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Topic: Stratification (botany)

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  Stratification K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects
In horticulture, stratification is the process of pretreating seeds to simulate natural conditions that a seed must endure before germination.
In its most basic form, when the cold stratification process is controlled, the pretreatment amounts to nothing more than subjecting the seeds to storage in a cool (ideally +1° to +3°C; not freezing) and moist environment for a period found to be sufficient for the species in question.
Any seeds that are indicated as needing a period of warm stratification followed by cold stratification should be subjected to the same measures, but the seeds should additionally be stratified in a warm area first, followed by the cold period in a refrigerator later.
www.juliantrubin.com /encyclopedia/botany/stratification.html   (1085 words)

  Stratification (botany) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In horticulture, stratification is the process of pretreating seeds to simulate natural conditions that a seed must endure before germination.
For seeds of trees and shrubs from temperate climates, stratification involves soaking and chilling seeds prior to sowing.
Any seeds that are indicated as needing a period of warm stratification followed by cold stratification should be subjected to the same measures, but the seeds should additionally be stratified in a warm area first, followed by the cold period in a refrigerator later.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Stratification_(botany)   (922 words)

 Stratification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stratification in archaeology are the layers in which objects are found.
Stratification (botany), where seeds are pretreated to simulated winter conditions so that germination may occur.
Stratification is a separate meaning as applied to manifolds, and singularity theory, of a decomposition into pieces with specified relationships on fitting together.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Stratification   (245 words)

 Botany online: Growth - Differentiation - Pattern Formation - Long Distance Transport
Stratification is not to be confused with vernalization, which means that flower development takes place only after a cold period.
The adaptation to certain environmental parameters is among the most studied topics of botany.
Among them is the alternate or opposite position of lateral shoots or leaves, the regular distribution of guard cells or hairs at the leaf surface and the time of flower formation.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e28/28.htm   (573 words)

 Learn more about Botany in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Botany is the branch of Biology concerned with the scientific study of plants.
However, advances in our knowledge about the myriad forms of life, especially microbes (viruses and bacteria) have led to a spinning off from botany of the specialized field of Microbiology.
Among the earliest of botanical works, written around 300 BC, are two large treatises by Theophrastus: On the History of Plants (Historia Plantarum) and On the Causes of Plants.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /b/bo/botany.html   (265 words)

 American Journal of Botany, 62, 1, January, 1975   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Abstract: Stratification of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) seeds at 4 C was most successful for breaking dormancy, whereas -5 C was least effective and 10 C was intermediate.
Germination in the light exceeded that in the dark at all stratification and germination temperatures.
This was affected by stratification temperature and duration and germination temperature.
www.botany.org /ajb/00029122_di001741.html   (1832 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Physiognomy - outward appearance of a plant community; relates to the plants life forms and the stratification (architecture)of the community.
Bring into your discussion the structure and function of these systems, including the evolutionary adaptations of the dominant plants and algae, and the current paradigms of energy flow and nutrient cycling in these systems.
For full credit your answer should have addressed the essential differences between these two systems, such as water velocity, stratification, nutrient spiraling, river continuum, trophic dynamics and also have contrasted the adaptations of the lotic periphyton relative to the phytoplankton.
www.uvm.edu /~jphclass/bot160/exams/midterm.95.ans   (997 words)

 Role of warm stratification in promoting germination of seeds of Empetrum hermaphroditum (Empetraceae), a circumboreal ...
Role of warm stratification in promoting germination of seeds of Empetrum hermaphroditum (Empetraceae), a circumboreal species with a stony endocarp -- Baskin et al.
A 12-wk period of cold stratification is adequate to break dormancy
Baskin C. Baskin 1995 Warm plus cold stratification requirement for dormancy break in seeds of the woodland herb Cardamine concatenata (Brassicaceae), and evolutionary implications.
www.amjbot.org /cgi/content/full/89/3/486   (5049 words)

