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Topic: Steady state theory

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  Steady state theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The steady state theory was developed as a result of theoretical calculations that showed that a static universe was impossible under general relativity and observations by Edwin Hubble that the universe was expanding.
Problems with the steady-state theory began to emerge in the late 1960s, when observations apparently supported the idea that the universe was in fact changing: quasars and radio galaxies were found only at large distances (i.e., redshift, and thus, because of the finiteness of the speed of light, in the past) not in closer galaxies.
For most cosmologists, the refutation of the steady-state theory came with the discovery of the cosmic background radiation in 1965, which was predicted by the big bang theory.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Steady_state_theory   (934 words)

 The Steady-State Theory
The steady state theorists explained the hydrogen - helium abundance by the presence of supernovae.
One important and little known attribute of the steady state theory is its importance to an aspect of electromagnetic and quantum theory.
Steady state is not without problems though, there are several areas in which it is in difficulty.
www.schoolsobservatory.org.uk /study/sci/cosmo/internal/steady.htm   (769 words)

 Extended Definitions: Steady State
The steady state theory assumed that the universe always looked the same as it does today, and it would always continue to look the same in the future.
The steady state theory required that only a very small amount of extra matter would be needed each year, something on the order of one hydrogen atom per cubic light year, to maintain the current appearance of the universe1.
The Steady State theory met it's doom, however, when the very smooth, and extremely redshifted remnant of what was thought to be the Big Bang radiation was detected.
www.geocities.com /recycling_universe/ed_steadystate.htm   (552 words)

 The Steady State Galaxy Theory by Rufus Young
Although this theory was able to show how the heavier elements were created, it failed to account for the abundance of helium and certain light elements such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium and boron which are burned in the stars.
Maxwell proposed a theory which required the vibration of light to be strictly transverse with no longitudinal component and in 1864 his paper entitled "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" expressed the results of his theoretical investigation in the form of four fundamental equations which have since become famous as Maxwell's equations.
Under the Steady State Galaxy theory, the nuclear fusion process which is expelling the material from the neutroid would generate large amounts of helium as well as other light elements and is the source of the excess helium found in the universe.
www.galaxytheory.com   (4343 words)

 Steady state theory (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.umd.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In cosmology, the steady state theory is a model developed in 1948 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, Hermann Bondi and others as an alternative to the Big Bang theory.
It is also the basis for another theory known as the quasi-steady state theory which postulates a lot of little big bangs occurring over time.
At the same time, after the unexpected observation of an accelerating universe in the late-1990s, there were efforts to develop quasi-steady state theories, in which there is not a single big bang but rather multiple big bangs over time which create matter.
steady-state-theory.iqnaut.net.cob-web.org:8888   (579 words)

 cosmology theory concept from the Astronomy knowledge base   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Less a theory than a school of theories that attempt to trace how the universe evolved., Theory originally proposed by Georges Lemaitre but elaborated by George Gamow and the α-β-hypothesis-γ that the Universe began with the Big Bang, the superexplosion of all the matter now dispersing in the Universe.
In this theory, the inertial mass of a particle is a function of the masses of all other particles, multiplied by a coupling constant which is a function of cosmic epoch.
variable-mass theory (2 facts) - A theory of Hoyle and Narlikar in which the masses of fundamental particles are assumed to vary with time in a manner that precisely accounts for the Hubble redshift law.
www.site.uottawa.ca:4321 /astronomy/cosmologytheory.html   (1264 words)

 Steady state - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Steady state is a more general situation than Dynamic equilibrium.
This intial situation is often identified as a transient state, start-up or warm-up period.
While a dynamic equilibrium occurs when two or more reversible processes occur at the same rate, and such a system can be said to be in steady state; a system that is in steady state may not necessarily be in a state of dynamic equilibrium, because some of the processed involved are not reversible.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Steady_state   (195 words)

 More on Steady State Theory
In cosmology, the steady state theory is a model developed in 1949 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold and others as an alternative to the Big Bang theory.
Within the steady state theory this background radiation is the result of light from ancient stars which has been scattered by galactic dust.
As of 2005, the big bang theory is the one that the majority of astronomers consider the best approximation to describing the origin of the universe.
www.artilifes.com /steady-state-theory.htm   (713 words)

 steady-state theory - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Maximal lactate steady state in trained adolescent runners.
From Malthusian frontier to demographic steady state: the Concordian birth rate, 1635-1993.
Theory of competition between breakup and coalescence of droplets in flowing polymer blends.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-x-steadyst.html   (157 words)

