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# Topic: Statistical phenomena

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Statistical analysis of a data set may reveal that two variables (that is, two properties of the population under consideration) tend to vary together, as if they are connected. For example, the statistical significance of a trend in the data — which measures the extent to which the trend could be caused by random variation in the sample — may not agree with one's intuitive sense of its significance. A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality, and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on response or dependent variables. www.gamecheatz.net /games.php?title=Statistics   (3169 words)

 Phenomenon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kant's account of phenomena has also been understood as influential in the development of psychodynamic models of Psychology, and of theories concerning the ways in which the brain, mind and external world interact. It is possible to list the phenomena which are relevant to almost any field of endeavor, for example, in the case of optics and light one can list observable phenomena under the topic optical phenomenon. "Phenomena" is also the name of a multi-media rock musik concept originated by record producer Tom Galley and masterminded and co=produced by Wilfried F. Rimensberger (Phenomena 1, Phenomena II Dream Runner). en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phenomena   (440 words)

 Statistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In contrast, mathematical statistics (or simply statistical theory) is the subdiscipline of applied mathematics which uses probability theory and analysis to place statistical practice on a firm theoretical basis. The word statistics is also the plural of statistic (singular), which refers to the result of applying a statistical algorithm to a set of data. A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality, and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on a response or dependent variable. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Statistics   (1517 words)

 Statistics - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data. Because the aim of statistics is to produce the "best" information from available data, some authors make statistics a branch of decision theory. The word statistics comes from the modern Latin phrase statisticum collegium (lecture about state affairs), from which came the Italian word statista, which means "statesman" or "politician" (compare to status) and the German Statistik, originally designating the analysis of data about the state. open-encyclopedia.com /Statistics   (847 words)

 Phenomenon - The Black Vault Encyclopedia Project The concept of 'phenomena' led to a tradition of philosophy known as phenomenology. It was an attempt to explain phenomena like; earthquakes, lightning, rain, fire, sunrise, thunderstorm, rusting that lead to the development of modern science. It is possible to list the phenomena which are relevant to almost any field of endeavor, for example, in the case of optics and light one can list observable phenomena under the topic optical phenomenon. www.blackvault.com /wiki/index.php/Phenomenon   (371 words)

 INRIA - INédit 43 Statistics in the broader sense covers the whole spectrum of techniques used to study random phenomena. Statistics makes it possible not only to take into account the noise present in the data, but also the heterogeneity of the models studied and the atypical values that may occur. Statistical tests, resampling techniques such as cross-validation or bootstrap-that are very much used in statistical learning-the Bayesian approach that leads to the construction of model selection criteria that compensate a model adjustment quality with a measure of its complexity, these are powerful statistical inference tools to accomplish such a difficult task. www.inria.fr /actualites/inedit/inedit43_intro.en.html   (503 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Statistics and Physical Oceanography (1993) Statistics and Physical Oceanography 8 NON-GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELDS For purposes of statistical analyses, oceanographic fields are usually assumed to be Gaussian, stationary, and spatially homogeneous, and their statistical description is limited to the calculation of wavenumber spectra. Among other problems, he considered statistics of specular points (the points at which the gradient of the field is either zero or is specified depending on a viewing angle) and of the wave envelope, which play an important role in wave dynamics and analysis of sun glitter and radar backscatter from a wind-disturbed sea surface. Statistics and Physical Oceanography One of the questions that arises in ocean remote sensing concerns the probability density function (pdf) for the heights of specular points and for the slopes and curvature radii of the surface. www.nap.edu /books/NI000023/html/47.html   (2252 words)

 Statistical Data Analysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Statistical inference is refer to extending your knowledge obtain from a random sample from a population to the whole population. In a statistical hypothesis test, the P value is the probability of observing a test statistic at least as extreme as the value actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. The statistical bootstrap, which uses resampling from a given set of data to mimic the variability that produced the data in the first place, has a rather more dependable theoretical basis and can be a highly effective procedure for estimation of error quantities in statistical problems. obelia.jde.aca.mmu.ac.uk /resdesgn/arsham/opre330.htm   (16286 words)

 Statistical Data Analysis Statistical inference is refer to extending your knowledge obtain from a random sample from a population to the whole population. In a statistical hypothesis test, the P value is the probability of observing a test statistic at least as extreme as the value actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. The statistical bootstrap, which uses resampling from a given set of data to mimic the variability that produced the data in the first place, has a rather more dependable theoretical basis and can be a highly effective procedure for estimation of error quantities in statistical problems. www.iph.ufrgs.br /corpodocente/marques/cd/rd/arsham/opre330.htm   (16032 words)

