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Topic: Submersion

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  Submersion Injuries in Oklahoma
Fatal submersions were lowest for swimming pools and highest for canals and rivers.
Among persons over 14 years of age, when alcohol was involved, the percent of fatal submersions was 100% in bathtubs, hot tubs and ponds compared to 70% in swimming pools.
Among swimming pool submersions, children under 5 years of age experienced the highest number of injuries (57%) followed by persons 5-14 years (20%); percentages decreased steadily in the older age groups.
www.health.state.ok.us /program/injury/Summary/drown/Submersion.htm   (681 words)

 Bathtub Drowning: Unintentional, Neglect, or Abuse Medicine and Health Rhode Island - Find Articles
The percentage of bathtub submersion injuries that have been reported to be due to abuse or neglect has varied from 5 to 95%.
The pathophysiology of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and the relationship between submersion time and outcome in unintentional drowning were not used to evaluate the veracity of the history provided by the caretaker.
The authors speculated that intentional submersion injuries were missed, "because there is no specific trauma apparent, such as the more readily discernible and interpretable spiral fractures." However, in the subsequent literature this distinction was lost.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa4100/is_200312/ai_n9332680   (804 words)

 Wright State University
This is a very lethal injury, as 50% of pediatric submersion victims die, placing it among the highest percentage of all reported injuries.
Submersions among infants younger than one year old usually occur in bathtubs where they have been left unattended.
The injury of submersion is hypoxia (lack of adequate oxygenation of the blood).
www.wright.edu /admin/fredwhite/pharmacy/drowning.html   (1533 words)

 eMedicine - Submersion Injury, Near Drowning : Article by Suzanne Shepherd, MD, MS, DTMandH   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The submersion time, water temperature, water tonicity, degree of water contamination, symptoms, associated injuries (especially cervical spine and head), presence of co-ingestants, underlying medical conditions, type of rescue, and response to initial resuscitation are all relevant factors.
Victims of mild to moderately severe submersion, who only have mild symptoms that improve during observation and have no abnormalities on ABG or pulse oximetry and chest radiograph, should be observed for a more prolonged period of time in the ED or observation unit.
Victims of mild to moderately severe submersion, who have only mild symptoms that improve during observation and have no abnormalities on ABG or chest radiograph, can be discharged after a longer period of observation in the ED or observation unit.
www.emedicine.com /emerg/topic744.htm   (4773 words)

 Case Based Pediatrics Chapter
Submersion injuries, which include drowning and near-drowning continue to be one of the leading causes of deaths in children, after motor vehicle accidents and cancer.
Salt water submersion victims will likely be hypernatremic and fresh water submersion victims will likely be hyponatremic, but this difference does not appear to be clinically important in most instances, and is largely due to swallowed water rather than aspirated water.
Hypernatremia may occur in a salt water submersion victim, but it is not considered clinically important in most instances and it is not considered to be a "complication".
www.hawaii.edu /medicine/pediatrics/pedtext/s14c06.html   (1267 words)

 Hypothermia and Near Drowning
Hypothermia is a lowered body temperature less than 95 degrees F. Cold water near-drowning is considered a submersion accident often leading to unconsciousness or coma in water temperatures of 70 degrees F or less.
Submersion accidents which lead to unconsciousness in waters colder than 70 degrees F occur with regularity.
Submersions as long as an hour can in some circumstances be fully resuscitated.
scuba-doc.com /hypoth.htm   (1477 words)

 eMedicine - Near Drowning : Article by Michael Verive, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
However, submersion injuries that are associated with prolonged hypoxia or ischemia, especially in older patients who cannot rapidly achieve core hypothermia, are likely to lead to both significant primary injury and secondary injury from reperfusion, sustained acidosis, cerebral edema, hyperglycemia, release of excitatory neurotransmitters, seizures, hypotension, and impaired cerebral autoregulation.
Although cerebral edema is a common consequence of prolonged submersion (or submersion followed by prolonged circulatory insufficiency), retrospective reviews and animal studies have not demonstrated any benefit from the use of intracranial pressure monitoring with diffuse axonal injury.
However, as submersion injuries may be associated with trauma (especially to the head, neck, and trunk), focal or persistent neurologic deficit may indicate mass lesions or other injury amenable to surgical intervention.
www.emedicine.com /ped/topic2570.htm   (3971 words)

