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Topic: The Succession to Muhammad

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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

  Muhammad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Muhammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (Shaiba) ibn Hashim (Amr) ibn Abd Manaf (al-Mughira) ibn Qusai (Zaid) ibn Kilab ibn Murra ibn Ka`b ibn Lu'ay ibn Ghalib ibn Fahr (Quraish) ibn Malik ibn an-Nadr (Qais) ibn Kinana ibn Khuzaimah ibn Mudrikah (Amir) ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma`ad ibn Adnan.
Muhammad's father, Abdullah, had died almost six months before he was born and the young boy was brought up by his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe.
Muhammad came to Medina as a mediator, invited to resolve the feud between the Arab factions of Aws and Khazraj.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Muhammad   (4863 words)

 Succession to Muhammad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community, or ummah, after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
However, after Muhammad and his followers emigrated from Mecca to Medina in the Hijra, and Muhammad emerged as the political leader of a community expanding rapidly in size and power, the succession issue became increasingly important.
Muhammad asked to be taken to Aisha's apartment to be nursed and died with his head in her lap.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Succession_to_Muhammad   (3108 words)

 Muhammad -
Muhammad's father, Abdullah, had died before he was born and the young boy was brought up by his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe.
Opinions differ as to whether or not Muhammad was brought up as a hanif, a monotheist, and whether or not he ever engaged in worship of traditional deities such as Hubal.
Muhammad became a merchant and one of his employers was Khadijah, a widow then forty years old.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Muhammad   (4617 words)

 :: ISlam | Quran in Urdu | Quran in English | Quran in Arabic | Islamic History ::
In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Muhammad Tughluq accession of Firuz Shah Tughluq.
In the Sarbadaran empire, Death of Amir Masud, succession of Muhammad Temur.
In the Marinids empire, Death of Mustansir, succession of Muhammad.
www.kashar.net /islam?link=14th   (2204 words)

 Islam to 680 C.E.
Muhammad was familiar with the New Testament of the Christians and the Old Testament of the Jews, and with Zoroastrianism.
Muhammad's followers suffered from poverty, and beginning in January 623 some of them resorted to the tradition of raiding the caravans that traveled along the eastern coast of the Red Sea from Mecca to Syria.
Muhammad, it is said, called on them to have courage, to practice charity and hospitality and to be modest in their bearing.
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h03is.htm   (6538 words)

 The Prophet of Islam - His Biography
By the time he was twenty-five, Muhammad had become well known in the city for the integrity of his disposition and the honesty of his character.
Muhammad placed a sheet of cloth on the ground, put the stone on it and asked the chiefs of all the tribes in the city to lift together the cloth.
Muhammad journeyed several times with a view to win the neighbouring tribes and to conclude with them treaties of alliance and mutual help.
muhammad.net /bio/profbio.html   (5297 words)

 Islamic Chronology: Part TWO
1403: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Muhammad I, the son of Bayazid ascended the throne.
Death of Muhammad III, Sultan of Turkey, accession of Ahmad I. In Morocco al Shaikh died.
Muhammad Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Turks.
www.themodernreligion.com /basic/islam_Chronology_P2.htm   (5348 words)

 MUHAMMAD MEMORIAL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Muhammad's heart, his early followers asserted, was miraculously cleansed of all unworthy thoughts when he was a boy of 12, and he was declared, as were the other prophets, immune from error and able to intercede on the behalf of sinners.
Muhammad's remarkable abilities and personality are demonstrated by the establishment and rapid expansion of Islam, which had to overcome the traditional idolatry and tribal jealousies of the Arabs and the opposition of their most powerful leaders.
The tremendous success of these fraternities was due primarily to the abilities and humanitarianism of their founders and leaders, who not only ministered to the spiritual needs of their followers but also helped the poor of all faiths and frequently served as intermediaries between the people and the government.
sangha.net /messengers/Mohammed.htm   (7217 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca in Arabia, in the year A.D. He was orphaned as a child, and raised by his uncle in abject poverty.
After retreating to a cave near Mecca to pray and contemplate, Muhammad was visited by the angel Gabriel, who presented the message of Islam to confirm what the previous prophets of Judaism and Christianity had taught, and to correct adulterations that had perverted those teachings.
Gabriel told Muhammad that he had been chosen to correct these errors, and he was told to complete the divine revelation that began with the older faiths, Judaism and Christianity.
www.angelfire.com /mo3/paganfiles/library/spiritual_dictionary/islam.txt   (566 words)

