate the geometry, the CAD files where the geometry is stored, and the geometric entities corresponding to the family.
www.lerc.nasa.gov /WWW/cgns/sids/misc.html   (2612 words)

 Gravitational Theory and Resonance
For example, a parameter that defines the direction of the long axis of the Earth's orbit, called the line of apsides, is known due to Fourier Analysis to currently be very slowly revolving eastward at a rate that would take it about 108,000 years to entirely circle the orbit.
By applying standard forced vibration theory and resonance theory reasoning and equations to the explanation of the perturbations of these several situations, it seems that a logical theoretical basis may exist for explaining the phenomena.
I believe that, given the equation of standard Newtonian gravitation and the ones for forced vibration, and applying them to the group of the four large moons of Jupiter, a long-term computer simulation, beginning with four random distance moons, would eventually result in, and therefore "predict" the currently seen meta-stable periods for each of them.
mb-soft.com /public/gravitat.html   (7893 words)

The parameter on the left of the chart, F'''''(Ø''), is equivalent to FG.
Again, it is not the magnitude of the parameters, but the system number 2 phase of the interaction that controls the polarity and magnitude of the total system interaction.
Q and the quantum capacitance CQ parameters, we can see that there is a definite phase difference relationship between the angle related to the inductive properties and that angle related to the associated transmission line capacitive properties.
www.electrogravity.com /index8.html   (3233 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Gravitational constant
According to the law of universal gravitation, the attractive force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
The gravitational constant is a physical constant which appears in Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Einstein's theory of general relativity.
However, these dimensions have fundamental significance in terms of Planck units: when expressed in SI units, the gravitational constant is dimensionally and numerically equal to the cube of the Planck length divided by the Planck mass and by the square of Planck time.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Gravitational_constant   (894 words)

 Presentation Transcript
So null gravitational red shift experiments are also important tests, experiments in which you compare two different clocks sitting side by side in a laboratory and you simply modulate the gravitational field in which they sit.
General relativity predicts for all of these parameters (gamma - 1, beta - 1 and all the rest) predicts values exactly zero, and so the issue is what are the measured values of these parameters from different experiments.
Well, it turns out that the gravitational red shift and the time dilation of special relativity cause the clocks on the satellites to tick at different rates than clocks on the ground and this effect has to be taken into account for the system to work.
www.apscenttalks.org /pres_transcript.cfm?nameID=99   (3784 words)

 EST ( Expanding Spacetime Theory )
It is interesting that both the far field and the near field properties of the gravitational field are significantly modified by the energy-momentum tensor induced by the scale expansion, while leaving the intermediate field essentially the same as the Schwarzschild field.
Thus, in the standard model the energy of the shell equals the energy of the mass that generates the gravitational field.
The fact that the standard assumption that the energy-momentum tensor is zero permits Black Holes strongly suggests that the energy-momentum tensor for vacuum may not be equal to zero.
www.estfound.org /gravitation.htm   (2764 words)

 Transformation of Excitation Energy between Frames
We conclude that the increase of electron mass that causes atoms to disintegrate at a higher rate in a gravitational potential does not appear to be compatible with the slower rate of disintegration of fast moving muons.
Using the same units, it is clear that the total energy of equation 2.15 (excitation plus the energy required to accelerate the mass-equivalent of the energy of excitation) is equal to the energy of the photon received during the de-excitation by the observer at rest (equation 2.16).
In the case of gravitational potential, the changes of energy and length are given by equation 1.22 in chapter one.
www.newtonphysics.on.ca /EINSTEIN/Chapter2.html   (4637 words)

 Gravitational Lensing of the CMB
A consequence of all of this work has been the increased awareness that no one experiment is equally sensitive to all cosmological parameters and that there are combinations of certain parameters that will yield statistically identical observations for a given experiment.
In the case of the CMBR and the standard cosmology, there is a tremendous degeneracy between
The position of the first accoustic peak in the CMBR power spectrum is sensitive to their sum, but doesn't tell us much about either one independent of the other.
astro.uchicago.edu /~scranton/LensedCMB/parameter.html   (350 words)