 GINKGO BILOBA -The Ginkgo Pages-Propagation
Pollination and the development of the sexual phase occur in the first year (April to September in the northern hemisphere).
Research indicates that the embryo is well-developed at the time of dispersal and that the seed coat only contributes to winter dormancy (American Journal of Botany 84(6): 870-872, 1997).
After shedding of the seeds the embryo carries on developing according to external temperature: the higher the temperature, the faster the development.
www.xs4all.nl /~kwanten/propagation.htm   (4251 words)

 Botany Abstracts - 2001 Symposium
To determine length of cold period needed to break MPD, fresh seeds were given 4, 8, or 12 wk of cold stratification in light (simulating natural field conditions in winter) and then moved to the five thermoperiods.
Seeds given 12 wk of cold stratification in dark and then incubated at the five thermoperiods in dark for 60 days germinated to 100, 96, 100, 98, and 94%, respectively.
C in light germinated to 4-11% over the range of thermoperiods in light, and those given warm stratification in darkness germinated to 0-4% in darkness.
www.apsu.edu /field_biology/center/sym2001/botabstracts.htm   (3467 words)

 Student takes science project to next level   (Site not responding. Last check: )
She chose the area of botany because she likes working with plants.
She discovered the sixweek stratification seeds grew faster than the others.
Dalton won first place in botany with the science fair project and she went to regionals in Fayetteville, where she received the Discovery Award.
www.bentonville.k12.ar.us /web/presscenter/get_newsitem.asp?Id=529   (419 words)

 The effect of maternal photoperiod on seasonal dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) -- Munir et al. 88 (7): ...
stratification influenced the percentage of seeds that germinated
Botany, July 1, 2004; 91(7): 1036 - 1045.
Botany, June 1, 2004; 91(6): 837 - 849.
www.amjbot.org /cgi/content/abstract/88/7/1240   (446 words)

 Interspecific and intraspecific variation in seed size and germination requirements of Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Table 3. Optimal pretreatment (week of cold, moist stratification), seed size (length in mm), and ranks (based on Tukey's LSD post hoc test for multiple comparisons among means) for the studied populations of Sarracenia purpurea
accelerated by increasing stratification from 2 to 4 wk in
to 50% germination was accelerated by increasing stratification
intl.amjbot.org /cgi/content/full/88/3/429   (4333 words)

 Elaeagnus umbellata risk assessment   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Optimum germination is achieved with a minimum stratification period of 16 weeks at 50 to 68 degrees Fahrenheit (10-20 deg C) [28].
Optimum germination is achieved with a minimum stratification period of 16 weeks at 50 to 68 degrees Fahrenheit (10-20 deg C) [reference 28].; (2) It grows rapidly, producing fruits in 3-5 years.
Seeds were separated from the pulp and placed in naked cold stratification at 5 deg C for 8, 12, 16 or 20 wk before testing for germination on moist filter paper at night/day temp.
www.hear.org /Pier/wra/pacific/elaeagnus_umbellata_htmlwra.htm   (2086 words)

 Germination   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In a Botany sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage.
When a mature seed is placed under favorable conditions and fails to germinate, it is said to be dormancy.
The length of time plant seeds remain dormant can be reduced or eliminated by a simple seed treatment called stratification (botany).
read-and-go.hopto.org /Botany/Germination.html   (298 words)

 Re: How does temperature effect germination?
Some seeds require stratification before they will germinate.
Stratification is a period of several weeks to several months of cold (around 40 degrees F), moist storage.
Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Botany.
www.madsci.org /posts/archives/2001-03/984802707.Bt.r.html   (125 words)

 Seed - Wikipedia
Also a single seed or grain; as, a kernel of corn.
See also : stratification (botany) for plant germination, botany
A SeeD in Final Fantasy VIII is a mercenary working for a Garden.
wikipedia.findthelinks.com /se/Seed.html   (332 words)

 Seedbed - TheBestLinks.com - Seed bed, Weed, Drainage, Stratification (botany), ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Seed bed, Seedbed, Weed, Seed, Drainage, Stratification (botany), Germination...
A seedbed is a specially prepared area of the garden that has been made suitable for the sowing and germination of plant seeds.
See also: Stale seed bed, seed drill, stratification (botany).
www.thebestlinks.com /Seed_bed.html   (134 words)