 Caliph - Voyager, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Muhammad, during his lifetime, was not only the Muslim leader, but the Muslim prophet and the Muslim judge.
Muhammad's revelations were soon codified and written down as the Qur'an, which was accepted as a supreme authority, limiting what a caliph could legitimately command.
Traced their descent not from Muhammad, but from a puritanic reformer in Morocco who claimed to be the Mahdi (a puritanic reformer in Morocco, bringing down the 'decadent' Almoravid emirate) whose son established a sultanate and claimed to be a caliph.
www.voyager.in /Caliph   (3292 words)

 Restatement of History of Islam and Muslims
Muhammad had succeeded, after a long and sanguinary struggle against the idolaters and polytheists of Arabia, in establishing the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth so that his umma (people) may live in it in peace and security, admired and envied by the rest of mankind.
Their success signaled an abrupt end of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth, and signaled, at the same time, the birth of the Muslim State – a State run by people who were Muslims.
Muhammad, the Messenger of God, gave no instructions to his umma regarding the character of the future government of Islam, and he did not designate any person to be its head after his own death.
www.al-shia.com /html/eng/books/restatment/45.htm   (3134 words)

 Wide Angle . Red Lines and Deadlines . Interactive Map: Sunni and Shi'a: The worlds of Islam | PBS
Muhammad established no church or institutional structure for Islam; indeed, the faith's basic notion that all believers were equal before God seemed to rule out the notion of a priesthood.
Muhammad died in 632 C.E. without leaving a son and heir, or clear instructions on who would succeed him.
Eventually Abu Bakr was appointed to the new position, known as the Caliphate (from "khalifa," the Arabic term for successor), and assumed spiritual and political leadership.
www.pbs.org /wnet/wideangle/shows/iran/map.html   (1535 words)

 Sect: Shiite and Twelver Muslims   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Ali was Muhammad's first cousin, in some ways Muhammad's adoptive brother, the husband of his favorite daughter (Fatima), and the father of his favorite grandsons.
The only successful revolt against the Umayyads which the Shiites managed to organize was led by Muhammad's uncle, Abbas, who founded the Abbasid caliphate.
Supposedly the reason for this is the high esteem in which Fatima, the wife of Ali and the daughter of Muhammad, was held.
www.mylinuxisp.com /~jrlaw/islam/shiite_muslims.htm   (1326 words)

 The Caliphate
Whether or not he intended a full-out imperial conquest is hard to say; he did, however, set in motion a historical trajectory that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history.
Their contribution to the faith was so great that they were given pensions to live off of—this freed them up to pursue religious and ethical studies and so provide religious or ethical leadership to the rest of the Islamic world.
'Ali was the son-in-law of Muhammad and had been a companion to the prophet from the inception of his mission.
www.wsu.edu /~dee/ISLAM/CALIPH.HTM   (1488 words)

 USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts
In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Othman, succession of Orkhan.
In the Marinids empire, Death of Abul Hasan, succession of Abu Inan.
In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris, succession of Abu Muhammad.
www.usc.edu /dept/MSA/history/chronology/century14.html   (2130 words)

 Muhammad (prophet) - Related Items - MSN Encarta
succession to Muhammad, differences between Sunni and Shia Islam
Medina, in western Saudi Arabia, is a sacred city that only Muslims are permitted to enter.
The Prophet Muhammad took refuge in Medina after fleeing...
encarta.msn.com /related_761553918_12.2/Medina_Saudi_Arabia.html   (53 words)

 Major Branches of Islam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Sunni Muslims believe that Muhammad intended that the Muslim community choose a successor, or caliph, by consensus to lead the theocracy (earthly kingdom under divine rule) he had set up.
Shia Muslims, also known as Shias, believe that Muhammad chose his son-in-law, Ali, as his successor, and that only the descendents of Ali and his wife, Fatima, were entitled to rule the Muslim community.
Shia Muslims pay the tax called zakat (originally levied by Muhammad to help the poor and later levied by Muslim states) to their religious leaders rather than to state authorities, as they did before achieving political power (for instance, in Iran in the 15th century).
incolor.inetnebr.com /dannyk/brown/MajorBranchesIslam.htm   (1451 words)

 Engl203 Unit 08
With their deaths there could be no biological succession from Muhammad.
Muhammad himself did not invent or contribute anything to it.
Muhammad’s authority is supreme for Sunnis, but he is a prophet, a human being, not divine.
jan.ucc.nau.edu /~jgr6/203/unit08   (501 words)

 Media Guide to Islam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Aisha was the youngest and most outspoken of Muhammad’s 11 wives, and her legacy reverberates to this day.
She was the daughter of the merchant Abu Bakr, one of Muhammad’s closest allies, and Muhammad was in his early 50s and already married to Sawdah, a 35-year-old widow.
After Muhammad’s death in A.D. 632, with no sons to succeed him, Aisha’s father assumed the role of caliph (a word derived from Arabic for “successor” or “deputy”).
mediaguidetoislam.sfsu.edu /women/01c_atthebirth.htm   (493 words)