 Office of the Medical Director
The number of submersions increased from a low of 40 to a high of 70 in 1997.
The overall death rate from drowning increased 25% between 1995 and 1998, from a low of 1.3 deaths/100,000 in population in 1995 to a high of 1.7 in 1998.
The numbers of submersions begin to incline during the month of April, with the actual peak in the month of July.
www.medcontrol.com /submersion.html   (1430 words)

 Flourinert + submersion chiller idea? - XtremeSystems Forums
Anyway, the idea I thought about was doing some submersion cooling on an SMP + SLI system in a few gallons of flourinert Fc-72, but what would be the point of that if I couldn't cool the hell out of it for some overclocking.
For computer submersion the ideal type is FC-72, with a boiling point of 56C and a pour point of -90C.
Submersion cooling is messy and inefficient and for the same price as those liquids you can just build 2 single stage phase-change units.
www.xtremesystems.org /forums/showthread.php?t=42878   (2267 words)

 Effects of training on forced submersion responses in harbor seals -- Jobsis et al. 204 (22): 3877 -- Journal of ...
Heart rate during submersion for all training sessions of seal A. Note the steady increase in heart rate and typical pattern of low heart rate for the first submersion of each session.
Comparison of two submersions, the fourth of the naive session and the third of the trained session, for seal S. Arrows indicate the start and end of submersions.
A spontaneous apnea is shown before submersion during the trained session and is indicated by the solid line.
jeb.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/204/22/3877   (4575 words)

 A Little About Your Submersion DJs
Submersion was my first return to DJing after taking a sabbatical for many years, and it is dear to my heart.
This experience was short lived and did not go as well as was hoped, but it did give me a chance to actually test my theories of flow and atmosphere on a live audience.
I do not beat mix, as I do not think it is always necessary, but as previously stated, the flow of the mix is of the utmost importance, and despite what some of the more techno-fied DJs would tell you, assault with bombastic matched beats is not the only way to make a mix flow.
www.darkwaver.com /submersion/bio.html   (671 words)

 The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Near-Drowning
Others consider anyone who dies within 24 hours of a submersion accident a drowning victim, and still others attribute late deaths to their associated complications like acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurologic death, or pneumonia.
Other factors that are associated with an increased risk of a submersion accident include seizures, hypothermia, an inability to swim, fatigue or exhaustion, hyperventilation, illicit drug use, cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial infarctions, suicide, and child abuse or neglect (2,3,8).
The pathophysiology varies somewhat between freshwater and saltwater submersion accidents and between drowning and near-drowning, but the essential pathophysiologic element in all these events is hypoxemia.
www.physsportsmed.com /issues/1998/07jul/reed.htm   (2149 words)

 submersion pumps Sellers, Suppliers, Exporters, Manufacturers, Factories   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
submersible slurry pump It is used by transportation wearable or proof-corrosive granule in electric power, mine, metallurgy, coal and carbon, structural material It is also used in foodstuff,....
Shuilishi 4-inch and 6-inch stainless steel series of deep well submersible pumps are a kind of high performance wearing electric pumps that introduced the advanced pump technology from the foreig....
QJ Well Submersible Motor Pump is suitable for farm irrigation water supply, drainage in factories and mines.
www.fuzing.com /qrx/submersion_pumps   (630 words)

