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Topic: Supercontinent

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In the News (Tue 15 Jan 19)

  Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal
The supercontinent Kenorland was formed ~2.7 Ga and then broke sometime after 2.5 Ga into the proto-continent cratons called Laurentia, Baltica, Australia, and Kalahari.
The supercontinent Columbia formed and broke up during a period of 1.8 to 1.5 billion years (1.8-1.5 Ga) ago.
Supercontinents block the flow of heat from the Earth's interior, and thus cause the asthenosphere to overheat.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=supercontinent   (611 words)

  Supercontinent: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com
Since the definition of continent is arbitrary, the definition of supercontinent is also arbitrary (as is the definition of a subcontinent), but the term refers to a landmass containing more than one of the modern continents.
Most commonly, the term supercontinent is used to refer to a landmass consisting of all the modern continents.
Supercontinents block the flow of heat from the Earth's interior, and thus cause the asthenosphere to overheat.
www.encyclopedian.com /su/Supercontinent.html   (359 words)

 Supercontinent - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Most commonly, paleogeographers employ the term supercontinent to refer to a single landmass consisting of all the modern continents.
In other areas of study such as history and geography, land masses connected with an isthmus are also considered supercontinents or just continents, such as the Americas.
Some historians call the combined land mass of Africa and Eurasia the supercontinent Africa-Eurasia, but it is not a geological supercontinent.
supercontinent.quickseek.com   (413 words)

 An Introduction to Plate Tectonics
In the year 1912, Wegener made the proposal that all the continents were previously one large continent, but then broke apart, and had drifted through the ocean floor to where they are now located.
This supported his hypothesis, as Wegener reasoned that in order for Glossopteris leaves to be found in the widely spaced continents of the Southern Hemisphere, the continents must once have been joined.
Instead of a simple supercontinent, Du Toit reconstructed the continents at the South Pole and grouped the northern continents near the Equator.
www.hartrao.ac.za /geodesy/tectonics.html   (2104 words)

 Supercontinent Summary
Supercontinents eventually become unstable, as such a large single landmass acts as a thermal lid, limiting escape of Earth's internal heat.
Supercontinent breakup occurs when old crustal weaknesses (such as orogenic belts created during supercontinent assembly) overlay several mantle plumes, or due to the formation of a superplume.
The supercontinent Pangaea (meaning all Earth) was formed by the collision of Laurasia with Gondwanaland approximately 275 million years ago following closure of part of the Tethys, and the collision with Cimmeria (fragments of Turkey, Afghanistan, Iran, Tibet, and Indochina).
www.bookrags.com /Supercontinent   (2070 words)

 Tectonic Pause: Towards the Unification of Earth Sciences - Karunakar Marasakatla
This Supercontinent cycle repeats on the Earth as long as there is enough heat in the core to drive the convection in the mantle.
A Supercontinent can't sustain for longer period after it forms completely and also a maximum of 100 My is possible between the formation and breakup of the Supercontinent.
The salty ocean was the water around the Supercontinent and the fresh ocean was the water from the melting ice sheets after the breakup of the Supercontinent.
www.geocities.com /karunakarm/unifiedtheory.html   (8181 words)

 Earth History from the Ancient Texts and It’s Relevance to the Science - Karunakar Marasakatla
The period from the breakup of one Supercontinent to the breakup of another Supercontinent is one Supercontinent cycle and the phenomenon is called as Plate tectonics.
Appropriate time period for the seven Supercontinent cycles is another 3 billion years and this period is in accordance with the present standards of the Earth and planetary sciences for the hospitable environment to continue on the Earth before the red giant phase of the Sun.
Manvantara cycles, seven Earths and the seven Karshvars are the representation of the Supercontinent cycles on the surface of the Earth.
www.geocities.com /karunakarm/ancienttexts.html   (3415 words)

 A synopsis of plate tectonics
The cycle begins with a supercontinent perched on one side of the earth, balanced on the other side by a superocean.
The supercontinent fragments, sending small continental pieces across the ocean to collide to form another supercontinent on the opposite side of the earth.
This supercontinent cycle does not just go round and round, however, for with each cycle new continental crust is generated, and the continents get bigger.
csmres.jmu.edu /geollab/Fichter/PlateTect/synopsis.html   (1023 words)