 Statistical phenomena   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Czech Statistical Office Maintains, expands and increases the informedness of society about economic, social and ecological phenomena and processes. Statistical Innovations Inc. Innovative applications of statistical modeling: three statistical software packages in statistical modeling; consulting and training services. The R Project for Statistical Computing R, also known as `GNU S', is a free system for statistical computation and graphics similar to S. It provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques (linear and nonlinear modelling, statistical tests, time series analysis, classific www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Statistical_phenomena.html   (306 words)

 Statistical Mechanics of Cellular Automata (1983) Cellular automata are used as simple mathematical models to investigate self-organization in statistical mechanics. A detailed analysis is given of ``elementary'' cellular automata consisting of a sequence of sites with values 0 or 1 on a line, with each site evolving deterministically in discrete time steps according to definite rules involving the values of its nearest neighbors. Statistical properties of the structures generated are found to lie in two universality classes, independent of the details of the initial state or the cellular automaton rules. www.stephenwolfram.com /publications/articles/ca/83-statistical/1/text.html   (141 words)

 United Nations Statistics Division - Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics Provision and dissemination of a timely statistical information and indicators so that it can be used as instrument for planning, analysis and the scientific research and studies that help policy makers to take their proper decisions thereof. To undertake the preparation for the projects and the planning for censuses and statistical surveys in Collaboration with various government agencies in order to be aware of the human, economic and natural potentialities and measurement of the developments and changes occurring in the economic and social variables. Damaged or neglected documents that contain statistical data and information, which were under his control or he obtained from others, with a view to hamper, spoil or cause adverse impacts on the statistical work. unstats.un.org /unsd/goodprac/bpform.asp?DocId=358&KeyId=22   (1417 words)

 Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. Because one aim of statistics is to produce the "best" information from available data, some authors consider statistics a branch of decision theory. The word statistics comes from the modern Latin phrase statisticum collegium (lecture about state affairs), from which came the Italian word statista, which means "statesman" or "politician" (compare to status) and the German Statistik, originally designating the analysis of data about the state. www.mcfly.org /Statistics   (785 words)

 Phenomena It was an attempt to explain phenomena like; earthquakes, lightening, rain, fire, sunrise, thunderstorm, rusting that lead to the development of modern science. Phenomena is also the name of a multi-media rock musik concept originated by record producer Tom Galley and masterminded/co-produced by Wilfried F. Rimensberger (Phenomena 1, Phenomena II Dream Runner, Phenomena III). The Phenomena II record was an international success in the 1980s and has become a highly regarded rock music classic that units the best rock voices of 1986-87 on one album. www.sfcrowsnest.com /scifinder/a/Phenomena.php   (576 words)

 Statistics - Gurupedia Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data. It is based soundly on statistical theory which is a branch of applied mathematics. In some forms of descriptive statistics, notably data mining, the second and third of these steps become so prominent that the first step (planning) appears to become less important. www.gurupedia.com /s/st/statistics.htm   (567 words)

 3 Quantitative analysis thus enables one to separate the wheat from the chaff: it enables one to discover which phenomena are likely to be genuine reflections of the behaviour of a language or its variety and which are merely chance occurrences. For statistical purposes it is necessary to decide strictly either an item belongs to class A or it does not. Consequently, linguistic phenomena can be assigned relative probabilities and thus we may evaluate with some degree of certainty the occurrence of the phenomena. donelaitis.vdu.lt /publikacijos/andrt3.htm   (699 words)

 Common errors-QM Entropy is a statistical concept central to predictability of outcomes of events at the molecule and particle level. Statistical principles are most often seen as nothing more than tools of rogues and liars—which is another way of saying they simply aren't seen. This "blindness" to the statistical is a rich source of raw material for casino-operating rogues and advertisement-writing liars. www.pacifier.com /~ppenn/page3mx.html   (1184 words)

 [No title] However, when statistical tests are used in situations beyond their ordinary application, they can result in rejections of the null hypothesis for reasons other than a presumed departure from the expected chance value. Although it is consistent with scientific practice to use statistical inference to reject the null hypothesis, it is not consistent with such practice to postulate the existence of phenomena on this basis alone. The phenomena that can be observed with the standard exemplars do not require sensitive statistical rejections of the null hypothesis based on many trials to announce their presence. www.arcetri.astro.it /~comore/skeptic/hyman.txt   (13889 words)

