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Topic: Steel strike of 1919

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In the News (Sat 22 Sep 18)

  Chicago Metro History Education Center   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The workers in the iron and steel mills and blast furnaces, not working under union agreements, are requested not to go to work on September 22, and to refuse to resume their employment until such time as the remands of the organizations have been conceded by the steel corporations.
We considered the steel industry as a national problem and that it would have to be approached nationally, and that when organized labor moved, all of the organizations together under one head would have to move upon the steel trust.
But on September 22nd, when the strike date was set, 279 000 steel workers responded to the call of their fellows and shut down the steel mills until they would get consideration at the hands of this corporation.
www.uic.edu /orgs/cmhec/3_steel.html   (6227 words)

 Steel strike of 1919 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Steel Strike of 1919 was an attempt by the weakened Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers (the AA) to organize the American steel industry in the wake of World War I.
The response was 98 percent in favor of a general steelworker strike to begin on September 22, 1919.
As the strike began, they published information exposing National Committee co-chairman William Z. Foster's past as a Wobblie and syndicalist, and claimed this was evidence that the steelworker strike was being master-minded by communists and revolutionaries.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Steel_strike_of_1919   (1843 words)

 Rose/Duquesne and the Rise of Steel Unionism. Chapter 1
Steel mills experienced a severe labor shortage during the war, caused by increased labor needs, lower immigration rates from traditional labor sources in southern and eastern Europe, and a loss of workers to the military.
The Steel Strike of 1919 was the result of long-standing worker grievances and the disruption caused by World War I. The steelworkers' greatest complaint was the length of their workday.
By the end of the strike, the flaws in the National Committee's structure were painfully clear, as were its misguided commitment to craft unionism and the inadequacy of its financing.
www.press.uillinois.edu /epub/books/rose/ch1.html   (13408 words)

 Reds and Revolution: The Great Steel Strike of 1919
Yet, equally fierce was the battle over the image of the strike that was projected by the press, for the steel strike of 1919 occurred during the great "Red Scare." In a year of "national hysteria," many saw industrial conflict such as the steel strike through an ideological prism of anti-radicalism and anti-Bolshevism.
This process was especially significant in the case of the steel strike of 1919 and the "Red Scare" in general, given the atmosphere of controversy and the dominance of newspapers in the field of mass communications.
In 1901, when the U.S. Steel Corporation was formed during a wave of mergers in the industry, sixty to seventy percent of the nation's steel making capacity came under the direction of a single holding company.[22] Sixteen subsidiary companies maintained their own identities, but answered to the board of U.S. Steel.
userwww.sfsu.edu /~epf/1994/reds.html   (3875 words)

 1919 Steel Strike
The steel strike is still holding its ground, according to the best evidence procurable at this writing.
The strike, at the end of the second week, is settling into what promises to be a long drawn out affair, with both sides apparently determined to carry the fight to a finish.
The operators are doing everything in their power to induce the striking steel workers to return to their jobs, liberally using the columns of the daily papers as a means of communicating their "Go Back to Work" propaganda.
www.library.pitt.edu /labor_legacy/SteelStrike1919.htm   (743 words)

 Iron & Steel
Steel is formed by treating molten (melted) iron with intense heat and mixing it (alloying) with carbon.
Steel has been part of some of the greatest achievements in history; it was the "iron horse" and steel rails that helped carve a nation out of the frontier.
Steel is the backbone of bridges, the skeleton of skyscrapers, the framework for automobiles.
42explore.com /ironsteel.htm   (2581 words)

 Gary the Magic City, page 1
Steel making lay at the heart of the city's prosperity, and when the blast furnaces and coke ovens and rolling mills shut down, life in Gary sputtered to a halt.
The laborers in the steel mills were overwhelmingly immigrants and the children of immigrants.
U.S. Steel architects laid out the rest of the subdivision in typical gridiron fashion, north-south streets east of Broadway to be named after states, and those west of Broadway after presidents, in chronological order.
www.dlib.indiana.edu /collections/steel/context/text/06.html   (5913 words)

 "I Witnessed the Steel Strike": Joe Rudiak Remembers the 1919 Strike   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Though the Great Steel Strike of 1919 failed in its immediate aims, it left a legacy in the steel regions of the United States that lasted for decades.
Peter Gotlieb: And that was during the steel strike in 1919?
He was involved in at that time the 1919 steel strike.
historymatters.gmu.edu /d/106   (966 words)

 Great Steel Strike of 1919
The largest strike occurred among steel workers in the Midwest from September 1919 to January 1920.
The Great Steel Strike of 1919 proved to be a dismal failure for the steel workers.
Because the steel industry was important in Ohio during this time, the Great Steel Strike had a major influence on a number of Ohio cities.
www.ohiohistorycentral.org /entry.php?rec=504   (369 words)

 Coal Strike of 1919
The Coal Strike of 1919 in Indiana County and Its Aftermath
This approach creates a linkage between the major coal strikes of 1919 and 1922 and shows the persistence of rank and file radicalism in a generally conservative decade.
On November 1, 1919, about 400,000 miners struck nationwide, including 50,000 in District 2 according to John Brophy's estimate, this was a crucial event for the fortunes of coal miners in the next decade.
www.lib.iup.edu /spec_coll/articles/coalstrike1919.html   (6767 words)

In the late 1800s, the first steel mills were constructed in Youngstown, signaling the new influence of that industry on the city's development.
There were a number of strikes that occurred during this era, including some that resulted in rioting and violence.
Although the "Little Steel" strike, as it became known, was not very successful in the short-term, it led to the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly known as the CIO.
www.ohiohistorycentral.org /entry.php?rec=826   (722 words)

