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Topic: Subsistence economy

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In the News (Tue 25 Jun 19)

  Nunavut 99 - The Subsistence Economy
Cash revenues are earned from the subsistence economy by selling sealskins within and between communities as the byproduct of the seal hunt, and by selling arctic char, caribou, or whatever has been hunted.
The importance of maintaining the subsistence economy is nowhere more tragically obvious than in the decline in the early 1970s of the eastern Arctic seal hunt, and the dire social effects of its collapse.
The subsistence economy is also the wellspring of traditional knowledge, or IQ (Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit): once dismissed as the outdated opposite of good western science, it is now recognized as having value for aboriginal and non-aboriginal people alike in our attempt to understand how life interrelates on the tundra or in the sea.
www.nunavut.com /nunavut99/english/subsistence.html   (690 words)

  Abstract from 1996 SRA-Europe Annual Meeting
The fundamental distinction between a subsistence economy and its opposite and historical successor, the market economy, resides in the fact that the latter is orientated around the production of surplus, or on the principle of the maximisation of yield.
The basic strategy attributed to the subsistence economy, by contrast, is that of "minimising of risk." According to Groh this strategy of "risk minimisation" expresses in a unity of "underproductivity" - by which is meant, the systematic under-use of resources - and a behavioural orientation in the sense of "leisure preference".
In subsistence economies, which to a large extent refrain from technically controlling their resource base, this "under-use" finds expression in a "leisure preference" which indeed leads to a surplus of "work-free" time.
www.riskworld.com /Abstract/1996/sraeurop/ab6ad133.htm   (1910 words)

  tScholars.com | Subsistence economy   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Template:Economies A subsistence economy is an economy in which a group obtains the necessities of life through self-provisioning.
For this reason subsistence economies are often lauded by environmentalists who consider market systems too much of a strain on the environment.
Before the invention of currency, subsistence economies were the dominant economic system throughout the world.
www.tscholars.com /encyclopedia/Subsistence_economy   (198 words)

 Economies of Communities in Copper River   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Subsistence is a major factor in the economy of both the upper and lower reaches of the river.
The economy is dominated by service sector jobs, federal and state government, and traditional subsistence lifestyles, where locally harvested fish and game, summer gardens and wild plant and berry gathering supplement limited "cash economy" opportunities.
The economy in most of the Copper River basin is less than robust, with poverty rates as high as 40% in some communities, and unemployment over 25% in eight of the 13 communities.
www.ecotrust.org /copperriver/crks_cd/content/pages/background/economy.htm   (2963 words)

 Gospel Furthering Fellowship
Economy - Agricultural subsistence economy yet with much potential for development.
The results were a bloated bureaucracy, deterioration of industry and the infrastructure, a serious reduction in living standards and drying up of international investment.
During the 1990's the economy opened up resulting in steady improvement, but the reliance on foreign aid hampers entrepreneurial initiative.
www.gffministries.com /tanzania.asp   (590 words)

 Climate Change Impacts on the US: Native Peoples and Native Homelands. Educational Resources
Indeed, subsistence economies were the predominant form of community organization in North America prior to the colonization of the continent by Europeans.
Subsistence communities are small enough so that everyone within an individual community knows and acknowledges their relationships with everyone else.
The Paiutes based their subsistence on a wide variety of plants, fish, and animals, and took advantage of whichever food supplies were most abundant, even if this meant making short migrations to take advantage of each season's particular opportunities.
www.usgcrp.gov /usgcrp/nacc/education/native/native-edu-6.htm   (2498 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for subsistence   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Such economies are characterized by low levels of production, yielding a surplus capable of meeting little more than the basic necessities of life, and tend to be seen by development agencies as a...
This has been the means of subsistence for 99 per cent of humankind's history, and involves the hunting of animals, fishing, and the gathering of wild...
Mental disorder, subsistence strategies, and victimization among gay, lesbian, and bisexual homeless and runaway adolescents.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=subsistence   (950 words)

 Women & The Economy - Economic Systems
A subsistence economy depends on nature to reproduce itself as well as human beings working in partnership with nature to ensure that plants, animals, and humans all survive.
Sustenance economies are a kind of return to a subsistence economy in which humans produce and reproduce wealth in partnership with nature.
A sustenance economy is an economics of survival rather than an economics of overconsumption encouraged by a market-based economy.
unpac.ca /economy/econsystems.html   (1691 words)

 Kenya safari guide - Kenyalogy: Economy
GDP grew at 5% in 1995 and at 4% in 1996, with a moderate inflation.
Today, main problems of the Kenyan economy include the negative commercial balance (external debt in 1997 was $6,450 million), power shortage, the prolonged and inefficient government's control on the key sectors, endemic corruption, high population growth rate (reduced from 4% to 1.59% in 1999) and unemployment affecting 50% of the active population in 1998.
Subsistence farming, performed by local owners in small plots, has been traditionally based on crops such as corn, which is a basic local food, manioc, beans, sorghum and fruit.
www.kenyalogy.com /eng/info/econo.html   (1419 words)