 Condon Report, Sec VI, Chapter 10 -- Statistical Analysis However there are some important differences in statistical method depending upon whether we look at that data or evidence in order to formulate a hypothesis or whether we wish to establish a degree of reliability for the validity of what we hypothesize. Statistical reasoning in this hypothetical situation could tell us that the reports are significantly non-random in their spatial or temporal distribution and that the probability is large that there is something there to investigate, but statistical reasoning could tell us nothing about how to interpret this non-randomness. The physical scientist conversant with statistics and statistical methodology is likely to come to one of two conclusions about the possibility of productive use of statistics in the UFO problem. ncas.sawco.com /condon/text/s6chap10.htm   (2520 words)

 statistical models and society This is not to deny the empirical occurrence of phenomena that lend weight to the mathematical models used by statisticians, but rather to suggest that their relative prominence in our collective imagination reflects the way we experience society at different times. In the 20th century this model was the basis for the development of "parametric" statistics, the mainstream approach to statistical inference. This whole paradigm shift in scientific and statistical models seems to coincide with the breakdown of the nation-state as the monopolistic framework of society and with it of the corporate premises of 20th century economy, jobs for life and all that. www.mail-archive.com /nettime-l@bbs.thing.net/msg00837.html   (2321 words)

 Qualitative Quantitative Debate in the Social Sciences The point is to arrive at an understanding of phenomena -- whether that phenomena is statistical in nature or whether it is non-statistical in nature. Regardless of who finds out phenomena, whether it is qualitative or quantitative, probable or exact, a theory meant to explain a subject must explain or give a logical account of relevant known phenomena, and predict phenomena not known at the time. Statistical studies can be a help in finding out what factors to try to study in isolated ways, or what factors to try to think about logically as to how they might contribute to understanding the problem. www.garlikov.com /quanqual.html   (5465 words)

 Utopia theory (October 2003) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb Phenomena that appear at first to be unconnected, such as magnetism and the phase changes of liquids and gases, share some identical features. That is precisely why the fashion for applying physics to social science has arisen largely within the community of statistical physicists, who have developed sophisticated tools for studying the behaviour of systems with a large number of components. And while this solution appears when the "forces" between nations are estimated according to their size and characteristics in 1936, it disappears under the circumstances of 1938. physicsweb.org /article/world/16/10/7   (3851 words)

 Statistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. Because one aim of statistics is to produce the "best" information from available data, some authors consider statistics a branch of decision theory. Statistical practice includes the planning, summarizing, and interpreting of observations, allowing for variability and uncertainty. www.free-download-soft.com /info/statistics.html   (763 words)

 Statistical phenomena   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact probability... properties of the part, while the macroscopic phenomena influence the evolution of the microscopic phenomena through the growth kinetics of crystallization... Quantification of the slip phenomenon and the effect of shear thinning in the capillary flow of linear polyethylenes.(Ab... hallencyclopedia.com /Statistical_phenomena   (415 words)

 Social Research: Manipulation and Population Statistics in Nineteenth-Century France and England Responding to these remarks, Broca acknowledged the limits of population statistics to treat a case of pneumonia, but insisted on their relevance for the analysis of a statistical phenomena such as depopulation (Bulletin, 1866-67: 854). Viewed from this perspective, Guerin's proclamations concerning the "arbitrariness of statistical calculations" (versus etiologic causality) can be read either as an affirmation of the descriptive form of statistical reasoning--which excluded the use of statistics to identify causes--or as an expression of his inability to fully comprehend, and thus match, Broca's statistical reasoning. One of the striking features of both these controversies concerns the contribution of this particular mode of articulation to the advancement of statistical savoir faire and to the introduction of new forms of statistical reasoning, be it inferential reasoning in the 1840s or mathematical modeling in the 1900s. www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2267/is_2_68/ai_77187774/pg_7   (1280 words)

 USE OF STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Statistical analysis is used in all aspects of our life and it is extremely important to have an understanding of the basic tools. Statistics: The Study of Stability in Variation, by Jan de Leeuw, The Textbook has components which can be used on all levels of statistics teaching. Statistical Home Page by David C. Howell, Containing statistical material covered in the author's textbooks (Statistical Methods for Psychology and Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences), but it will be useful to others not using this book. www.eeie.sbu.ac.uk /courses/notes/Stats.htm   (3113 words)

 The Natural Law Argument They are statistical averages such as would emerge from the laws of chance; and that makes this whole business of natural law much less impressive than it formerly was. He agrees that a statistical interpretation of the the laws of the universe might represent a momentary state of science. The crux of Russell's argument, i.e the statistical dependence of natural phenomena as they are understood today can be attacked by considering the statistical nature of the universe to be a law itself. www.mit.edu /activities/mitmsa/NewSite/libstuff/russell/node3.html   (708 words)

 Department of Physics at the University of Florida   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The problems being investigated range from superconductivity and magnetism to nanoscale and ultrafast phenomena to statistical physics. This leads to new phenomena and means that much of the conventional theory needs to be changed. Statistical Physics: Methods of classical and quantum statistical physics are being applied to study the structure and dynamics of a diverse set of physical systems and states. www.phys.ufl.edu /research/cm.html   (1044 words)

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