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Topic: Stratification

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  Understanding Pond Stratification, A-7-01
Stratification is not a major concern, but it can contribute to pond management problems if specific circumstances arise.
Normal thermal stratification of a pond, if it is to occur, generally begins in May or early June and ends in September or early October.
Occasionally, summer stratification can be "broken up" during a major rain event in which a large volume of cold rain water causes the pond to prematurely overturn.
ohioline.osu.edu /a-fact/0007.html   (913 words)

  Stratification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stratification in archaeology are the layers in which objects are found.
Stratification is a separate meaning as applied to manifolds, and singularity theory, of a decomposition into pieces with specified relationships on fitting together.
In meteorology, atmospheric stratification is the division of the atmosphere into distinct layers, each with specific properties such as temperature or humidity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Stratification   (222 words)

 Social stratification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Social stratification is a sociological term for the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes, and strata within a society.
Stratification is a trait of the society, not the individual.
Proponents of structural-functional analysis suggest that since social stratification exists in all societies, a hierarchy must therefore be beneficial in helping to stabilize their existence.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_stratification   (719 words)

 Stratification (botany) - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
In horticulture, stratification is the process of pretreating seeds to simulate natural conditions that a seed must endure before germination.
In its most basic form, when the cold stratification process is controlled, the pretreatment amounts to nothing more than subjecting the seeds to storage in a cool (ideally +1° to +3°C; not freezing) and moist environment for a period found to be sufficient for the species in question.
Any seeds that are indicated as needing a period of warm stratification followed by cold stratification should be subjected to the same measures, but the seeds should additionally be stratified in a warm area first, followed by the cold period in a refrigerator later.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /stratification_(botany).htm   (938 words)

 Learn more about Stratification in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Stratification is the building up of layers of deposits, and can have several variations of meaning.
In archaeology, especially in the course of excavation, stratification is of major interest and significance.
In anthropology, stratification refers to the "layering" of people in a society into different classes, each with their own function.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /s/st/stratification.html   (260 words)

 Sorokin - The Work - Social Stratification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Social stratification, to Sorokin, means "the differentiation of a given popu- lation into hierarchically superposed classes." Such stratification, he held, is a permanent characteristic of any organized social group.
Stratification may be based on economic criteria--for example, when one focuses attention upon the differentials between the wealthy and the poor.
Whether one studies economic, political, or occupational stratification, Sorokin contended, one must always be attentive to two distinct phenomena: the rise or decline of a group as a whole and the increase or decrease of strat- ification within a group.
www2.pfeiffer.edu /~lridener/DSS/Sorokin/SOROKW4.HTML   (1322 words)

 AllRefer.com - stratification (Geology And Oceanography) - Encyclopedia
In shales, stratification can be seen by the tendency of the rock to split into thin flakes, caused by the parallel arrangement of the tiny clay mineral fragments.
Initially, most sediments are deposited with essentially horizontal stratification, although the layers may later be tilted or folded by internal earth forces.
Persistent, regular stratification is a reflection of the persistence and regularity of the depositional agent.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/S/stratifi.html   (304 words)

Stratification analysis is helpful in estimation and measurement, firstly, of the differences in actors' positions as members of passive strata or, secondly, of the differentiation in actors' social behaviour as members of active strata.
Soviet stratification studies carried out since the early 70s by Arutyunyan, Gordon, Klopov, Ryvkina, Shkaratan, Zaslavskaya and other scholars, were based mostly on the criteria of education and skills, work content and income differentiation.
In the present period of social reform in the Soviet Union the role of formal stratification as a whole seems to be decreasing.
lucy.ukc.ac.uk /csacpub/russian/radaev.html   (8982 words)

Stratification at the University of Maryland is grounded in the classical theories of Marx and Weber, but goes beyond their original conceptualizations to include the study of prominent neo-Marxists and neo-Weberians.
Through a number of courses, students are further able to explore in depth the major issues of the field such as poverty, income and occupational inequality, labor markets, the new economy, education and the relationships among class, race, and gender.
A special feature of the study of stratification at Maryland is an emphasis upon the analysis of the macro economy at the national and global levels as the underpinning of class systems, and the investigation of the relationship between macro economic changes and class structure.
www.bsos.umd.edu /socy/grad/specialty_stratification.html   (432 words)

The pre treatment of seeds (warm, cold, or variable stratification) is a surprisingly simple measure that one uses to break a seed's dormancy to enable the seed to germinate.
The term stratification, is derived from the age old practice of stimulating seed to germinate by placing alternate layers of a moist media and seed.
Stratification is used (among other methods) to remove mechanical moisture barriers and physiological blocks.
www.djroger.com /stratification.htm   (2282 words)

