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Topic: Strategic bombing


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In the News (Mon 22 Oct 18)

  
  Strategic bombing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war.
Strategic bombing in Europe never reached the decisive completeness that the American bombing campaign in Japan achieved, helped in part by the fragility of Japanese housing which was particularly vulnerable to the use of incendiary bombs.
Strategic bombing took on a more personal role, as strikes against individual leaders were considered, and approved, in the case of Saddam Hussein, or disapproved, in the case of Slobodan Milošević.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Strategic_bombing   (2971 words)

  
 Strategic bombing during World War II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the interwar years, British calculations of the likely effect of a strategic bombing from the data gathered during the German campaign suggested that a strategic attack on an enemy's cities using the latest generation of bombers would knock an enemy out of the war without the need for the stalemate of trench warfare.
In reality, the day bombing was "precision bombing" only in the sense that most bombs fell somewhere near a specific designated target such as a railway yard, whereas the night bombing campaign targeted cities with area bombardment.
The key development for the bombing of Japan was the B-29, which had an operational range of 1500 miles (2,400 km); almost 90% of the bombs dropped on the home islands of Japan were delivered by this type of bomber (147,000 tons).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Strategic_bombing_during_World_War_II   (3621 words)

  
 United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Summary Report (Pacific War)
Once started on a strategic plan which did not provide the means to assure continuing air control, there was no way in which they could revise their strategy to reverse the growing predominance in the air of a basically stronger opponent who came to understand this requirement and whose war was being fought accordingly.
The long-range bombing offensive from the Marianas was initiated in November 1944, with that in mind as the primary objective.
As might be expected, the primary reaction of the populace to the bomb was fear, uncontrolled terror, strengthened by the sheer horror of the destruction and suffering witnessed and experienced by the survivors.
www.anesi.com /ussbs01.htm   (19967 words)

  
 Strategic bombing at opensource encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Strategic bombers usually attack targets such as factories, railroads, communications facilities, oil fields and cities, while tactical bombers attack troop concentrations, airfields, ammunition dumps, and the like.
The use of nuclear weapons usually falls into the category of strategic bombing, perhaps as the ultimate form thereof, but in general the term refers to conventional bombing from aircraft or cruise missiles.
The use of language in describing such bombing campaigns during that war was also altered for propaganda reasons; thus the term collateral damage was used as a vague, less sinister sounding, term to describe the loss of life that resulted from strategic bombing.
www.wiki.tatet.com /Air_raid.html   (2305 words)

  
 PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly - Winter 1997-98
Bombing aircraft of an earlier period required a large payload to increase the probability that a single bomb would hit, let alone destroy, the target.
When strategic attack plans include infrastructure targets, such as command and control facilities, electrical power stations, and transportation networks, the specific purpose may be to reduce the ability of an adversary to resist further air and surface operations rather than affect the will of its citizens.
As noted earlier, AFM 1-1 states that strategic attacks seek to achieve an effect "on the war as a whole." Other analysts suggest that effects which are "transformatory" and "game-changing" are inherently strategic in nature.[19] In that sense, the struggle to achieve and maintain air superiority is, in its effects, a strategic attack.
www.carlisle.army.mil /usawc/Parameters/97winter/conversi.htm   (5972 words)

  
 Commentary: Was American WWII Bombing Democide?
Bombs were dropped intentionally on unarmed civilians in their homes or at work.
The civilian death toll in Japan from Allied bombing was between 330,000 and 900,000 with an additional 112,000 killed from the atomic bombs.
The master theorist and practitioner of civilian bombing was Sir Arthur T. Harris, marshall of the RAF and commander of the British bomber command from 1942 until the end of the war.
www.hawaii.edu /powerkills/COMM.10.5.03.HTM   (2463 words)

  
 Strategic Bombing In Iraq War
As a result of improvements in guidance and in bombing conditions, it appears that during Operation Iraqi Freedom, guided bombs hit the buildings they were aimed at nearly 100 percent of the time.
Strategic bombing enthusiasts have claimed that in the future, wars could be won by bombing alone.
Strategic bombing has a place in war, but the only place that I know of where it was decisive was in Japan during WWII.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/899344/posts   (1571 words)

