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Topic: Superscalar


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  Superscalar
A superscalar CPU architecture implements a form of parallelism on a single chip, thereby allowing the system as a whole to run much faster than it would otherwise be able to at a given clock speed.
In a superscalar CPU several functional units of the same type are included, along with additional circuitry to dispatch instructions to the units.
Superscalar systems were originally implemented on RISC CPU's.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/su/Superscalar.html   (455 words)

  
 Encyclopedia :: encyclopedia : Superscalar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
A superscalar processor is sort of a mixture of the two.
In a superscalar CPU, there are several functional units of the same type, along with additional circuitry to dispatch instructions to the units.
Seymour Cray's CDC 6600 from 1965 is often mentioned as the first superscalar design, and RISC CPUs took the concept to micro computers.
www.hallencyclopedia.com /topic/Superscalar.html   (603 words)

  
 Superscalar Processors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Superscalar is a term coined in the late 1980s.
Superscalar processors arrived as the RISC movement gained widespread acceptance, and RISC processors are particularly suited to superscalar techniques.
This is not untypical of real superscalar processors: it is fairly clear that a lot of work is currently going into gaining very small improvements and perhaps we need to look at something different.
www.cs.swan.ac.uk /~csneal/HPM/superscalar.html   (3033 words)

  
 Ars Technica: Understanding Pipelining and Superscalar Execution - Page 5 - (12/2002)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Superscalar processing adds a bit of complexity to the processor's control unit because it's now tasked not only with fetching and decoding instructions, but with reordering the linear instruction stream so that some of its individual instructions could execute in parallel.
Furthermore, once executed the instructions must be put back in the order in which they were originally fetched, so that both the programmer and the rest of the system have no idea that the instructions weren't executed in their proper sequence.
So even though the superscalar CPU executes instructions in parallel, the illusion of sequential execution absolutely must be maintained for the sake of the programmer.
arstechnica.com /paedia/c/cpu/part-2/cpu2-5.html   (1127 words)

  
 EETimes.com - A case for superscalar DSPs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Superscalar processors are easier to program, more amenable to maintaining backward code compatibility and need less memory as compared with their VLIW counterparts.
One key advantage of superscalar processors is that it is not necessary for the programmer to factor in data hazards because of parallel execution, or the pipeline latencies for writing a piece of code that would function correctly.
A superscalar architecture is simply one that is responsible for resolving the operand and resource hazards and that has the resources to achieve an instruction throughput that is greater than one instruction per clock.
www.eetimes.com /story/OEG20011115S0060   (1248 words)

  
 Superscalar Processing
Like so much else, we can see early examples of superscalar processors in the 1960s -- both the CDC 6600 and the IBM 360/91 both were superscalar processors (they also both supported out-of-order execution, which we'll get to in a little bit).
While the previous example was crafted to make the superscalar execution run as smoothly as possible, this one ends up throwing a huge number of dependences into the works, so it's going to end up making the machine stall a lot.
Superscalar, non out-of-order processors were extremely sensitive to the scheduling of instructions to optimize pipeline use.
www.cs.nmsu.edu /~pfeiffer/classes/473/notes/superscalar.html   (2160 words)

  
 moocrew part deux, final project report   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Superscalar - we ran all our tests from previous labs, as well as the lab5 and lab6 mystery programs.
A superscalar pipeline will give us a performance gain only if we are able to send two instructions (one into each of the execution units) through the pipeline at the same time.
The multiply/divide benchmark fails only because we set up our superscalar pipeline to handle multiply instructions in the even pipeline only (so when it is in both the delay slot and target of a branch instruction, we end up in a stalled deadlock).
www.ocf.berkeley.edu /~jonc/project/cs152/lab7report/finalrpt.html   (4315 words)

  
 Definition of Superscalar
A superscalar CPU can execute more than one instruction per clock cycle.
Because processing speeds are measured in clock cycles per second (megahertz), a superscalar processor will be faster than a scalar processor rated at the same megahertz.
Because of their superscalar capabilities, RISC processors have typically performed better than CISC processors running at the same megahertz.
www.sharpened.net /glossary/definition.php?superscalar   (119 words)

