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Topic: Stop consonant

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  Consonant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The word consonant comes from Latin meaning "sounding with" or "sounding together", the idea being that consonants don't sound on their own, but only occur with a nearby vowel, which is the case in Latin.
Consonant letters in the English alphabet are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Z, and sometimes Y — the letter Y stands for the consonant [j] in "yoke" but for the vowel [ɪ] in "myth", for example.
The phonation method of a consonant is whether or not the vocal cords are vibrating during articulation of a consonant.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Consonant   (708 words)

 Stop article - Stop English language punctuation full stop stop consonant phonology - What-Means.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A stop is an incorrect name for the punctuation mark correctly known as a full stop or a period: "."
truck stop: an eating establishment on a major trucking route with a large carpark for truck drivers to stop and refresh themselves, and often with other amenities available.
f stop: a measure of the amount of light through the aperture that hits film in a camera.
www.what-means.com /encyclopedia/Stop   (249 words)

 Stop consonant article - Stop consonant Manners articulation Nasal consonant Fricative consonant Lateral - ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A stop or plosive is a consonant sound produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract by the lips or tongue.
Usually the term "stop" is used to refer to oral stops only, with nasal stops called simply nasals.
Stops may be made with more than one airstream mechanism.
www.what-means.com /encyclopedia/Plosive   (249 words)

 stop - definition by dict.die.net
Stop bead (Arch.), the molding screwed to the inner side of a window frame, on the face of the pulley stile, completing the groove in which the inner sash is to slide.
Stop valve, a valve that can be closed or opened at will, as by hand, for preventing or regulating flow, as of a liquid in a pipe; -- in distinction from a valve which is operated by the action of the fluid it restrains.
Stop watch, a watch the hands of which can be stopped in order to tell exactly the time that has passed, as in timing a race.
dict.die.net /stop   (758 words)

 Affricate consonant - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesn't have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trilled).
The difference is that in the sequence of stop and fricative, the stop has a release of its own before the fricative starts.
The reason why they're considered to be sequences of stop plus fricative is that beyond mere phonetics, English [ts] and [dz] are analyzed into different morphemes (e.g.
open-encyclopedia.com /Affricate   (414 words)

 Online Dictionary for French English, Spanish English, Italian English, and more.
A consonant produced by stopping air at some point and suddenly releasing it; "his stop consonants are too aspirated"; SYN: stop, occlusive, plosive consonant, plosive speech sound, plosive.
An organ stop with the tone of a flue pipe.
A stop consonant articulated by releasing pressure at the glottis; as in the sudden onset of a vowel; SYN: glottal plosive, glottal catch.
www.ultralingua.net /?service=ee&text=stop   (478 words)

 Phonetic Transcription Workshop
Consonants involve interrupting the air that comes out of your mouth; vowels are made by opening the mouth and letting air come out freely.
The stop consonants are distinguished by what part of your mouth you use to block the air.
The voiced alveolar fricative is the initial consonant of zoo; the unvoiced alveolar fricative is the initial consonant of sue.
www.uta.edu /english/tim/courses/4301f98/2sept.html   (1750 words)

 HLW: Word Forms: Units: Consonants 1
The place of articulation for this consonant is one we didn't encounter for English stops; it is the second of the possible places associated with the lips (in addition to bilabial place of articulation).
For nasal consonants, the air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity, but it also resonates in the oral cavity, and the place of articulation (within the oral cavity) distinguishes different nasal consonants from one another.
The consonants that are the least vowel-like are stops, which involve a complete closure of the vocal tract and cannot be pronounced continuously.
www.indiana.edu /~hlw/PhonUnits/consonants1.html   (3621 words)

 Consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a constriction or closure at one or more points along the vocal tract.
The word consonant comes from Latin meaning "sounding with" or "sounding together", the idea being that consonants don't sound on their own, but only occur with a nearby vowel, although this conception of consonants does not reflect a modern linguistic understanding of consonants, which defines consonants in terms of vocal tract constrictions.
Consonant letters in the English alphabet are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Z, and sometimes Y - the letter Y stands for a consonant in "yoke" but for a vowel in "myth", for example.
www.yotor.com /wiki/en/co/Consonant.htm   (552 words)