  
 Dictionary : Strategic_and_Tactical_Bombing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Strategic bombing is bombing of enemy targets such as industrial plants, port facilities, and railway bridges.
For example, if a munitions plant is bombed, the effect may be felt only after some time has passed.
Tactical bombing is bombing that is directed against enemy military forces and other military targets and enemy strongholds.
www.centennialofflight.gov /essay/Dictionary/bombing/DI124.htm   (137 words)

  
 Offensive   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Tizard argued for the curtailment of strategic bombing and favored stepped-up attacks on U-boat facilities and the factories that produced these vessels in their home ports, a sort of maritime strategic bombing campaign.
This limited the bomb load of a B-17 to 6000 to 8000 pounds per aircraft, as contrasted with the Lancaster's capacity for hauling 12,000 pounds of bombs per plane.
The strategic bombing offensive, after all is said and done, then, made a major contribution to the defeat of Nazi Germany.
www.390th.org /research/Stories/offensive.htm   (4253 words)

  
 Air Power:The Prophets: Advocates of Strategic Bombing
The idea of bombing to deprive the enemy of the means and will to continue to fight became known as "strategic bombing."
Since bombsights were extremely inaccurate at the time, a massive amount of bombs would have to be dropped over a large rectangular area on the theory that one might hit the actual target.
Advocates of an independent U.S. air force felt that, because strategic bombing does not depend on partnerships with ground or naval troops, the needs of an air unit were often neglected when the people overseeing the budget were more interested in tanks or battleships.
www.centennialofflight.gov /essay/Air_Power/Prophets/AP11.htm   (1196 words)

  
 World War 2: A World at war
German industry proved to be astonishingly resilient in the face of bombing and that the overall importance of strategic bombing had been greatly exaggerated.
Even US General Arnold was to openly say that the bombing of factories from one end of the Reich to the other was not having the effect that had been hoped for.
In fact the two greatest results of the Allied bombing campaign, it is now generally accepted, were the destruction of the Luftwaffe as a fighting force and the disruption of German Oil supplies.
groups.msn.com /WorldWar2AWorldatwar/strategicbombing.msnw   (660 words)

  
 U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey: Tank Industry Report
As strategic bombing up to this time had had little or no effect on production, it is probable that the spreading out of the component product section of the industry during this period was primarily for the purpose of increasing production and not as a means of protecting the output of finished tanks.
It was not until the late summer and fall of 1944 that plants became the target for a concentrated strategic bombing effort.
From time to time during the combined bombing offensive, the greatest importance was attached to the bombing of bottlenecksm such as the offensive against the ball bearing industry.
www.angelfire.com /super/ussbs/tankrep.html   (7389 words)

  
 United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Summary Report (European War)
In January 1943, at Casablanca, the objective of the strategic air forces was established as the "destruction and dislocation of the Germany military, industrial, and economic system and the undermining of the morale of the German people to the point where their capacity for armed resistance is fatally weakened." Specific target systems were named.
With the shift in priority for strategic attacks -- first to marshalling yards and bridges in France in preparation for invasion, immediately followed by the air campaign against oil -- the continued attacks on the aircraft industry were suspended.
The combination of the atomic bomb with remote-control projectiles of ocean-spanning range stands as a possibility which is awesome and frightful to contemplate.
www.ibiblio.org /hyperwar/AAF/USSBS/ETO-Summary.html   (12194 words)

  
 Amazon.com: To Destroy a City: Strategic Bombing and Its Human Consequences in World War II: Books: Hermann ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Area bombing is the bombings whose targets were largely the populations, the centers, and usually the working class districts of cities.
Strategic bombing's contribution to the war effort has been debated and questioned since the war, but no one can justifiably claim that the overall campaign was "unnecessary" or that its losses "cannot be excused" simply because the morale bombing failed to win the war single-handedly.
To Destroy A City: Strategic Bombing And Its Human Consequences In World War II carefully studies strategic bombing in general, and examines its history with particular reference to the twentieth century during the two world wars, and its use and relative effectiveness or ineffectiveness in warfare.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0306811693?v=glance   (4307 words)

  
 Griffith | Strategic Bombing: The Same Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow?
The bombing surveys commissioned by both Great Britain and the United States documented the nominal material damage, but stressed the "indirect" effects on bombing in terms of lowering the morale of the civilian population and diverting badly needed forces from the combat areas to protect the home front.
Biddle recounts the bombing effort by paying particular attention to where the theories fell short and how the airmen struggled to develop the means necessary to carry out an effective strategic bombing campaign.
At the same time, the slide was almost inescapably toward less precise bombing methods as they attempted to make their ideas work in spite of German defenses, the European weather, and unskilled, but brave, air crews.
www.unc.edu /depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2004_01-03/book/book_griffith_strat.html   (1167 words)