 Subsistence as a Social Right
I will use the term subsistence to refer in the widest sense to all things, beings and activities in high-intensity market societies that are presupposed by, or ignored by, or outside, the market but that are nevertheless important to the lives of people within such societies.
The term subsistence economy is thus a way of formulating the surrounding context within which the market operates and which it continually affects and re-organizes.
Subsistence represents the practical world defined by the intrinsic values of things, beings and activities which constitutes the actually experienced form of life, or the qualitative standard of living, of people in high-intensity market societies.
www.ianangus.ca /subsist.htm   (6961 words)

 maria mies | the subsistence perspective
First of all, I would like to emphasize that the subsistence perspective and the subsistence societies and economies didn't disappear by themselves, but instead, that was done to them, those were entirely intentional policies.
What that means is that subsistence production was necessary in the rural areas to be able to pose resistance against all of these policies, and in the cities it became a politics of survival.
Subsistence is not shortcoming and misery, as we are constantly made to believe.
www.republicart.net /disc/aeas/mies01_en.htm   (2783 words)

 ConservationEconomy.net: A Pattern Language for Sustainability
A conservation economy comprehensively integrates Social, Natural, and Economic Capital to demonstrate that a sustainable society is both desirable and achievable.
The conservation economy framework provides the basis for a wide range of training and consulting services, helping businesses, governments, and non-profits make a just and viable transition to sustainability.
We believe that a conservation economy inherently serves the self-interest of individuals and communities, and we see our role as providing the tools for others working to grow it.
www.conservationeconomy.net   (197 words)

 The Arctic and the Global Economy
Norther n subsistence households also enjoy many of the modern conveniences of life, and are saddled with the economic demands which come with their acquisition.
Embodied in the subsistence way of life is the development of a self-image, the transfer of traditional values to young people, and the cohesion of so cial organization.
One of the early attempts at CED in Alaska and Canada was the introduction of large-scale reindeer herding as a means of insuring food supplies-irrespective of the possible contamination of natural stocks of canbou with domesticated animals.
arcticcircle.uconn.edu /NatResources/subsistglobal.html   (3028 words)

 The Attention Economy: The Natural Economy of the Net
In a full attention economy practically all organizations will be basically temporary, either communities in which attention is shared around pretty equally, or, more often, entourages of fans who form around one or a few stars to help them achieve the performances they are attempting.
If the whole world is an attention economy, then making material goods, growing food from scratch in a garden or on a farm, or obtaining resources in any other fashion, and ultimately turning these over to you can be a direct act of attention paying.
All this means that the changeover to total domination by the new economy, while by no means complete or about to be, is moving very rapidly and is already quite far along, and probably unstoppable.
www.firstmonday.org /issues/issue2_4/goldhaber   (8870 words)

 Bhuban B. Bajracharya - Subsistence Economy and Institutions for Mobilizing Social Capital
From an institutional point of view, the greatest dilemma of these economies is that the institutions responding to the needs of the dynamic modern sector are not suited to the large subsistence sector.
Poverty and subsistence activities are especially pronounced in rural and inaccessible areas and among less developed and more vulnerable communities.
Development agencies are needed to provide illiterate subsistence laborers, especially in rural areas, with information about opportunities for development through market mechanisms and support so that they can implement further activities themselves.
www.inwent.org /ef-texte/instn/bajra.htm   (1756 words)

 Subsistence Curriculum Materials
Subsistence Use of Fish and Wildlife in Kotzebue, A Northwest Alaska Regional Center.
The Role of Fish and Wildlife in the Economies of Barrow, Bethel, Dillingham, Kotzebue, and Nome.
I have worked with Cugachmiut on subsistence curriculum, but their focus is on language materials at present.
www.ankn.uaf.edu /IKS/subsistence/innysub.html   (863 words)

 The Arctic is changing
Subsistence activities do not only provide the nutritional means for survival, hunting and fishing are important for cultural identity and embody notions of a specific relationship between humans and animals essential for the continuity of indigenous culture and livelihoods.
Although a subsistence economy is usually differentiated from a capitalist economy in that the unit of production (in this case, the family) is also the unit of consumption, the subsistence economies of the Arctic are nonetheless dependent upon market forces and monetarisation.
Subsistence activities may be something that individuals fall back on to supplement the paid work they have, or while they are looking for employment in the formal sector.
www.thearctic.is /articles/overviews/changing/enska/kafli_0200.htm   (2028 words)

