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Topic: Sumerian language

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  Sumerian Language & Writing
The Sumerian language of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BC.
Sumerian, the oldest known written language in human history, was spoken in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and peripheral regions) throughout the third millennium BC and survived as an esoteric written language until the death of the cuneiform tradition around the time of Christ.
In an ergative language the subject of a sentence with a direct object is in the so-called ergative case, which in Sumerian is marked with the suffix -e.
www.crystalinks.com /sumerlanguage.html   (911 words)

 Sumerian language - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 2000 BC, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until about 1 AD.
Sumerian is distinguished from other languages of the area such as Hebrew, Akkadian, which also comprises Babylonian and Assyrian, and Aramaic, which are Semitic languages, and Elamite, which is an Elamo-Dravidian language.
Sumerian is an agglutinative language, meaning that words could consist of a chain of more or less clearly distinguishable and separable suffixes.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Sumerian_language   (1488 words)

 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Sumerian language
The Sumerian language of ancient Sumer (or, more accurately, Shumer) became extinct and was forgotten until the 19th century.
Sumerian was the first language to be written with a cuneiform or "wedge-shaped" script, which was later also used for Akkadian.
The language is agglutinative, as opposed to modern isolating languages like Chinese, in which word parts appear separated.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/su/Sumerian_language   (204 words)

Sumerian is a long-extinct language documented throughout the ancient Middle East, in particular in the south of modern Iraq.
Sumerian is a language isolate, that is no languages related to it have so far been convincingly identified, although many of its grammatical features are attested in other living languages outside of the Indo-European family to which English belongs.
Sumerian is thus one of many languages which have a syntactic split determined by the class of the word functioning as the head of the noun phrase.
www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk /edition2/language.php   (4311 words)

 Sumerian Language
The Sumerian civilization and their language is one of the oldest and most influential cultures in human history.
Their Sumerian language, though not spoken today, paved the way for the first written alphabet in human history, and ushered in the era of recorded knowledge and information.
Though it was replaced with the Akkadian language around 2000 BC, it continued to be used in Mesopotamia until the first century AD as a scientific and ceremonial language.
www.foreign-languages-school.com /Sumerian-Language.html   (650 words)

  SUMERIAN LANGUAGE,   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The existence of the language—and of the Sumerian culture—was subsequently forgotten until cuneiform was deciphered in the 19th century, revealing an unexpected language among the expected ones.
Sumerian is an agglutinative language, rather than an inflected one, such as one of the Indo-European or Semitic languages.
The Sumerian sentence consists of a predicate and a series of substantive complexes related to the predicate as subject, direct object, indirect object, or dimensional object, that is, one which establishes location.
www.history.com /encyclopedia.do?vendorId=FWNE.fw..su210400.a#FWNE.fw..su210400.a   (894 words)

 Sumer - MSN Encarta
The Sumerian language became the prevailing speech of the land, and the people here developed the cuneiform script, a system of writing on clay.
The first Sumerian ruler of historical record, Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 bc), was described in a document written centuries later as the “man who stabilized all the lands.” Shortly after his reign ended, a king named Meskiaggasher founded a rival dynasty at Erech (Uruk), far to the south of Kish.
Sumerian civilization, however, was adopted almost in its entirety by Babylonia.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761576369/Sumer.html   (1529 words)

 Sumerian Culture and Contributions
Sumerian has no modern day descendants, it seems to have disappeared from human history as a spoken language, but lived on in written language.
Possibly the most important aspect of Sumerian culture, and the one that has had the most lasting impact on the modern world and history, was the innovation of the Sumerian system of writing.
The Sumerians were a people who survived for over a millennium, whose spoken language vanished without a trace, but whose inventions like the wheel, the sail, and the plow live on.
www.petoskeyschools.org /vandeventer.si.t/Links/sumerian_culture_and_contributio.htm   (1029 words)

