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Topic: State of nature

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  Ziniewicz on Hobbes
In the state of nature (a hypothetical condition, since in one way or another, man is always observed as belonging to some civil society), man is afraid of his fellow human beings, who compete with him for the same things.
The state of nature is a state of incessant mutual exploitation, all individuals seeking to dominate one another and to acquire honor and profit (fame and fortune).
It is "natural" for human beings to seek a way out of the state of nature, to exchange war for peace, to trade some of their "freedom" for safety.
www.fred.net /tzaka/hobbes.html   (2665 words)

 The State of Nature
In a state of general peace and the absence of any imminent threat, a build-up of armaments by one state will almost certainly be interpreted by other states as a prelude to war, and thus be viewed as a threat.
Sometimes the offending state is disbanded, her territory swallowed up by neighbors (although these states often rise again after a few decades and another war), but usually the state is "set right" and allowed to continue its existence.
The life of an individual in the state of nature, Hobbes says, is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short," and it is no wonder, considering the circumstances he has to face.
www.mccarthy.cx /WorldSystem/nature.htm   (2415 words)

 State of Nature
State of Nature is the human’s present state of evolutionary existence in the local environment in which they are living.
Our State of Nature is based on the fact that we are a living being consisting of two progressing parts, the mind and the body, forced to progress as one.
State of Nature is an evolutionary level of existence of the mind and body, with respect to their external element's evolutionary levels of existence.
www.corporatewebbing.com /STOFNA.html   (4815 words)

 State of nature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In a broader sense of the word, a state of nature is the condition before the rule of positive law comes into being, thus being a synonym of anarchy.
The concept of a state of nature was first posited by the 17th century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan.
Hobbes believed that human beings in the state of nature would behave "badly" towards one another ("badly" in the sense of the morality that we would commonly apply: but Hobbes argued that people had every right to defend themselves by whatever means, in the absence of order).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/State_of_nature   (835 words)

 DennisKyne.com: The State of Nature: Discourse for Understanding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Generally speaking, although the debate is ongoing and the interpretations are endless, the state of nature is what political theorists assume to be the condition of humankind before the establishment of a social contract and organized government.
John Locke, "assumed there were few offenders (xiv, Second Treatise)," in the state of nature and that handing over "their natural rights and powers to an absolute and arbitrary government (xv)" would leave them with less protection than they had in the state of nature.
NATURAL LAWS AND THE STATE OF NATURE The idea of natural law goes back to Aristotle but is found in the previously cited theorists.
www.denniskyne.com /media/articles/stateofnature   (1189 words)

 State of Nature, Pure Communism, Ideal State.
With such terrible situation, and because human are good by nature, they recognized that they are firstly vulnerable and secondly the importance of alliance against "evil", including by giving up most of their nature rights in exchange of a community lifestyle, which efficiently insures safety of them and their off spring.
In China, the emperors were the "sons of the sky" and known as "dragons." At that stage, human civilization entered a period of oppression, where dictatorship and tyranny were the brightest forms of governance.
The foundation of Nation States claimed to be the governance over a population group (nation or people) which shares a common identity based on such factors as language, cultural practices and customs, institutions, historical background, and interests (in relation with other nations).
www.empereur.com /DOC/State_of_Nature.html   (1753 words)

 Second Treatise of Civil Government by John Locke
much better it is in the state of nature, wherein men are not bound to submit to the unjust will of another: and if he that judges, judges amiss in his own, or any other case, he is answerable for it to the rest of mankind.
But I moreover affirm, that all men are naturally in that state, and remain so, till by their own consents they make themselves members of some politic society; and I doubt not in the sequel of this discourse, to make it very clear.
And here we have the plain difference between the state of nature and the state of war, which however some men have confounded, are as far distant, as a state of peace, good will, mutual assistance and preservation, and a state of enmity, malice, violence and mutual destruction, are one from another.
oregonstate.edu /instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke2/locke2nd-a.html   (3901 words)

 State of Nature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
State of Nature - The "natural condition of mankind" is what would exist if there were no government, no civilization, no laws, and no common power to restrain human nature.
The state of nature is a "war of all against all," in which human beings constantly seek to destroy each other in an incessant pursuit for power.
Life in the state of nature is "nasty, brutish and short."
www.sparknotes.com /philosophy/leviathan/terms/term_13.html   (68 words)

 DNR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
A trial ensued and the land was purchased by the state of Illinois in 1965 by invoking the law of eminent domain against the unwilling seller.
With this action, a piece of Illinois’ natural heritage was preserved so that future generations have the opportunity to see an example of the magnificent forest that once grew along the Wabash River.
Beall Woods State Park is located in Wabash County, 6 miles south of Mt. Carmel, Illinois, on Route 1 near Keensburg.
dnr.state.il.us /lands/landmgt/PARKS/R5/BEALL.HTM   (1037 words)