 CONSONANT - Definition
Note: Consonants are divided into various classes, as mutes, spirants, sibilants, nasals, semivowels, etc.
All of them are sounds uttered through a closer position of the organs than that of a vowel proper, although the most open of them, as the semivowels and nasals, are capable of being used as if vowels, and forming syllables with other closer consonants, as in the English feeble (-b'l), taken (-k'n).
All the consonants excepting the mutes may be indefinitely, prolonged in utterance without the help of a vowel, and even the mutes may be produced with an aspirate instead of a vocal explosion.
www.hyperdictionary.com /dictionary/consonant   (320 words)

 Fricative consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Fricative consonants are produced by air flowing through a narrow channel made by placing two articulating organs close together (e.g.
Ubykh may be the language with the most fricatives, with 26.
This number actually outstrips the number of all consonants in English (which has 24 consonants).
www.1-free-software.com /en/wikipedia/f/fr/fricative_consonant.html   (126 words)

 wikien.info: Main_Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In affricate stops, the release simultaneously is a fricative.
Some linguists consider nasal consonants to be nasal stops, which are differentiated from the oral stop only by the lowered velum that allows the air to escape through the nose during the production of the nasal stop.
A postnasalized (oral) stop begins with a raised velum that lowers during the second phase of the stop articulation.
www.alanaditescili.net /index.php?title=Plosive_consonant   (579 words)

 Source variations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The glottal stop is made by briefly adducting the vocal folds, while for the stop consonant, the vocal folds are abducted.
The different glottal adjustments for the two consonants are clearly reflected in the patterns of change in the maximum flow.
For the glottal stop, the pattern is one of fall and rise during the preceding and following vowel, respectively.
www.ldc.lu.se /logopedi/department/andy/Phonation/Souce_variations.html   (280 words)

 STOP FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In financial_markets, a stop loss order is executed if the value of a position has declined below a certain limit.
truck_stop: an eating establishment on a major trucking route with a large carpark for truck drivers to stop and refresh themselves, and often with other amenities available.
"Stop": a 1998 release by Spice_Girls, from their second studio album, ''Spiceworld'', featuring the hits, "Spice_Up_Your_Life" and "Too_Much".
www.dontpayyourtaxes.com /stop   (272 words)

 Lateral consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Laterals are "L"-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue.
The other variant, so-called dark [l] (found before consonants or word-finally as in bold or tell), is pronounced with the tongue assuming a spoon-like shape and its back part raised, which gives the sound an [u]-like resonance.
Rarer lateral consonants include the sound of Welsh ll, which is a voiceless lateral fricative, and the retroflex laterals as can be found in most Hindustani languages.
mywiseowl.com /articles/Lateral_consonant   (309 words)

 Formant Transitions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
During the closure interval for a (non-nasal) stop consonant, the vocal tract is completely closed, and no sound escapes through the mouth.
However, at the moment of release of the stop constriction the resonances of the vocal tract change rapidly.
Using this device, it was discovered that the direction and extent of second and third formant transitions were sufficient to determine the perception of "place of articulation" (constrictor type).
sapir.ling.yale.edu:16080 /ling120/Consonants/Ca.html   (133 words)

Stops represent the most extreme articulation (full oral and nasal closure with cessation of air flow), marked by abrupt acoustic changes in the signal at both closure and release and low or zero amplitude between these two gestures (Stevens 1998).
Thus, stop consonants can be viewed as the strongest class of phonemic segments, perhaps less likely to undergo phonetic modification in context, or at least more likely to retain their consonantal character despite reduction or weakening.
Similarly, stop consonants, which are among the strongest consonants on several dimensions, may be more resistant to phonetic weakening than other consonant types.
web.simmons.edu /~veilleux/fw_project/00000813a.htm   (2584 words)