 Earth and Space Science | Session 2
The first known supercontinent is called Rodinia (from Russian, meaning "homeland"), and it is thought to have formed about 1.1 billion years ago.
Although the exact size and configuration of Rodinia cannot be estimated, rocks of ancestral North America are thought to have formed the core of the giant continent.
This supercontinent cycle is called the Wilson Cycle after J. Tuzo Wilson, the Canadian geologist who first described it.
www.learner.org /channel/courses/essential/earthspace/session2/closer3.html   (400 words)

 Tectonic Research at Bryn Mawr College
In the latter scenario the assembly of Rodinia is marked by Grenville-aged deformation (circa 1.1 Ga) on the margins of Laurentia, East Gondwana, Amazonia and Baltica, with the western margin of Laurentia facing East Antarctica in the so-called SWEAT or AUSWUS connection.
Dr. Weil's research is emphasized on the lifecycle of the proposed Rodinia supercontinent - amalgamation and breakup - and on the supercontinent's paleogeography.
Thus, this megashear is not supported by results from the CAA due to the obliquity of the observed paleo-stress field with the inferred paleo-stress field for dextral megashear, and the Pangea B configuration is rejected.
www.brynmawr.edu /geology/Research/Tectonics.htm   (835 words)

 UCMP Glossary: Paleogeography
A supercontinent that existed in the Late Silurian through Devonian, formed by the collision of Baltica, Laurentia, and Avalonia; included modern North America, Greenland, Scandinavia, and Europe; also called the “Old Red Continent” for the red color of its oxidized deposits.
A supercontinent that existed from the Jurassic to Early Tertiary after splitting from Pangea; composed of Laurentia, Baltica, Avalonia, (modern North America, Scandinavia, Greenland, Western and Central Europe); eventually fragmented into Eurasia and North America in the Tertiary with the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean.
A supercontinent that existed in the Late Precambrian and gave rise to the continents of Gondwana, Laurentia, Siberia, and Baltica in the Cambrian.
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu /glossary/glossary_9.html   (533 words)

 IngentaConnect Do Supercontinents Turn Inside-in or Inside-out?
Supercontinent amalgamation and dispersal has occurred repeatedly since the Archean.
In order to evaluate geodynamic models for supercontinent formation, it is essential to determine which of these two types of ocean is consumed during supercontinent amalgamation.
Although much of the evidence needed is destroyed by subduction, vestiges of oceanic lithosphere are preserved in mafic complexes accreted to continental margins prior to terminal collision.
www.ingentaconnect.com /content/bell/igr/2005/00000047/00000006/art00003   (527 words)

 Formation of Pangea   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The formation of this supercontinent had a number of side affects which could have led to species becoming extinct.
With all the land joined, much of the supercontinent was inland and away from the cooling affects of the sea.
The Pangean supercontinent led to many changes in the shape of the land, glaciation patterns and climate, which in turn altered sea level and salinity of the oceans.
palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk /palaeofiles/Permian/pangea.html   (388 words)

 Great Smoky Mountains National Park - Geology (U.S. National Park Service)
Rocks of the old highlands were over one billion years old, and were similar to the ancient granite and gneiss found in the southeastern parts of the park.
Following this final episode of Appalachian mountain building, the supercontinent of Pangaea broke apart, and the North American and African tectonic plates gradually moved to their present position.
The new rugged highlands, the ancient ancestors of the Smokies, were subjected to intense erosion from ice, wind, and water.
www.nps.gov /grsm/pphtml/subnaturalfeatures14.html   (1120 words)

 pangaea - Definitions from Dictionary.com
A hypothetical supercontinent that included all the landmasses of the earth before the Triassic Period.
"supercontinent of the late Paleozoic era," 1924, from Gk.
A supercontinent made up of all the world's present landmasses joined together in the configuration they are thought to have had during the Permian and Triassic Periods.
dictionary.reference.com /browse/pangaea   (275 words)