 Steady State Theory concept from the Astronomy knowledge base   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
has definition Theory that the expanding universe was never in a state of appreciably higher density - i.e., that there was no "big bang" - and that matter is constantly being created out of empty space in order to maintain the cosmic matter density.
has definition A cosmological theory propounded by Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle in which the Universe has no beginning and no end and maintains the same mean density, in the face of its observed expansion, by the continuous creation of matter at the current rate of 2.8 × 10
Discovery of the microwave background has persuaded most astronomers to reject the steady-state theory.
www.site.uottawa.ca:4321 /astronomy/SteadyStateTheory.html   (165 words)

 Steady State Theory
The Big Bang Theory is naturalistic science’s preferred explanation for the origins of the universe.
One attempt to fill the holes left in the Big Bang Theory is a concept first developed in the late 1940’s, known as Steady State Theory.
Steady State Theory proposes that matter is being continuously created, at the rate of a few hundred atoms per year.
www.allaboutcreation.org /steady-state-theory-faq.htm   (286 words)

This struck a philosophical chord with a number of scientists, and the steady-state theory gained many adherents in the 1950s and 1960s.
Because the vast majority of quasars lie exceedingly far away, their existence proves that the perfect cosmological principle cannot be true—the distant and therefore ancient universe is not the same as the younger universe nearby.
The death knell for the theory sounded when radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background, the leftover radiation from the Big Bang.
www.pbs.org /wnet/hawking/universes/html/univ_steady.html   (275 words)

 THE ORIGIN OF MATTER - 3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The oscillating universe theory was devised by *George Gamow, the research scientist and prolific science-fiction writer who, a few years earlier, had promoted the Big Bang as the only correct concept of origins.
Evolution.) Because of those laws, all theories of matter, stellar origins, and evolution are totally impossible.
Thoughtful scientists admit that, if evolutionary theories of the origin of the universe were true, life would be purposeless and a continual misery.—pp.
www.pathlights.com /ce_encyclopedia/01-ma4.htm   (716 words)

 Hoyle, Fred (1915-1999) Biography | woes_01_package.xml
The big bang theory states that billions of years ago there was an enormous explosion in which all the matter of the universe was created.
The steady state concept had several virtues, not the least of which was avoiding the troublesome issue of the beginning and end of creation.
If the steady state theory were to hold up, astronomers surveying space would expect to see "old" galaxies created billions of years ago and containing aging stars, as well as "new," recently-created galaxies containing lighter elements and new stars.
www.bookrags.com /biography/hoyle-fred-1915-1999-woes-01   (1795 words)

 Re: A Challenge: The Origins and Evolution of the Universe - Astronomy.com Forums   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
String theory is a physical model whose fundamental building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects (strings) rather than the zero-dimensional points (particles) that were the basis of most earlier physics.
Interest in string theory is driven largely by the hope that it will prove to be a theory of everything.
Investigating how a string theory may include fermions in its spectrum led to supersymmetry, a mathematical relation between bosons and fermions which is now an independent area of study.
www.astronomy.com /ASY/CS/forums/2/287387/ShowPost.aspx   (5537 words)

 Cosmology at the Beginning of a New Millennium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The two main competitors were the steady state theory (its proponents later modified it and called it the quasi-steady state theory) and plasma cosmology.
In its original form, the steady state model proposed that the universe is not only isotropic (the same in all directions) and homogenous in space but in time as well.
In any case, whatever the true state of the origin of the universe (assuming an origin model is the correct one), the fact that it would in some manner be in the realm of quantum theory suggests that the origin would have no cause.
www.magicdave.com /ron/cosmology_at_the_beginning_of_a_.htm   (5494 words)

 Quasi-Steady State Theory of the Universe - Recent Abstracts and References
More work is required, particularly on the cosmogonical aspects of the theory, but a very attractive aspect of it is that the creation process in the centers of galaxies leads to a comparatively simple way of understanding explosive phenomena.
We solve the cosmological equations obtained by Hoyle, Burbidge and Narlikar (1995a) from a Machian theory of gravity in the case where the universe satisfies the Weyl postulate and the cosmological principle.
We show how, consistent with the quasi steady-state cosmological theory developed recently in a number of papers, it is possible for samples of material of different ages to have different mass scales.
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/8098/Hoyle.htm   (1600 words)

 The Hot Big Bang
Finally, one reaches a state where the energy of the Universe is primarily contained in non-relativistic matter (matter sufficiently massive that its average velocity is very much less than the speed of light).
The steady state model did the cosmological principle one better by invoking what has been termed the perfect cosmological principle: Not only is the Universe the same at all places and in all directions when averaged over a large enough volume; it is the same for all time too.
Since the Universe was known to be expanding, the steady state model had to postulate continuous creation of matter in the space between the stars and galaxies to maintain the same density over time and thus satisfy the perfect cosmological principle of a universe unchanging in time on large scales.
csep10.phys.utk.edu /astr162/lect/cosmology/hotbb.html   (1463 words)