 SMIG -- Sverdrup Critical Depth Model (article: Sept. 1998)
Runaway stratification appears to be attributable to the strong nonlinearity that comes from the longitudinal salinity gradient; it provides the baroclinic pressure gradient that drives a flow which always acts to stratify, as well as providing the "source" term for the stratification itself.
Runaway stratification lengthens the timescale for vertical transport of the phytoplankton relative to the timescale for growth, allowing the phytoplankton to remain in the upper water column (photic zone) long enough to multiply.
Third, the intermittent stratification and unstratified threshold curves exhibit steeper overall slopes than the runaway stratification cases, indicating, as expected (Cloern, 1991), that the effects of benthic grazing on an unstratified or intermittently stratified water column are more marked than on a persistently stratified water column.
smig.usgs.gov /SMIG/features_0998/scdm_inline.html   (12346 words)

 Social Stratification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Stratification can be defined various ways, but most commonly refers to institutionalized inequalities in power, wealth, and status between categories of persons within a single social system (e.g., classes, castes, ethnic groups)
For example, only with stratification do we find the socioeconomic integration of large regions embracing millions of people; this shift from local resource utilization and self-sufficiency to production for regional markets seems to be associated with increased resource depletion and ecological instability (an issue we return to later in the course)
Reason for this is that written records only emerge with stratification (in fact, evidence suggests that in most cases writing was first developed in order to carry out two specific functions of stratified societies: maintain tax records, and record genealogies and histories of hereditary rulers)
courses.washington.edu /anth457/stratif.htm   (2198 words)

 PASS - Portfolio Stratification
Creating a stratification is a little like taking the family car apart.
Stratification and decoding is certainly an analytical task.
A complicated stratification task is the comparison of two different portfolios.
www.draving.com /bdci/ar_st2.htm   (1281 words)

 Class and Stratification
The concept of social stratification as a particular form of social division emphasises the idea that individuals are distributed among the levels or layers of a social hierarchy because of their economic relations.
One perennial topic in studies of stratification has been the question of whether the individual or the family household should be taken as the unit of analysis (Abbott and Sapsford 1987; Goldthorpe 1983; Scott 1994a).
One important aspect of investigations into social stratification, therefore, is the extent to which people's social imagery actually does centre on a sense of class identity.
privatewww.essex.ac.uk /~scottj/socscot8.htm   (13820 words)

 Making Winter for Seeds - A Cold Stratification Guide from Alchemy Works
But natural cold stratification usually results in the death of many seeds (which is why plants that rely mostly on seeds for reproduction make so many of them--it's insurance).
There are six methods of cold moist stratification to choose from: cold water soaking, refrigeration, fall planting, winter/solstice sowing, outdoor treatment, and snow planting.
Another way to use the fridge for brief cold stratification is to plant the seeds in individual jiffy pellets and put them in either a plastic covered container (such as for home baking little bread loaves) or in a store-bought "greenhouse" flat.
www.alchemy-works.com /fall_planting.html   (3153 words)

 Stratification&Segregation - Spontaneous
The mixture Hernán is slowly pouring into the cell consists of large, red, cubic sugar grains with a typical diameter of 0.8 mm and smaller spherical glass beads, which have a diameter of about 0.19 mm.
The stratification is apparent in the alternating red and while stripes.
But there are rocks, formed from ancient sand dunes, in which we are sure that stratification has occurred.
www.seed.slb.com /en/scictr/watch/stratifi/stratifi.htm   (471 words)

 stratification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
In these cases the sample for a whole year is selected at one point in time (usually using a combination of implicit and explicit stratification) and then the primary sampling units are systematically allocated to the 12 months of the year.
Disproportionate stratification will only reduce standard errors (relative to a proportionate stratified sample) if the population standard deviation for the variable of interest is higher than average within the over-sampled strata.
So, proportionate stratification is most efficient when the stratifiers that are used split the total variance in a way that maximises the between-strata variance.
www.dcs.napier.ac.uk /peas/sratheory.htm   (1978 words)

 Social Castes
Varna refers to the form and colour of something and is used in the Rg Veda to differentiate the Aryans from the indigenous peoples.
The Dharma Sutras and Dharma Sastras have a socio-religious stratification in a four-tiered ideal, the catur-varna, the four caste-orders.
At the highest tier are the brahmans, priests, then come the ksatriyas, warriors, the vaisyas, commoners, yeomen farmers, and merchants, and the sudras, servants.
philtar.ucsm.ac.uk /encyclopedia/hindu/ascetic/castes.html   (1257 words)

 UCLA Soc. 157, Social Stratification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Topic: Social stratification concerns the unequal distribution of things which are scarce but widely desired, and the process of status attainment or social mobility whereby some persons or groups come to receive more of these scarce things than are received by others.
Central to social stratification are such quantitative resources as wealth, income, education, and prestige.
Stratification studies make use of such statistical tools as contingency tables, correlation coefficients and regression equations, in order to describe and explain how some get more, and others get less, of those scarce but desired resources.
www.sscnet.ucla.edu /soc/faculty/mcfarland/soc157   (1210 words)