 Legitimacy of the State
Evaluating the state of nature and the rising of the apparatus of the state includes drawing conclusions about man. The fundamental question to be put is whether man is fundamentally good or evil.
A state of nature populated with good people is thus a society in harmonious anarchy.
They are using the state, as a natural and philosophically defensible organization of force, to reach their fundamental value of equality among men.
www.strike-the-root.com /3/bylund/bylund1.html   (789 words)

 interview with gilbert achcar
State of Nature: With the recent rise in sectarian violence in Iraq, the suspicion that the U.S. is fostering civil strife in order to delay the withdrawal of its troops has gained strength.
The United States chose what it thought would be a comfortable position, that of an arbiter between various contending factions and components of the Iraqi population.
Such a state could only be a close ally of Iran and would unleash a dangerous dynamic for the whole area, including the Saudi Kingdom where the main oil producing area is inhabited by a Shia majority.
www.stateofnature.org /gilbertAchcar.html   (3136 words)

 Epinions.com - Hobbes versus Locke: State of Nature
Hobbes most famous saying about the state of nature was, “Life is brutish, short and harsh, in the state of nature.” In other words, Hobbes felt that people would simply be acting on their own self-interest, and would go to any extreme to meet that end.
For example, people have the right, in a state of nature, to follow any religion they wanted, or say whatever they felt like, as long as they were not hurting others to express their beliefs.
One believed the state of nature was to compete and fight for resources, while another trusted that people were naturally inclined to go about their own way of life.
www.epinions.com /content_3180044420   (524 words)

 Hernando: State spares nature center
Funding for Chinsegut Nature Center will not be cut by the state, thanks to a strong showing of support.
Steve Fickett, also an Audubon member, helped convince state officials in the early 1970s that the 408-acre parcel north of Brooksville should be used for conservation.
Despite the center's popularity, the state Bureau of Wildlife Management initially targeted Chinsegut because it was not a perfect fit for the agency's stated mission, director Nick Wiley said.
www.sptimes.com /News/102301/Hernando/State_spares_nature_c.shtml   (428 words)

 State of Nature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
William Golding and John Locke are two philosophers who focused in human nature and state of nature yet their theories were complete opposites.
In a state of nature, Locke believed people would elect who should be leader and influence a democratic government in which everyone has political and social equality.
Golding believed that in a state of nature, the strongest person develops into the leader and therefore forms a tyrannical government.
shs.westport.k12.ct.us /portfolio/smith/LOF.htm   (960 words)

 Modern History Sourcebook: John Locke: Two Treatises of Government, 1690
For all the ends of marriage being to be obtained under politic government, as well as in the state of nature, the civil magistrate cloth not abridge the right or power of either naturally necessary to those ends, viz.
These men having, as I say, forfeited their lives, and with it their liberties, and lost their estates; and being in the state of slavery, not capable of any property, cannot in that state be considered as any part of civil society; the chief end whereof is the preservation of property.
And this puts men out of a state of nature into that of a common-wealth, by setting up a judge on earth, with authority to determine all the controversies, and redress the injuries that may happen to any member of the commonwealth; which judge is the legislative, or magistrates appointed by it.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1690locke-sel.html   (1489 words)

 Nature Centers Listing- NYSDEC Region 6: Jefferson, St. Lawrence, Lewis, Oneida, and Herkimer Counties   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The gardens and nature trails are opened to the public all year round.
Among the many exhibits featured at the Nature Center Museum are live collections of fish, reptiles, and amphibians; mounted waterfowl and birds of prey; decoys, geological specimens, and wildflowers.
The Minna Anthony Common Nature Center is the largest state park Nature Center and the largest in the north country.
www.dec.state.ny.us /website/education/reg6.html   (623 words)

 interview with tony benn
State of Nature: I want to start with the letter that you wrote to the UN and the UK Attorney General in December 2005, asking them to investigate breaches of the Nuremberg Charter and the Geneva and Hague Conventions during the Iraq War.
SoN: It seems as if the British public are moving more to the left of all the parties in Britain, in terms of the health service, education, foreign policy and so on.
SoN: But Blair and Bush have become the symbols of this war in a way, so therefore sometimes it can be a little difficult not to make it about them.
www.stateofnature.org /tonyBenn.html   (1983 words)

 Kingdom Come SPNP   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Dedicated March 4, 1992, Kingdom Come State Park Nature Preserve consists of 225 acres on the north face of Pine Mountain in Letcher County.
State Nature Preserves located within Kentucky State Parks are special places with different management priorities.
While the Parks are there primarily for public recreation, the acreage that has been dedicated as a Nature Preserve is set aside for the rare, threatened or endangered species and communities that occur there.
www.naturepreserves.ky.gov /stewardship/kingdomcome.htm   (499 words)