 Strange Science: Timeline
c.975-Syrian Shiite Muslims known as the Brothers of Purity publish an encyclopedia, The Aim of the Sage, with thorough and accurate descriptions of the process of rock stratification.
The work, covering alchemy, astrology, medicine, botany, and other topics, will be translated in three years and published in 1471.
Although it will be hotly debated, this technique will eventually become standard practice in paleontology, botany and zoology.
www.strangescience.net /timeline.htm   (12460 words)

 Welcome to Prairiesource.com   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Spring planted non treated seed will result in some plants, however it will take several years for plants to show.
Thirty to forty five days cool moist stratification is recommended.
Ethno-botany: Most ethnobotanical uses are reported for Echinacea angustifolia, however it is logical that pale purple coneflower was used in the same ways.
www.prairiesource.com /viewflower.asp?ID=6   (262 words)

 American Journal of Botany, 82, 3, March, 1995
Embryo growth and germination occurred during cold stratification (1, 5, 5/1 C), without a warm stratification pretreatment.
However, warm stratification pretreatments at 30/15 C increased rates of embryo growth in O. occidentalis and E. grandiflorum seeds moved to low temperatures and germination rates in all three species.
Optimum germination temperatures were 1, 5, or 5/1 C; gibberellic acid did not substitute for cold stratification.
www.botany.org /ajb/00029122_di001972.php   (3228 words)

 Plant Propagation - How plants Subtract to Add and Divide to Multiply   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Place under the soil surface by varying degrees of depth depending on the size of the seed.
If the Endosperm is extremely hard, a presoaking, a chemical pre-treatment, or stratification may be required.
Stratification is the layering of seed in a pot or box with a medium such as sand and peat moss and refrigerating or cooling them for a period of time.
www.ifi-us.com /PlantPropagation.html   (1609 words)

 Stratification - OneLook Dictionary Search   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Stratification : Online Plain Text English Dictionary [home, info]
Stratification : Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences [home, info]
Phrases that include Stratification: social stratification, thermal stratification, atmospheric stratification, chemical stratification, cross stratification, more...
www.onelook.com /?w=Stratification&ls=a   (332 words)

 Abstract - Kuzelova & Tichy   (Site not responding. Last check: )
KUZELOVA I. and TICHY L. Department of Botany, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
Processing of large phytosociological data sets for vegetation classification can be unduly influenced by bias inherent to large databases.
These data sets were classified by the cluster analysis and applicability of particular types of stratification was evaluated.
www.bio.unc.edu /faculty/peet/vegdata/iavs2003/a_kuzelo.htm   (154 words)

 SparkleberrySprings.com   (Site not responding. Last check: )
If you've stratified seeds in the previous month (see Seed Stratification), then here's where I introduce you into the mysteries of germinating them.
I think that this may be a very parsimonious approach to testing unknown seeds.
Put them in the baggie before stratification and let whatever will germinate do so.
sparkleberrysprings.com /Mar_Seed_Stratification.html   (479 words)

Plants difficult to study under field conditions are brought to the laboratory for microscopic examination and identification.
Ecological features such as community stratification and plant zonation along ecological gradients are examined.
Prerequisite: one year of general biology or one semester of botany.
www.ausable.org /ap.courses.detail.cfm?course=232   (88 words)

 Lesson 3
No animal can say it was dead before it became alive.
Submit this activity to me via email or put it in your folder in the classroom.
Many botany books are available in the Rachel Carson Classroom.
www.4j.lane.edu /~whitley/botany/lessons/lesson03/botless3.html   (752 words)

 Shoot's Blog: The great sugar pine seed operation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Then, my germination rate was rather poor: only two seeds germinated out of about 30 (one without stratification, the other after about four months stratification).
Finally, though, I found this great article on germination of sugar pine seeds in the American Journal of Botany (65:804).
It was a little strange though, this author saw 50% germination after a month's stratification (to my 10%); he saw 90% germination, in short order, after 5 months' stratification (to my 10%).
www.treedazzled.com /shoot/2005/04/the_great_sugar.html   (404 words)

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