 SparkNotes: Mother Jones: Steel Strike 1919
The steel corporation had preyed for years on immigrants, who were easily exploited, and had even used its name, the United States Steel Corporation, to scare the immigrants into thinking that the corporation was actually a branch of the government.
The strike was difficult to organize and coordinate because the strikers were spread out between fifty towns and ten states, and the strikers faced all manner of harassment.
The strike began to collapse in the face of the relentless violence of the United States Steel Corporation and President Gary's ruthlessness and obstinacy.
www.sparknotes.com /biography/motherjones/section9.rhtml   (688 words)

 Columbia Encyclopedia- Gary - AOL Research & Learn
Gary was founded by the U.S. Steel Corporation, which purchased the land in 1905 and landscaped it for a city.
In 1908 the first blast furnace was lit to begin the vast lakefront steel complex that was to dominate U.S. steel production and become one of the world's greatest steel centers.
Gary steelworkers were especially active in the nationwide steel strike of 1919, when federal troops occupied the city for several months.
reference.aol.com /columbia/_a/gary/20051206024609990017   (203 words)

 Fred Gaboury - Little Steel strike
Hundreds of steelworkers, on strike against the "Little Steel" companies and backed by hundreds of supporters, some dressed in their Sunday best, had come to assert the right of the Steel Workers Organizing Committee (SWOC) to establish a picket line at the gate of the Republic Steel plant.
By the time SWOC launched its drive to organize the steel industry Bittner was running the show in Illinois and Cohen, then 28 years old, was a member of the Communist Party leadership in Chicago.
Republic Steel's Tom Girdler was the lead dog in the employer's sleigh team that not only provoked the strike but made plans to drown it in blood in a holy war to prevent "the Communists" from taking over.
www.pww.org /archives97/97-05-29-2.html   (2210 words)

 Brown and Boswell (1995) Strikebreaking or solidarity in the Great Steel Strike of 1919: a split labor market, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Split labor market theory provides insight into the development of ethnic and racial antagonism but has failed to address interracial solidarity and has tended to ignore the role of the state.
Predictions are then examined using qualitative comparative analysis for 16 northern cities that participated in the 1919 steel strike.
Results show that interracial solidarity developed in cities that had strong local union organizations and nonrepressive governments, while fl strikebreaking emerged in cities with higher proportions of recent fl migrants and either repressive local governments or weak unions.
www.getcited.org /pub/103358631   (153 words)

 1919: Steel Mill Strike? : IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO
Organized labor expects a big walk-out and it is predicted that employers will receive the surprise of their lives.
The unions co-operating in the strike have a total membership of two million.
Among the principal demands are the right of collective bargaining, an eight-hour day, one day's rest in seven, the abolition of the 24-hour shift, and an increase in wages, "sufficient to guarantee the American standard of living."
www.iht.com /articles/1994/09/21/old_15.php   (121 words)

 List of strikes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions (strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order (general strikes).
Lawrence textile strike, often known as the Bread and Roses strike (1912, Lawrence, Massachusetts)
Kinshasa general strike of 1997, Democratic Republic of the Congo
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/List_of_strikes   (178 words)

 Fannie Sellins: In the Midst of Terror She Went Out to Her Work
She spread the tenets of Americanism among immigrant miners, and as she changed their expectations, they became disenchanted with their poor living conditions and began to demand more for their labor.
Foster says that "a dozen drunken deputy sheriffs on strike duty, led by a mine official, suddenly rushed the pickets, shooting as they came.
Sellins, accompanied by women and children, went outside the home of a family she was visiting to stop a fight between steelworkers and some of the deputies." Historian Meyerhuber is not sure the right deputies were even charged.
www.kentlaw.edu /ilhs/sellins.htm   (1423 words)

 David Brody / Labor in Crisis
Conceived as a prologue to the 1930s industrial-union triumph in steel, Labor in Crisis explains the failure of unionization before the New Deal era and the reasons for mass-production unionism's eventual success.
Widely regarded as a failure, the great 1919 steel strike had both immediate and far-reaching consequences that are important to the history of American labor.
It helped end the twelve-hour day, dramatized the issues of the rights to organize and to engage in collective bargaining, and forwarded progress toward the passage of the Wagner Act, which, in turn, helped trigger John L. Lewis's decision to launch the CIO.
www.press.uillinois.edu /pre95/0-252-01373-5.html   (126 words)

 [No title]
An IWW leaflet produced in Seattle during the General Strike
Striking Conductors and Motormen in Brooklyn (August, 1919)
The burial of Wesley Everest, with armed National Guard unit.
bss.sfsu.edu /tygiel/Hist427/1919Photos/1919.htm   (91 words)

 SparkNotes: Mother Jones: Review Test
Why was the strike in West Virginia in 1902 unsuccessful?
Why did the strike in Colorado between 1903 and 1904 not succeed?
Who was the leader of US Steel in 1919?
www.sparknotes.com /biography/motherjones/quiz.html   (554 words)

 Soldiers in Gary during Steel Strike, 1919
Soldiers parade through Gary, Indiana, while strikers look on.
The steel industry's notoriously long hours and the antiunion policies of judge Elbert Gary, chairman of U.S. Steel's board of directors and the town's namesake, helped make the strike long and bitter.
The call to strike on September 22 by union leadership charged "IRON AND STEEL WORKERS!
www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org /pages/6345.html   (159 words)

 WWW-VL: History: United States History: 1910-1919 | USA 1910s history, Woodrow Wilson, Henry Ford, Eugene Debs, WWI, ...
Abrams V. United States, 1919 [held that the government may criminalize anti-American speech]
The Autobiography of Mother Jones "The Steel Strike of 1919"
"The Boston Police Strike in the Context of American Labor" (1919), by Zachary M. Schrag
vlib.iue.it /history/USA/ERAS/20TH/1910s.html   (623 words)

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