 Islamic Shia Ithna-Asheri Jamaat of Toronto - Resident Aalim
Shī‘ī school of thought believes that Islam is a complete way of life, and therefore it is inconceivable that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) would have ignored the issue of leadership after his death.
Shī‘as are of the opinion that the Prophet not only gave importance to the issue of leadership and succession but also clearly appointed ‘Ali bin Abi T├ólib as his successor and caliph, and also mentioned that the leadership of Islam will continue in his family.
The Sunni Muslims are of the opinion that Prophet Muhammad set no guidelines for the institution of leadership after his death, and that it was upon the Muslims themselves to come up with a system of leadership.
www.jaffari.org /resources/alim.asp?id=16   (2318 words)

 Islam After Muhammad
Within one hundred years of Muhammad's death, Muslim Empire covered North Africa, Spain, Sicily, Middle East and was progressing East towards India.
SHIA (party of Ali’ 10%) believe that male descendants of Muhammad possess special authority, and ought to rule.
Shia and Sunni split after battle of Karbala where Muhammad’s grandson, Husayn, is killed (during the month of Muharram = Shia festival).
www.geocities.com /clintonbennett/Lectures/Islam.html   (519 words)

 Flag of the Islamic Khilafah
The "khalifate" refers to the succession of temporal rulers after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (may peace be upon him), and is associated with the "Sunni" Islamic community.
The Shi'i have followed different successions of authority called Imamates, who (in brief) derive their power from a religious context, namely that they are direct descendants of 'Ali.
The Ottomans originally referred to themselves as "sultans" and only a few hundred years into their dynastic succession did they begin also to call themselves khalifs.
www.fotw.net /flags/isl-khil.html   (723 words)

 Muslim Holidays and Festivals - December 1, 2001
In India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, Hindi and Urdu poetry in the praise of Allah, called Hamd, poetry in the praise of Prophet Muhammad, called Naat, and in the praise of Hazrat Ali, called Qawaali, is especially enjoyed by the believers.
In the times of Fatimid Imams, there used to be great processions led by the Imam in full regalia with accompanying bands, with streets illumined for the occasion, especially on Milad un Nabi, Yaum-e Ali, the two Eids, birthdays of the Imams, Eid-e Gadhir and Navroz celebrations.
Eid-e Gadhir Declaration of the Heir of Prophet Muhammad
www.amaana.org /islam/muslimholidays.htm   (1279 words)

 Comparative Index to Islam : SHI'A; SHI'ITE; SHIITE; SHI'IS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
These refer to followers of Ali, son-in-law of Muhammad.
They accept the 4th Caliph Ali, but not the first three because they believed the line of succession from Muhammad should have been through the son-in-law of Muhammad, Ali, husband of Fatima.
They wanted Ali's two sons Hasan and Husain to succeed the caliphate, but Hasan renounced his claim and Husain was killed at the Battle of Kerbala in AD680.
answering-islam.org /Index/S/shiite.html   (305 words)

 Publisher description for Library of Congress control number 95026105   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Publisher description for The succession to Muhammad : a study of the early Caliphate / Wilferd Madelung.
In a comprehensive study of early Islamic history, Wilferd Madelung examines the conflict which developed after Muhammad's death for the leadership of the Muslim community.
Wilferd Madelung's book The Succession to Muhammad has been awarded the Best Book of the Year prize by the Islamic Republic of Iran for the year 1997.
www.loc.gov /catdir/description/cam027/95026105.html   (204 words)

 The Succession to Muhammad - Cambridge University Press   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Succession to Muhammad - Cambridge University Press
If you would like to pass on information about this title to a friend or colleague, simply fill in the form below, and we will send them an email with links to our site.
Thought you'd be interested in this title from Cambridge University Press.
www.cambridge.org /uk/catalogue/email.asp?isbn=0521646960   (106 words)

 Reli 26 schedule   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Upcoming lectures, exhibits, and performances relating to the Middle East and Muslim civilizations
Reading: Ernst, Following Muhammad, chapter 1, "Islam in the Eyes of the West."
Study question topics: the Muhammad of faith and the Muhammad of authority; interpretation of the Qur'an by non-Muslims
www.unc.edu /courses/2004spring/reli/026/001/schedule.htm   (610 words)

 Some Aspects of Prophet Muhammad's Life
Image Of The Prophet Muhammad In The West
The Days Of Prophet Muhammad With His Wives
The Prophet's Establishing A State & His Succession
www.halalco.com /seerah_b.html   (108 words)

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