 I. Perspective
Sumerian culture is believed to have existed at least since the end of the fifth millennium, pushing the social consciousness of mythological events depicted therein to a conservative 4000 BCE.
Most of the recovered Sumerian texts were recorded during or after the reign of Sargon, an Akkadian king who conquered all of Akkad and Sumer, thus bringing Sumer under Akkadian control for the duration of his dynasty.
In this case, however, considering the model set forth by cuneiform's adoption throughout Mesopotamia and the documented use of Sumerian, itself, as the sanctified religious language for centuries after it ceased to be spoken in the streets of Sumer, this theory is not just plausible, it is probable.
home.nycap.rr.com /foxmob/sumer_pantheon01.htm   (1216 words)

 Sumerian language at AllExperts
Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 2000 BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until about 1 AD.
Semitic languages are structured according to consonantal forms, whereas cuneiform was a syllabary, binding consonants to particular vowels.
Sumerian is an agglutinative language, meaning that words could consist of a chain of more or less clearly distinguishable and separable suffixes and/or morphemes.
en.allexperts.com /e/s/su/sumerian_language.htm   (2887 words)

 The Sumerian Language - Archaic, Classical, New, and Post Sumerian
The number of people who spoke and wrote the language was totally out of proportion when considered with the influence that the language had on the ancient civilizations, especially that of Mesopotamia.
During the period when Babylon was made the capital, the Sumerians lost their political identity and Sumerian gradually disappeared as a spoken language.
The latter was usually bilingual that is in Sumerian and Babylonian.
www.wisedude.com /history/oldest_language.htm   (582 words)

 Sumerian History
The Sumerians, with a language, culture, and, perhaps, appearance different from their Semitic neighbors and successors were at one time believed to have been invaders, but the archaeological record shows cultural continuity from the time of the early Ubaid period (5200-4500 BC C-14, 6090-5429 calBC) settlements in southern Mesopotamia.
In fact, the Sumerian language is replete with terms for canals, dikes, and reservoirs, indicating that Sumerian speakers were farmers who moved down from the north after perfecting irrigation agriculture there.
Although the Sumerian language ("Emegir") was again made official, the Sumerian identity was already in decline, as the population continually became more and more Semiticised.
www.crystalinks.com /sumerhistory.html   (2458 words)

 The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process
A lexicon of Sumerian which is organized on the basis of phonetic structure, starting with phonetically simple structures and progressing to more complex phonetic structures, has revealed the process by which the proto-Sumerians invented their language.
Sumerian was an agglutinative language not just in its verb construction, but also in its noun or morpheme construction.
The Sumerians employed the labial, dental-alveolar, and velar stops, nasals, fricatives, and approximates indicated in the lexicon, with the important difference from us that they did not distinguish between voiced and voiceless stops like /b/ and /p/, /d/ and /t/, or /g/ and /k/.
www.sumerian.org /prot-sum.htm   (4187 words)

 Ancient Scripts: Sumerian
The Sumerians were one of the earliest urban societies to emerge in the world, in Southern Mesopotamia more than 5000 years ago.
As the Sumerian language had a high number of monosyllabic words, there was a high degree of homophony, meaning that there is a large number of words that sound alike or identical.
As a spoken language, Sumerian died out around the 18th century BCE, but continued as a "learned" written language (much like Latin was during the Middle Ages in Europe).
www.ancientscripts.com /sumerian.html   (1252 words)

 Sumerian Mythology: Introduction
The discovery of the Sumerians and their language came quite unexpectedly and was quite unlooked for; and this more or less irrelevant detail was at least partially responsible for the troubled progress of Sumerology from the earliest days to the present moment.
The decipherment of this language was simplified on the one hand by the fact that it was recognized quite early in the process that it belonged to the Semitic group of languages.
Sumerian literary composition consists usually of the first part of the first line of the composition, there is no way of knowing the titles of those whose texts we have in large part but whose first lines are broken away.
www.sacred-texts.com /ane/sum/sum05.htm   (7302 words)