  
 U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Between 1943 and 1945 the United States conducted massive bombing campaigns first against Germany and then Japan in an effort to wreck the inudustries which sustained their war efforts and defeat them without the need for costly invasions.
The U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS) was commissioned to assess these campaigns of "strategic bombing" and the lessons they might hold for American defense in the future.
While some of these are now of interest only in the narrowest of historical senses, scores remain of value not simply as unique historical documents but for their relevance to issues which continue to arise in war and peace.
www.ussbs.com   (193 words)

  
 Budiansky on limits of strategic bombing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Classic strategic bombing theory went through many evolutions and variations, but a constant from World War I right through the nuclear age was the belief that attacking enemy armies in the field was actually a wasteful diversion of effort—a "false objective," as air power pioneer Billy Mitchell boldly asserted.
Throughout the last century, much of the debate over the effectiveness of strategic bombing focused not on whether these ideas were fundamentally sound, but on technical arguments over how well they could be implemented in practice.
Yet strategic bombing in the end failed not just because of the difficulties of precisely targeting factories and government ministries with enough dumb bombs; it failed because the theories that lay at the heart of strategic bombing were often simply wrong in a very fundamental way.
www.budiansky.com /Washpost1216.html   (1031 words)

  
 Successful Strategic Bombing by William S. Lind
In one of history’s shortest and most successful strategic bombing campaigns, Islamic Fourth Generation forces have brought about "regime change" in Spain.
The Madrid bombings brought the war home to Spanish soil, which suddenly made Spain’s participation in it issue number one.
Using the simplest of technologies, al Qaeda or whatever Fourth Generation organization did it undertook a strategic bombing campaign of unprecedented effectiveness.
www.lewrockwell.com /lind/lind15.html   (533 words)

  
 Strategic Bombing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Several people involved in the development of early aircraft were aware of its potential to launch a long-range bombing attack deep inside enemy territory.
It was only after the end of the First World War that it became possible to carry out the policy of strategic bombing, envisaged by people like Hugh Trenchard, chief of staff to the RAF.
It has been estimated that during the war, 254 metric tons of bombs were dropped from aircraft, causing over 9000 casualties.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /FWWbombing.htm   (963 words)

  
 The Development of Royal Air Force
Bombing recalcitrant tribesmen who could mount no effective opposition was one thing, but it should have been obvious that undertaking bombing operations against an enemy capable of mounting some form of defense—either passive or active—would be a completely different thing.
The role of strategic airpower during the Great War was marginal, and air-control operations, although providing a valuable opportunity to gain operational flying experience, resulted in a false understanding of the requirements for carrying out a strategic offensive.
Instead, airpower advocates seized upon the experience with “strategic” bombing during the First World War as a means of ensuring the survival of the air force as an independent service.
www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil /airchronicles/apj/apj98/spr98/scot.html   (8138 words)

  
 Eagle Games Forums: Strategic Bombing
It appears that the two dice for each aircraft is only for air units in land battles while the +1 is for fighter rolls during Strategic Bombing (attacking or defending).
The text on the card is clear, you get two dice per plane in land battles and +1 modifier in strategic bombing air battles.
By posting such information on this website, the visitor expressly agrees that Eagle Games, Inc. shall be, for all intents and purposes, the owner of such material posted and the visitor waives whatever property right, intellectual or otherwise, he or she may have had in such information posted.
eaglegames.zeroforum.com /zerothread?id=5495   (409 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Rolling Thunder : The Strategic Bombing Campaign, North Vietnam 1965-1968: Books: John Smith   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
by John Smith "In carrying out the bombing the American military was working within a strategic bombing strategy and doctrine in the belief that it was possible to..." (more)
In carrying out the bombing the American military was working within a strategic bombing strategy and doctrine in the belief that it was possible to force an enemy to surrender by bombing alone.
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www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1871187206?v=glance   (606 words)

  
 United States Strategic Bombing Survey Reports
003 The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy
Bombing Accuracy, USAAF Heavy and Medium Bombers in the ETO
003 The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
www.ibiblio.org /hyperwar/AAF/USSBS   (1385 words)

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