 Land Privatisation is not Imperative for Socio-Economic Growth and
This subsistence farming is the root cause of our poverty as the government has made it abundantly clear.
Subsistence farming at best produces just enough food for the survival of the farmer and his family members, leaving none for saving and investment.
The markets of subsistence economy are also rudimentary that lack organisation (co-ordination), structure and financial capacity to absorb surplus production in years of good harvest and to buffer the adversity of natural vagaries in bad years.
www.addistribune.com /Archives/2003/03/07-03-03/Land.htm   (1457 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Economy   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Structural changes in Manhattan's post-9/11 economy: since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Manhattan's "global economy" has seen its employment diminish while its role as a wage generator has increased; high wages in the global sector may be driving demand in the local sector.(Manhattan after 9/11)(Report)
Principles of war on the network-centric battlefield: mass and economy of force.
Economy flexes its muscles: Brushes past hurricanes for largest gain in a year
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Economy&Offset=10   (501 words)

 Niger Economy
One of the poorest countries in the world, Niger's economy is based largely on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits.
Millet, sorghum, and cassava are Niger's principal rain-fed subsistence crops.
But the economy stagnated due to the sharp reduction in foreign aid in 1999 (which gradually resumed in 2000) and poor rains in 2000.
www.nationbynation.com /Niger/Economy.html   (1253 words)

 Sample Chapter for Bauer, P.: From Subsistence to Exchange and Other Essays.
It is unusual to examine the possibility of any relationship between the activities of traders and the growth of the economy, except to the extent that efficiency in the provision of their services releases resources for other purposes.
It is the result of enforced reversion to subsistence conditions under the impact of the breakdown of public security, suppression of private trade, or forced collectivization.
But although the hazards of a subsistence economy are far more acute than those of an exchange economy, they tend to be politically and psychologically more acceptable as being part of the nature of things and in any case not attributable to human agency.
www.pupress.princeton.edu /chapters/s6828.html   (4312 words)

 Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour
The subsistence sector is by difference all that part of the economy which is not using reproducible capital.
Earnings in the subsistence sector set a floor to wages in the capitalist sector, but in practice wages have to be higher than this, and there is usually a gap of 30 per cent.
The subsistence wage at which this surplus labour is available for employment may be determined by a conventional view of the minimum required for subsistence ; or it may be equal to the average product per man in subsistence agriculture, plus a margin.
www.eco.utexas.edu /faculty/Cleaver/368lewis.htm   (17224 words)

 [No title]
Subsistence activities which contribute to a household's or community's economic well being are not restricted to working adults.
Subsistence harvesting of local resources is not a static system that year after year produces the same resource yields in the same place, at the same time of the year.
Fishing is another good example of a subsistence activity which occurs in fairly small locales over a widely scattered area, yet is participated in by nearly everyone and which contributes much to the local economy over time.
www.nativeknowledge.org /db/files/tp109.htm   (5219 words)

 Williamson | The Rise of the Indian Economy
Basically, the view was that the state ought to seize control of the economy and ought not be run by the capitalist sector.
When he was a young man at Cambridge in the 1950s, he'd written an article that argued that it was a mistake to rely on import substitution, but despite that he'd gone back to India, entered the civil service, and been a loyal civil servant implementing these sorts of policies all those years.
It has more manufacturing, a bigger economy, much better infrastructure, and a dense network of superhighways, as against India, which is just finishing its first superhighway grid linking the four big cities, the ones with more than 10 million people.
www.unc.edu /depts/diplomat/item/2006/0406/will/williamson_india.html   (3806 words)

 History 2700    MacKay    2005      Unit 9 The Market Revolution
Economy is based on use-values; labor is exchanged for food, goods, services, or "cash if required." After 1815 concurrent and mutually stimulated transportation (turnpikes, canals, steamboats and railroads) and market revolutions (ca.
Market revolution marks the transition between the staple-exporting mercantile economy of the colonial period and the industrial revolution of the mid-nineteenth century.
Attitudes: Crèvecoeur in Pennsylvania and New York (1782) and Jefferson in Virginia (1787) idealize the subsistence farmer as the backbone of the democratic agrarian-based economy.
faculty.weber.edu /kmackay/history_2700_2005unit9.htm   (1337 words)

 intro   (Site not responding. Last check: )
When a society’s subsistence economy is correlated with the warfare case study (40), I propose that a significant correlation will result when looking at the entities involved in the progression of war and a developing subsistence economy.
Ultimately, this investigation attempted to show that the type of warfare and the degree to which it is used relates to a society’s subsistence economy.
The correlation between the degree of warfare and subsistence economy were significant to the 0.01 level.
eclectic.ss.uci.edu /~drwhite/60370/robert/into.htm   (293 words)

 Nome Census Area: Economic Overview
The economy is dominated by the private support sector (about 44% of the total employment) which includes construction, transportation, communications, retail trade and services.
On St. Lawrence Island, the communities of Gambell and Savoonga are primarily subsistence economies that depend heavily on marine mammals and fish.
The economic base of the Nome Census Area is small (17% of the total economy) and consists of commercial fishing, fish processing, mining, reindeer herding, Musk ox herding, Native arts, tourism, fur trapping and a small federal government presence.
www.commerce.state.ak.us /dca/AEIS/Nome/General/Nome_General_Narrative.htm   (1871 words)

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