 IBSS - History - Sumerian
The Sumerians were the oldest known civilization with city-states, fortified towns and the development of writing called cuneiform which is Latin for "wedge-shaped forms." Sumerian language is different from all other languages.
In Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta Sumer is of one language until the Lord of Eridu estranged their tongues which is similar to the Tower of Babel story.
With the decline of Sumerian, Akkadian became the lingal franca in the second millennium BC until the time of the Persians when Aramaic was the official language.
www.bibleandscience.com /history/sumerians.htm   (613 words)

 Sumerian Language & Writing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
A considerable literature in Sumerian is currently being reconstructed from fragmentary clay tablets housed in the museums of the world.
Sumerian was an agglutinative language not just in its verb construction, but also in its noun or morpheme construction.
The Sumerians were the earliest to write in cuneiform, closely followed by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Elamites, Hittites, Hurrians and the Urartu from Anatolia.
home.cogeco.ca /~hermes5/sumer/11sumer.html   (453 words)

 Sumerian Language
Sumerian never extended much beyond its original boundaries in southern Mesopotamia; the small number of its native speakers was entirely out of proportion to the tremendous importance and influence Sumerian exercised on the development of the Mesopotamian and other ancient civilizations in all their stages.
Sumerian is clearly an agglutinative language in that it preserves the word root intact while expressing various grammatical changes by adding on prefixes, infixes, and suffixes.
In Classical Sumerian, the contrast between the consonants b, d, g, z and p, t, k, s was not between voiced (with vibrating vocal cords) and voiceless consonants (without vibrating vocal cords) but between consonants that were indifferent as to voice and those that were aspirated (pronounced with an accompanying audible puff of breath).
users.tpg.com.au /etr/gilgm/tex/sumerlE.html   (638 words)

 Sumerian - NSwiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Sumerian has the distinction of being the first language to use writing, dating back in written form to approxemetly 3100 BCE or earlier.
Modern Standard Sumerian, the oficial language of the Dictorial Republic of Sumer, is spoken almost exclusivly by the population within the borders of Sumer, however an increasing number of international speakers have begun to show up.
Sumerian as a language is an isolate, meaning it has no known genetic relative currently or previously existing.
ns.goobergunch.net /wiki/index.php/Sumerian   (1263 words)

 Ancient Scripts: Akkadian
While Sumerian did enjoy a quick revival, it eventually became a dead language used only in literary contexts, whereas Akkadian would continue to be spoken for the next two millenium and evolved into later (more famous) forms known as Babylonian and Assyrian.
Sumerian is a more agglutinative language, where phonetically unchanging words and particles are joined together to form phrases with increasingly complex meaning.
Also, recall in Sumerian very often different signs represent the same sound, a phenomenon called homophony, due to the fact that words in the Sumerian language tends to be monosyllabic.
www.ancientscripts.com /akkadian.html   (1201 words)

 Languge death
The Sumerian language is definitely present in some form or another in the Uruk III tablets and short of a miracle we shall never go back much farther than that as far as direct evidence for language history is concerned.
Since almost all Semitic languages have a basic VSO word order, the SOV structure of Akkadian has almost universally been attributed to the substrate influence of Sumerian, and is cited as evidence for a long period of co-existence of the two languages, if not for a prolonged period of bilingualism in Sumer.
The Sumerian literary texts written under their patronage have survived primarily in copies from the Old Babylonian period and, with a few exceptions, they have come down to us written in a manner that is quite different from the writing norms known to us from Ur III times.
www-personal.umich.edu /~piotrm/DIGLOS~1.htm   (9665 words)

 Sumerian Mythology FAQ
I have constructed a rudimentary Sumerian-English, English Sumerian glossary using Kramer's The Sumerians and Jacobsen's Treasures of Darkness, although parties interested in the Sumerian language may be better served at the prior two pages.
Sumerian cuneiform, the earliest written language, was borrowed by the Babylonians, who also took many of their religious beliefs.
In addition, there is evidence of the Sumerians in the area both prior to the Uruk period and after the Ur III Dynastic period, but relatively little is known about the former age and the latter time period is most heavily dominated by the Babylonians.
home.comcast.net /~chris.s/sumer-faq.html   (10387 words)

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