 Seed Stratification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The term stratification is derived from the old practice of stimulating seed to germinate by placing alternate layers of moist sand and seed.
Stratification involves placing the seed in a moist medium to simulate the natural conditions it "expects" from its native environment.
Do-It-Yourself Stratification: Seed stratification is a simple technique, though it is not always easy to control.
gardenline.usask.ca /misc/seed_str.html   (559 words)

 Counterpoint: Bias from Population Stratification Is Not a Major Threat to the Validity of Conclusions from ...
Counterpoint: Bias from Population Stratification Is Not a Major Threat to the Validity of Conclusions from Epidemiological Studies of Common Polymorphisms and Cancer -- Wacholder et al.
Counterpoint: Bias from Population Stratification Is Not a Major Threat to the Validity of Conclusions from Epidemiological Studies of Common Polymorphisms and Cancer
bias from population stratification is the distortion in the
cebp.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/11/6/513   (6132 words)

 stratification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Today, sequence stratigraphy recognises as diachronic, facies of system tracts which, in contradiction to the principle of superposition, can be observed as juxtaposed, and more or less superposed as shown in the diagram.
This experimental study examines possible stratification of heterogeneous sand mixtures under continuous (non-periodic and non interrupted) sedimentation.
The three primary aspects of stratification are considered : lamination, graded beds, and joints.
geology.ref.ac /berthault/fusion/stratification.htm   (855 words)

 seed germination germinating seeds planting sprouting sowing seeds
These seeds often have thick hard coats (mechanical dormancy) and the recommended extra time in warm stratification for them is meant to allow them time in a warm moist situation inorder for their coats to begin to break down (in some cases it also has an effect on the embryo).
Quite often seeds recommended as needing only a short (4-6 or 8 weeks) cold stratification will germinate sporadically after receiving only a water soak before sowing-however the germination rate cannot be relied upon to be as initially high, even or unified as the rate of those that receive the recommended short length of cold stratification.
When storing seeds for sowing or stratification at some later date be sure to store them as they are in their sealed plastic ziploks so as to keep them air tight and dry and place in your refrigerator to keep cold.
trees-seeds.com /seed.htm   (4935 words)

 stratification on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Gender stratification: a structural model for examining case examples of women in less-developed countries.(sociological research on India, South Africa, Cambodia)(Statistical Data Included)
A Systematic Approach to Risk Stratification and Intervention Within a Managed Care Environment Improves Diabetes Outcomes and Patient Satisfaction.
Enhancing germination of eastern gamagrass seed with stratification and gibberellic acid.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/s1/stratifi.asp   (549 words)

 BonsaiSite.com - Germinating tree seeds sowing seeds cold stratification
In its most basic form, when we control the cold stratification process, the pretreatment amounts to not much more than subjecting the seeds to storage in a cold (not freezing) and moist environment for a period found to be sufficient for the species in question.
*After undergoing the recommended period of cold stratification in your refrigerator the seeds are ready to be removed and sown in a warm situation in flats, the nursery bed or pot for germination.
Usually the number one reason for the outbreak of fungus or mould during the stratification process is excessive moisture in the peat in combination with excess bacteria.
www.bonsaisite.com /germinate.html   (2799 words)

 WOW | Curricula | Teacher | Thermal Stratification
This could be done either during your initial discussions of thermal stratification or as part of the closure to the lesson.
If stratification is evident, the students should label each of the layers (epilimnion, thermocline, hypolimnion).
The amount of wind, depth of the lake, surface area of the lake, and orientation of the lake (lakes that are oriented east-west are more affected than lakes oriented north-south) determine whether or not a lake will remain stratified throughout the summer.
waterontheweb.org /curricula/bs/teacher/thermal/teaching.html   (2640 words)

 Equality, Egalitarianism and Social Stratification in Satanism
Conservatism sounds enticing with its strong insistence on a social hierarchy, which sounds like the same as Satanic "stratification" where "water finds its own level", but in conservatism this is not what it seems, which I'll explain after confirming the Liberal position.
A form of stratification fixes the leaks that democracy springs when the masses are ignorant and stupid.
The present culture in the UK is at such a level of education that democracy has become an empty shell, until education reaches a generally higher level stratification is the least problematic form of democracy.
www.dpjs.co.uk /equality.html   (1311 words)

 Tree seed germination and trees stratification information
Sow late summer onwards if germinating seed as nature intended, outdoors in pots for the weather to provide the natural stratification of seeds.
MD12 will require stratification 12 weeks prior to sowing around mid to late December if you are sowing in the spring.
For the longer stratification requirements of some species it may be practical to sow outdoors where they will be exposed to the normal seasonal temperature fluctuations e.g.
www.nickys-nursery.co.uk /seeds/pages/bonsai-info.htm   (1181 words)

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