 Supercontinent's Breakup Plunged Ancient Earth Into Big Chill
The breakup of the world's original supercontinent, coupled with the breakdown of massive amounts of volcanic rock, plunged Earth into the deepest freeze it has ever experienced, new research shows.
Meert's explanation: Just as shattering a rock into pieces increases its exposed surface area, so breaking up the supercontinent increased the amount of land exposed to the elements and resulted in a more active hydrological cycle.
Because of the abundant volcanic activity, much of this exposed land consisted of volcanic rock or basalt, which erodes easily.
www.spacedaily.com /news/iceage-04c.html   (889 words)

 DISCOVERY v15n3 Texas Through Time
Just as the dinosaurs were adjusting to the fragmentation of the Pangea supercontinent into our familiar continental entities, a comet about six miles in diameter entered the Earth's atmosphere and crashed into the shallow seas of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico at a locality called Chicxulub.
Many people have the impression that the Pangea supercontinent was the original configuration of continents on the surface of the planet--far from it.
Pangea is only the most recent supercontinent of several that formed since the earliest epoch of Earth history known as the Archean, 4,550 to 2,500 million years ago.
www.utexas.edu /opa/pubs/discovery/disc2000v15n3/disc_geological.html   (2644 words)

 Palaeos Earth: Geography: Pangea
The separate continents of the Paleozoic, after having drifted apart through the fragmentation of the supercontinent of Rodinia, around 650 million years ago (Ediacaran period) eventually drifted together again during the Paleozoic, colliding to form the supercontinent of Pangea during the Devonian and Carboniferous periods, some 350 million years ago.
However, the process of separation was prolonged for some 250-300 million years, resulting in roughly the modern series of separate continental blocks in the early to Mid-Cretaceous, some 130-100 million years ago.
The hot arid conditions that persisted over much of the supercontinent for all this time favoured reptiles over therapsids and mammals; hence all the large-bodied (and most small-bodied) ecological niches were filled by eureptilia, especially archosaurs, with amphibians continuing only in rivers and ponds, and synapsids becoming progressively smaller and less diverse, and finally nocturnal.
www.palaeos.com /Earth/Geography/Pangea.htm   (588 words)

 Handprint : Geoevolution
The continental events of the period covered here form three very large scale episodes: [1] the break up of the ancient south polar supercontinent of Rodinia, [2] the reassembly of Rodinian fragments (Gondwana and Laurasia) into the pole-to-pole supercontinent of Pangaea, and [3] the fragmentation and reassembly of Pangaea into the continental pattern of today.
During the Permian era the newly assembled supercontinent of Pangaea ("All Earth") lay across the equator stretching almost from pole to pole.
During the Jurassic era, as the Cimmerian blocks collided with the Siberian extension of Pangaea in the northeast, the various components of the supercontinent began to shift and rotate.
www.handprint.com /PS/GEO/geoevo.html   (3279 words)

 Out of the Quarry: More Signs of a Supercontinent
His research during the past three decades into this period, the Early Permian, has led him into an interesting chapter of the prehistoric world in which the animals with backbones—vertebrates—first left behind their watery world of rivers, swamps, and lakes, and successfully invaded the land.
There they evolved into a great variety of plant-eating and carnivorous forms that were the ancestors of the rich terrestrial life of dinosaurs, birds, amphibians, and mammals that we know about.
The theory that a supercontinent once existed, and then divided into giant pieces that gradually separated by continental drift, continues to accumulate evidence from geologists.
www.carnegiemuseums.org /cmag/bk_issue/1998/novdec/feat8a.htm   (640 words)

 BLM - Environmental Education - Set in Stone
Many scientists who study dinosaurs support the hypothesis that birds are closely related to one line of carnivorous dinosaurs, and some consider that they in fact represent modern living species of dinosaurs.
At the beginning of the age of dinosaurs (during the Triassic period, about 230 million years ago) the continents we now know were arranged together as a single supercontinent called Pangaea.
At the beginning of dinosaur history (the Triassic period), there was one supercontinent on Earth (Pangaea).
www.blm.gov /education/00_resources/articles/paleo/dinosaurs.html   (1090 words)

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