 Steady State Theory - Slackerpedia Galactica
The Steady State Theory was an old theory of the origin of the universe that basically said the universe had no origin.
Matter is continuously created and the universe is constantly expanding, so according to the theory, the universe always look the same for all time.
Unfortunately for Steady Staters, the theory's predictions did not match up with later experiments and the Big Bang theory won out in the end.
www.slackerastronomy.org /slackerpedia/index.php/Steady_State_Theory   (125 words)

 Steady State vs. Big Bang
The Steady State model, although generally dismissed since 1965 with the discovery of the 3K remnant radiation, is still mentioned in the text -- an uncommon compliment to an idea that was largely rejected nearly 40 years ago.
In 1948, the same year that the first paper on the Steady State theory was published, George Gamow and his student Ralph Alpher published a paper claiming a major breakthrough for the Big Bang.
Although most astronomers quickly abandoned the Steady State model, Hoyle defended it doggedly, pointing out flaws and inconsistencies in the Big Bang theories and elaborating on the Steady State model to provide its own radiation field that might be mistaken for the remnant of the Big Bang.
ircamera.as.arizona.edu /NatSci102/images/extsteadystate.htm   (919 words)

 Errors in the Steady State and Quasi-SS Models   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
At the time the Steady State model was proposed, the Big Bang model was in trouble because the value of the Hubble constant was clearly bigger than the inverse of the age of the Universe.
In the original Steady State proposal, all of the heavy elements were produced in stars by burning hydrogen into helium and then combining several helium nuclei [alpha particles] into heavier nuclei like carbon (3 alpha particles) and oxygen (4 alpha particles).
The Quasi-Steady State Cosmology is an attempt by Hoyle, Burbidge and Narlikar to allow for the evolution of the CMB temperature and to explain the surplus of faint radio sources in a Universe that is always the same over the very long term.
www.astro.ucla.edu /~wright/stdystat.htm   (2333 words)

 SignOnSanDiego.com > News > Science -- Married to a theory
One of them was the big-bang theory, which proposed that space and time emerged from a single, infinitely small point of infinite energy that exploded in a fireball of creation and set into motion an expanding universe.
The original steady state model proposed an expanding universe in which new matter is continually produced to compensate for ever widening volumes of space.
Early on in the debate between the two theories, astronomers found that quasars, believed to be energetic cores of remote galaxies, become more numerous the farther away they looked.
www.signonsandiego.com /news/science/20050216-9999-lz1c16theory.html   (1767 words)

 The Pseudo-Problem of Creation in Physical Cosmology
In the case of the big bang theory, the creationist reading of it is, of course, not just that the big bang itself followed upon a state of so-called nothing.
Incidentally, without additional theory, the correctness of this claim of temporal origin is by no means obvious in regard to all elementary particles, for example, some of which might conceivably have existed in their present form throughout all past time.
When that theory is being contrasted with its steady-state rival, it is often called "evolutionary." And it tells us that, before the chemical elements were formed, an explosion of primeval matter resulted in the present expansion of the universe.
www.infidels.org /library/modern/adolf_grunbaum/problem.html   (8513 words)

 steady-state theory
The theory that the universe looks pretty much the same now as it has always done and that, to maintain a constant density of matter in the face of cosmic expansion, matter is continuously created out of empty space (at a rate of 2.8 × 10
It rose to prominence in the 1960s under its three greatest champions, Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, and Hermann Bondi.
However, the discovery of the cosmic microwave background persuaded most astronomers to reject the steady-state model in favor of its rival, the Big Bang theory.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/S/steady-state_theory.html   (170 words)

 The Steady State Theory Has Been DISPROVED
Radio telescopy experiments in the '50s and '60s, led by Martin Ryle, one of Hoyle's colleagues, disproved the steady state theory as the number of galaxies didn't match Hoyle's predictions.
Although Sir Fred conceded that the steady state theory would have to be discarded in 1965, he recently _has returned to it_ and holds to it to this day.
Interestingly, it was Hoyle who coined the term "big bang" on a radio talk show in 1950, intending it to be a derogatory description of Gamow's "repugnant theory." Throughout the 50's and 60's, Sir Fred conducted himself in a most unscientific manner, earning him much disrespect from his colleagues and the general populace.
www.holysmoke.org /hs00/steady.htm   (405 words)

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