 Anarchy, State, and Utopia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A rational response to the "troubles" of a Lockean state of nature is formation of groups of individuals into mutual-protection associations, in which all will answer the call of any member.
Nozick arrives at the night-watchman state of Classical liberalism theory by showing that there are non-redistributive reasons for the apparently redistributive procedure of making its clients pay for the protection of others.
The procedure that leads to a nightwatchman state involves compensation to non-members who are prevented from enforcing their rights, an enforcement mechanism that it deems risky by comparison with its own.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Anarchy,_State,_and_Utopia   (2442 words)

 The State of Nature (The Anthropik Network)
Hobbes' "state of nature" owed much to Judeo-Christian mythology of the "Fall of Man," and the inherent sinfulness of humanity.
The individual human in the "state of nature" was, in Hobbes' philosophy, a solitary predator whose cruelty was matched only by his cowardice.
His "state of nature" also relied on a fanciful time before society, where humans were solitary.
anthropik.com /2005/04/the-state-of-nature   (2507 words)

 Vermont State Parks | Nature | VermontVacation.com
More than close to nature - in fact, smack in it - the parks' peaceful, relaxed settings offer ideal launching points for active vacations focused on hiking and cycling, paddling and fishing, bird and wildlife watching, or walks to observe fall foliage.
State parks in Vermont come with creature comforts like toilets and hot showers, and they offer nature walks and kids' playgrounds and games, snack bars, weekend music concerts and other cultural events, all for a bargain price.
Most state parks are also close to classic Vermont villages or classy little cities, shopping, dining and tourist attractions.
www.vermontvacation.com /nature/parks.asp   (185 words)

 Swans Commentary: State Of Nature, by Martin Murie - murie08
Swans Commentary: State Of Nature, by Martin Murie - murie08
There is a kind of harmony in nature, a give and take built into ecosystems that we might label Systemic Stubbornness, insistence on survival in spite of losses and chance and change.
Here's an experience; we were all in on it, we the generations of citizens of the United States standing by, watching the Army Engineers remodel water flows of the Everglades.
www.swans.com /library/art12/murie08.html   (1468 words)

 Locke and the State of Nature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
He identifies this as "the state all men are naturally in," meaning the condition of man before or outside of any artifice like government.
Locke does not agree with Hobbes, who believed that the state of nature was indeed a state of license, where any man could do absolutely anything that he judged necessary to his own security.
For in that state of perfect equality, where naturally there is no superiority or jurisdiction of one over another, what any may do in prosecution of that law, every one must needs have a right to do.
www.northern.edu /blanchak/modern4b.html   (788 words)

 Environment DEC: DEC's Nature Trail Places First in National Competition
Developed under the leadership of DEC's Division of Public Affairs and Education, the State Symbol Nature Trail was constructed in fewer than eight weeks prior to the 2002 New York State Fair.
Unlike other nature trails where the challenge is to interpret natural features, DEC first had to bring in the features to interpret.
The State Symbol Nature Trail will be open during the 2004 New York State Fair, which will run from August 26 through September 6 at the fairgrounds in Syracuse.
www.dec.state.ny.us /website/environmentdec/2003b/acinaturetrail.html   (531 words)

 The State of Nature and Society (World Treasures of the Library of Congress: Beginnings)
The passage from the state of nature to the civil state produces a very remarkable change in man, by substituting justice for instinct in his conduct, and giving his actions the morality they had formerly lacked.
Thereupon the Queen set out with much state and majesty and gladness, for by the Will of the Lord, she wished in her heart to make this journey to Jerusalem, to rejoice in the Wisdom of Solomon.
Haile Selassie I (1892-1975), the last emperor of Ethiopia, claimed his descent from Menelik, the son of the queen and Solomon, and thus his authority to rule as part of the Solomonic dynasty of that country.
www.loc.gov /exhibits/world/nature.html   (549 words)

 State of Nature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
This theory states that the source of all the legitimate powers of government is the free consent of its subjects.
The state of natural equality leads each man to hope that he can overcome any other by force, for men are given to imagine that an uncertain outcome will be in their favor.
The State of Nature is a State of Misery.
www.northern.edu /blanchak/modern3c.html   (897 words)

 TN State Parks: Pickett State Park
Situated in a remote section of the upper Cumberland Mountains, the 17,372-acre Pickett State Park and Forest possess a combination of scenic, botanical and geological wonders found nowhere else in Tennessee.
Of particular interest are the uncommon rock formations, natural bridges, numerous caves and remains of ancient Indian occupation.
Although pack animals are not allowed in Pickett State Park, the park is adjacent to Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area where pack animals are allowed.
www.state.tn.us /environment/parks/Pickett   (514 words)

 Springville Marsh State Nature Preserve
Visitors to Springville Marsh State Nature Preserve have a unique opportunity to observe and study the beauty of nature and to reflect on the past.
Springville Marsh is an unequaled nature preserve in northwestern Ohio.
It is the largest inland wetland in this part of the state.
www.dnr.state.oh.us /dnap/location/sprinvill_marsh.html   (349 words)

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