 Heimlich Maneuver Controversy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
While the submersion victims who received the Heimlich Maneuver as the initial step did respond well, the degree to which the Heimlich Maneuver contributed to this outcome is unknown.
This fact is also reflected in several instances in the 1998 and 1999 data, where submersion victims that only received rescue breathing as the initial step did as well as those that received the Heimlich Maneuver as the initial step.
In light of its own data analysis and the pending 2000 Cardiac Care and CPR Guideline recommendations from the American Heart Association (which are not expected to change in regard to this matter), EandA believes that the prudent course of action is to revise its protocol at this time.
medfraud.info /cpaheimlich.htm   (1506 words)

 Lone Sentry: Further Information About German Tanks (WWII Intelligence Bulletin, September 1943)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The measures employed are said to have included the sealing of all joints and openings in the tank with rubber and the introduction of a flexible air pipe, the free end of which was attached to a float.
The supply of air for the crew, as well as for the engine, was provided by this flexible pipe, which permitted submersion to a maximum depth of 16 feet.
After submersion, the springs could be released by controls inside the tank.
www.lonesentry.com /articles/infotank/index.html   (781 words)

 Effect of immersion, submersion, and scuba diving on heart rate variability -- Schipke and Pelzer 35 (3): 174 -- ...
The three time domain measures (standard deviation of the normal to normal intervals (SDNN), root mean square of NN intervals (RMSSD), and percentage of the differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 milliseconds normalised to all differences within the interval (pNN50)) all exhibited a significant increase in HRV compared with control conditions.
In the low frequency (LF) range, the spectral density was slightly increased during immersion and submersion; the increase was significant during diving.
The spectral density in the high frequency (HF) range under control conditions was significantly increased during immersion, submersion, and diving.
bjsm.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/35/3/174   (3720 words)

 Analysis of the Impedance Spectra of Short Conductive Fiber-Reinforced Composites - Results and Discussion
Based upon the water conductivity and the radius of the wire in the present study, this value should be 33.3 k Ω, to be compared with the "just touching" experimental value of 44.5 k Ω (normalized to unity in Fig.
This disagreement was probably due to the fact that the rate of change of resistance was extremely large in the first mm of submersion, which is precisely where the amount of submersion is difficult to gauge due to meniscus formation, thereby leading to fairly large experimental uncertainties in this region.
The experimental value at 0.26 mm of submersion, or approximately the same as the wire radius, was 20.9 k Ω.
ciks.cbt.nist.gov /~garbocz/125Impedance/node5.htm   (2590 words)

 Swimming Pool Safety
In addition, more than 2,000 children in that age group are treated in hospital emergency rooms for submersion injures.
Medical costs for submersion victims during the initial hospitalization alone can be quite high.
Seventy-five percent of the submersion victims studied by CPSC were between 1 and 3 years old; 65 percent of this group were boys.
www.liveandlearn.com /pools.html   (1599 words)

 Submersion Mounted pH Electrodes : Products - pH - Process :: Sensorex   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Submersion installations into tanks are one of the most common installation methods.
Submersion measurements in tanks, flumes, and sewer lines are the most common type of mounting arrangement for pH measurement.
It is especially well suited for applications with high suspended solids or where flocculation operations require low velocities.
www.sensorex.com /products/ph_electrodes/process/flat/submersion.html   (498 words)

 Use of Washington State newspapers for submersion injury surveillance -- Baullinger et al. 7 (4): 339 -- Injury ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Table 3 Reporting in newspapers of submersion victims that appeared in Washington State death certificate files and computerized hospital data before (1993–95) and after (1996–98) a letter was sent urging newspaper staff to report submersion episodes; values are number (%)
Table 4 Proportion of submersion victims who were in death certificate files and were reported in newspapers, by age and time period
with a significant increase in the proportion of submersion
ip.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/7/4/339   (2181 words)