 Gravitational Constant : Variations in Gravitational Constant G
Early in the 20th century, Albert Einstein developed his theory of gravity called General Relativity, in which the gravitational attraction is explained as a result of the curvature of space-time.
This is a photograph of a simple big G apparatus used to indirectly determine the value for G. The value of the fundamental constant G has been of great interest for physicists for over 300 years and it has the longest history of measurements after the speed of light.
Gravitational constant G is always measured indirectly, with the false assumption that the masses (both of the equipment and that of earth) are constant.
www.blazelabs.com /f-u-massvariation.asp   (9188 words)

 Writing Enzo Parameter Files   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Several parameter files are available for download, which go along with the initial conditions files provided on the page on generating initial conditions.
All parameters are put into a plain text file (one parameter per line), the name of which is fed into Enzo at execution time at the command line.
It is advisable to carefully read the entry for this parameter in the parameter list (in this section), but in essence the desired value or values of minimum overdensity need to be divided by r^(d*l), where r is the refinement factor, d is the dimensionality, and l is the zero-based highest level of refinement.
cosmos.ucsd.edu /enzo/cookbook/paramfiles_top.html   (3235 words)

 Alternate View Column AV-78
The Standard Model describes the interactions between these particles in terms of four constants which characterize the strengths of the forces and four coupling constants which indicate the ease with which one quark can be converted to another by the weak force.
On the other hand, the Standard Model is based on the values of about two dozen adjustable parameters: the particle masses and the strength and coupling constants.
The gravitational attraction responsible for the formation of stars and galaxies in our universe would still be in effect, but the stars that formed would be neutron stars from the outset and would have qualitatively different stellar dynamics.
mist.npl.washington.edu /AV/altvw78.html   (2126 words)

 Inverting Gravitational Lenses
The details of the model parameters and parameter file are given below.
The parameters come in three sets, one describing the nature of the "observation", one describing the lensing mass, and one describing the background source.
The next seven parameters describe the elliptical background source of light which is observed through the gravitational lens.
www.astro.ubc.ca /people/newbury/siam/lens.html   (1444 words)

 The Standard Model
The Standard Model is the name given in the 1970s to a theory of fundamental particles and how they interact.
It incorporated all that was known about subatomic particles at the time and predicted the existence of additional particles as well.
The standard model of particle physics does not include gravity and there currently is no quantum theory of gravitation.
hypertextbook.com /physics/modern/standard   (1774 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Elliptic orbit
This set of six variables, together with time, are called the orbital state vectors.
Because at least six variables are absolutely required to completely represent an orbit with this set of parameters, then six variables are required to represent an orbit with any set of parameters.
Another set of six parameters that are commonly used are the orbital elements.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Elliptic_orbit   (422 words)

 4.2 Standard situations to evaluate the quasi-local quantities
This expression is considered to be the ‘standard’ definition of the energy for round spheres
In particular, Bramson’s expression also reduces to this ‘standard’ expression in the absence of the outgoing gravitational radiation [86].
Since the final state of stellar evolution (the neutron star or the fl hole state) is expected to be described by an asymptotically flat stationary, axi-symmetric spacetime, the significance of these spacetimes is obvious.
relativity.livingreviews.org /Articles/lrr-2004-4/articlesu7.html   (2996 words)

 Bringing the Dirac Coincidences up to date
In his paper, Dirac noted that, for some unexplained reason, the ratio of the electrostatic to gravitational force between an electron and a proton is roughly equal to the age of the universe divided by an elementary time constant, implying that
This standard result in inflation theory (Guth 1981) is remarkable for being the first explicit expression of a link between cosmic dynamics and quantum processes derived from well-founded theory.
The upshot, then, is that by combining Dirac’s empirical coincidences with standard inflation theory, one seems to arrive at a way of estimating vacuum energy densities that for the first time gives values consistent with observational constraints at all the critical cosmological epochs.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/rajm/agdirac.htm   (2042 words)