 APStracts 6:0382N, 1999.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Voiced stop consonants (/b/, /g/, and /d/) in syllable initial position are characterized by short VOTs, while unvoiced stop consonants (/p/, /k/, and /t/) contain prolonged VOTs.
As the VOT is increased in incremental steps, perception rapidly changes from a voiced stop consonant to an unvoiced consonant at an interval of 20-40 msec.
Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by stop consonant-vowel (CV) syllables were recorded directly from Heschl's gyrus, the planum temporale and the superior temporal gyrus in three patients undergoing evaluation for surgical remediation of medically intractable epilepsy.
www.uth.tmc.edu /apstracts/1999/jn/August/382n.html   (480 words)

A velar stop /k/ metathesizes with an adjacent coronal fricative /s/ just in case it is followed by another stop consonant.
No suffixes begin with stops at other places of articulation so again, it is not possible to determine whether all stops trigger the process, though it is reasonable to assume that that would be the case given the similar patterning of stops in other processes (see Related Processes).
A medial stop consonant is preserved in a triconsonantal cluster when followed by a non-stop, both in monomorphemic and polymorphemic forms, e.g.
www.ling.ohio-state.edu /~ehume/metathesis/Faroese.html   (492 words)

 Stop consonant - SmartyBrain Encyclopedia and Dictionary
Variability in apraxia of speech: a perceptual and VOT analysis of stop consonants.
The role of consonant-vowel transitions in the perception of the stop and nasal consonants, (Psychological monographs: general and applied)
Acoustic characteristics of Korean stop consonants (Studies in the phonology of Asian languages)
smartybrain.com /index.php/Plosive_consonant   (354 words)

 Affricate consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) but ends with a fricative or, in one language, a trilled release.
Also quite uncommon are alveovelar affricates where the fricative is lateral, such as the [tl] sound found in Nahuatl and Totonac.
Polish) affricate and "stop plus fricative" clusters contrast phonemically, as in czysta 'clean (f.)' [tʃ...] versus trzysta 'three hundred' [tʃ...] (the vertical line separates segments).
mywiseowl.com /articles/Affricate_consonant   (243 words)

 Temporal Encoding of the Voice Onset Time Phonetic Parameter by Field Potentials Recorded Directly From Human Auditory ...
Neural representation of stop consonant-vowel syllables in Heschl's gyrus
Responses are prominent with a VOT associated with the unvoiced consonant /t/ and nearly absent with the 20-ms VOT syllable.
Summerfield, Q., and Haggard, M. On the dissociation of spectral and temporal cues to the voicing distinction in initial stop consonants.
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/82/5/2346   (8547 words)

 Articles - Stop consonant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In many languages, such as Malay and Vietnamese, final stops lack a release burst, or have a nasal release.
A prenasalized stop starts out with a lowered velum that raises during the occlusion.
The duration between the release of the stop and the voice onset is called voice onset time (VOT).
www.lastring.com /articles/Stop_consonant?mySession=005b20a549c77fe15a750e5e927ec1a5   (1037 words)

 Thai Language - Tone Rules
You must also consider the class of the initial consonants (low, middle or high) and if they are live or dead syllables.
The latter is worked out by looking at the vowel sound (short or long) and whether the final consonant is a sonorant final (voiced) or a stop final (unvoiced).
A syllable that ends with a long vowel or a sonorant final consonant is called a live syllable.
www.learningthai.com /tone_rules.html   (542 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
SVMs were applied to the problem of detection of stop consonants [5] and the results were compared to a stop detector built by using HMMs with an MFCC front end.
Stops are characterized by period of silence (closure) followed by sudden release in energy (onset) and then a sudden fall in energy (offset).
The error estimate in detection of sonorant consonants is high because boundaries between vowels and sonorant consonants are not well defined and there is a lot of overlap in the training data.
www.isr.umd.edu /Labs/SCL/publications/paper003.doc   (3039 words)

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