 Effects of Two-Way Immersion on the Ethnic Identification of Third Language Students: An Exploratory Study
Indeed, numerous studies have shown that L1 instruction can provide greater benefits for language minority children than submersion in a socially dominant language where these children are subjected to instruction through the unfamiliar language of the majority culture (Greene, 1998; Ramirez, Yuen and Ramey, 1991; Thomas and Collier, 1997; Willig, 1985).
Lambert and Tucker (1972) showed that the kindergarten L2 immersion of language majority children promotes identification with the target linguistic/ethnic group, a result that occurred against the stated desires of the monolingual English parents, who claimed to want their children to acquire the French language without becoming "too French" in the process.
Beebe and Giles (1984) suggest that when students perceive language learning as a betrayal of their own language and culture, they are not likely to attain L2 proficiency, nor proficiency in the new culture.
brj.asu.edu /archives/1v21/articles/Issue1Rolstad.html   (7709 words)

 Self-Cleaning Process pH/ORP Electrodes and Mounting Kits
In-line Mounting: ideal for piping systems where flow can be shut off for electrode maintenance and where flow rates match the application's needs; for example, turbulent flow is needed in self-cleaning application.
In viscous solution applications these flow rates may be difficult to achieve; however, lower rates still provide flow in sheer to assure that fresh material is at the measuring surface.
Submersion Mounting; useful for making measurements in tanks, flumes, and sewer lines.
www.kerncoinstr.com /12e70.htm   (676 words)

Drowning is a significant health problem within the U.S. It is the 7th leading cause of unintentional injury deaths for people of all ages and is the 2nd leading cause of unintentional injury deaths for children 1 - 14 years of age.
The leading contributing factor associated with pediatric submersion incidents, especially in residential and multi-family complex facilities is a lapse or lack in adult supervision.
Therefore, apartment complex managers and operators must warn and educate their residents about the dangers associated with water and the need to provide vigilant and effective supervision of children anytime they are in and around the water.
www.lifesaving.com /issues/articles/04-05/04-05.html   (642 words)

 Massachusetts Emergency Medical Services - Environmental Emergencies / Drowning & Near Drowning
Near-Drowning is defined as a submersion episode that results in survival (full or partial recovery) or temporary survival that ultimately leads to death after a period of twenty-four (24) hours.
Drowning begins with accidental or intentional submersion in any liquid, however, fresh and salt water drowning are the most common.
Factors affecting survival include the patient's age, length of time of submersion, general health of the victim, type and cleanliness of liquid medium and water temperature that may contribute to the effectiveness of the mammalian diving reflex.
www.moondragon.org /ems/drowning.html   (1227 words)

 Standard metabolic rate at the surface and during trained submersions in adult California sea lions (Zalophus ...
MR was measured, at rest and for single submersions of increasing
MR prior to submersion, the subject was stationed in the metabolic
Submersion MR versus dive duration for (A) males and (B) females.
jeb.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/204/19/3273   (5230 words)

 Survival After Prolonged Submersion in Freshwater in Florida -- Modell et al. 125 (5): 1948 -- Chest   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
after onset of submersion normal survival is possible.
submersion occurs during drowning, and inhalation of water may
Quan, L, Wentz, KR, Gore, EJ, et al Outcome and predictors of outcome in pediatric submersion victims receiving pre-hospital care in King County, Washington.
www.chestjournal.org /cgi/content/full/125/5/1948   (2473 words)

 Drowning   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
A distinction is made among the terms "submersion," "near-drowning," and "drowning" as follows:
"Submersion" is a condition of being under the surface of a liquid.
A "serious submersion" is a submersion in Category II or Category III of the classification under the
patrickinstitute.org /drowning.htm   (187 words)

 Use of Aquatic Insects in Determining Submersion Interval
Although its potential is great, the use of aquatic insects in determining submersion intervals at death-scene investigations has not been exploited in the past.
However, aquatic environmental studies show that organisms may colonize a substrate dependent on factors such as size, position, exposure to current, water temperature, current speed, water depth, the presence of algal communities, or detritus.
Certain aquatic insects such as the chironomid midges (Diptera, Chironomidae), and the caddisflies (Trichoptera), are capable of colonizing immersed bodies; and with the known biology of a specific species of insect for a certain geographic area, time intervals of submersion can be established.
www.astm.org /JOURNALS/FORENSIC/PAGES.OLD/1559.htm   (293 words)

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