This is the textbook standard for deriving the Dirac equation from the Klein-Gordon equation that is obtained by the usual "operator substitution" of elementary QM applied to the relativistic energy:
Either the fundamental mathematical assumptions of both SR and GR are manifest nonsense, or the standard interpretations of the fundamental mathematical formalism is nonsense.
Although there are other gravitational theories that cannot be ruled out besides that of Einstein, e.g., Brans-Dicke, here I will consider only the Einstein theory with cosmological constant as the classical theory of gravitation to which a concept of quantum gravity should relate.
graham.main.nc.us /~bhammel/FCCR/qg.html   (9795 words)

 SMALL SCALE ANISOTROPIES: THE FINAL FRONTIER   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The Standard Cosmological Model, often called the Big Bang Theory, states that the Universe began from an initially hot, dense state, from which it expanded and is still expanding today.
Within the Standard Cosmological Model, there are basically two different theories which describe the growth of perturbations in the CMB, which lead to different expectations in the spatial distribution of CMB anisotropies and their spectra: random density fluctuations and topological defects in space-time itself.
The next three figures are maps of CMB anisotropies for the Standard Cold Dark Matter (SCDM), Open, and Lambda models that were generated from the spectra for each model, by Paolo Natoli at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
www.physics.ucsb.edu /~jatila/cmb_linked.html   (6917 words)

Under standard assumptions, specific orbital energy () of elliptic orbit is negative and the orbital energy conservation equation for this orbit takes form: where: is orbital velocity of orbiting body, is radial distance of orbiting body from central body, is length of semi-major axis, is standard gravitational parameter.
Under standard assumptions, specific orbital energy () is negative and the orbital energy conservation equation for this orbit takes the form: where: is orbital velocity of orbiting body, is radius of orbit equal to radial distance of orbiting body from central body, is standard gravitational parameter.
Under standard assumptions, specific orbital energy () of parabolic trajectory is zero, so the orbital energy conservation equation for this trajectory takes form: where: is orbital velocity of orbiting body, is radial distance of orbiting body from central body, is standard gravitational parameter.
www.experiencefestival.com /energy   (1064 words)

 Explanations for the NeoLaws Applet
This shows how the perigee (in Earth radii) of ten asteroids coming in with velocity of 2 km/s at impact parameters between 50 and 100 Earth radii (note: lunar orbit is at about 60 Earth radii) depends on the magnitude of a deflection maneuver.
This applet is rather complicated, because we have four independent model parameters (impact parameter, initial velocity, magnitude and direction of the velocity change appied during the maneuver) and many results (like the perigee), but only a two-dimensional screen.
You may verify that their initial total energy was already positive, as would be expected for a body coming from outside the region of the Earth's gravitational influence.
astro.u-strasbg.fr /~koppen/body/NeoLawsHelp.html   (1863 words)

 Chapter III - Foundations of Physical Reality
In fact, it should be clear at this point that the value of the parameter K in the fundamental equation (equation 1.27) has no impact whatsoever on the functioning characteristics of our "clock" or what it measures.
This assures us that any geometry which yields gravity as a pseudo force must also yield the standard gravitational red shift; or, alternately, gravitational red shift is not a valid test of Einstein's general theory.
It is well known that the gravitational red shift is directly required by conservation of energy and is thus not a true test of Einstein's theory of general relativity.
home.jam.rr.com /dicksfiles/reality/CHAP_III.htm   (6414 words)

The W particle interacts with quarks in a complicated way that depends on a bunch of parameters called the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix.
In the old days, the Standard Model said that neutrinos were massless, and the three different kinds - electron neutrino, muon neutrino and tau neutrino - couldn't turn into each other.
There is another parameter in the Standard Model which measures how much the strong force violates parity - the symmetry between right and left.
math.ucr.edu /home/baez/constants.html   (1705 words)

 Vocabulary of the Standard Model (and beyond):
  The actual magnitudes of the standard units were chosen to correspond to human scales (e.g., the size of a king).
(the mass of the W boson), the dimensionfull parameters that characterize the weak interactions and G
To understand several features of the structure of the Standard Model, especially the strong interactions, we must understand at least qualitatively the ideas of renormalization, running couplings, dimensional transmutation, infrared slavery and asymptotic freedom.
courses.washington.edu /phys55x/phys557_lec2.htm   (2365 words)

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