  
 Superscalar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Therefore a superscalar processor can be envisioned as having multiple parallel pipelines, each of which is processing instructions simultaneously from a single instruction thread.
Thus a multicore CPU is possible where each core is an independent processor containing multiple parallel pipelines, each pipeline being superscalar.
Steven McGeady, "The 1960CA SuperScalar Implementation of the 80960 Architecture", IEEE 1990, pp.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Superscalar   (1219 words)

  
 CommsDesign - Two call on superscalar CPUs for handset apps
San Mateo, Calif. — Superscalar CPU architectures, in which a single instruction stream feeds multiple parallel execution units, began life in the rarefied world of workstations and servers, then gradually migrated downstream to PCs and very high-performance embedded applications.
ARM Ltd. (Cambridge, England) and Renesas Technology Corp. (Tokyo) are pursuing superscalar architectures, driven by both the increasing computing loads and the energy-efficiency demands of the mobile wireless-terminal market.
Beyond the move to superscalar, Renesas, ARM and other vendors are pulling every trick from their kits to simultaneously manage power and performance in their next-generation cores.
www.commsdesign.com /news/tech_beat/OEG20031031S0024   (1022 words)

  
 Multiple Issue CPUs
In the superscalar pipeline, the result of a load cannot be used on the
It also permits the CPU to run well on code that was not scheduled for superscalar execution.
Superscalar machines use hardware to reorder instructions and keep functional units busy.
www.csee.umbc.edu /~plusquel/611/slides/chap4_6.html   (837 words)

  
 Events: Programming with GRID superscalar
GRID superscalar is a programming framework that enabled to easily develop applications to be run in a computational Grid.
The objective is that the Grid appears transparent to the programmer, that is, the user application should be as close as possible to a sequential application run is a personal computer.
GRID superscalar is able to exploit the Grid resources, performing an automatic parallelization at function (task) level whenever is possible.
www.cis.fiu.edu /events/lecture38.php   (192 words)

  
 IngentaConnect Programming Grid Applications with GRID Superscalar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The aim of GRID superscalar is to reduce the development complexity of Grid applications to the minimum, in such a way that writing an application for a computational Grid may be as easy as writing a sequential application.
GRID superscalar allows application developers to write their application in a sequential fashion.
GRID superscalar provides an underlying run-time that is able to detect the inherent parallelism of the sequential application and performs concurrent task submission.
www.ingentaconnect.com /content/klu/grid/2003/00000001/00000002/05269000   (293 words)

  
 superscalar from FOLDOC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
A superscalar architecture is a uniprocessor that can execute two or more scalar operations in parallel.
Superscalar architectures (apart from superpipelined architectures) require multiple functional units, which may or may not be identical to each other.
In some superscalar processors the order of instruction execution is determined statically (purely at compile-time), in others it is determined dynamically (partly at run-time).
www.instantweb.com /foldoc/foldoc.cgi?superscalar   (95 words)

  
 Superscalar processors - 13
A. superscalar implementation of a processor is one in which
A. superscalar refers to machine that is designed to improve performance of scalar instructions by replicating some stages of a pipeline creating multiple sub-pipelines
superscalar approach depends on ability to execute multiple instructions in parallel
webspace.ship.edu /jcthom/schedule/architecture/stallings/ch13.html   (1916 words)

  
 Register and instruction controller for superscalar processor (US6167503)
The plurality of sets are disjoint according to the addresses of the data to be accessed by the instructions while executing in the superscalar computer system.
Each set of instructions is distributed to the plurality of clusters so that the addresses of the data accessed by the instructions are substantially disjoint among the clusters while immediately executing the instructions.
This partitioning and distributing minimizes the number of interconnects between the clusters of the superscalar computer.
www.delphion.com /details?pn=US06167503__   (526 words)

  
 fpgacpu.org - Superscalar FPGA CPU Design
I would like to have an idea of >the gate complexity level for say a 16 bits superscalar with >roughly 3 FP units and 2 Int units and a limited number of >instructions.
It is surely possible, but it might not be the best fit of architecture to implementation technology...
Superscalar microarchitectures typically demand many operand busses to route lots of operands and results to lots of functional units.
www.fpgacpu.org /usenet/superscalar.html   (616 words)

  
 Intel® 80960 Processors
The result is a superscalar processor that can execute up to three instructions per core clock and not be starved by a slower external system.
The Hx processor series is 100% pin compatible within the series, and code compatible with all processors in the i960 architecture.
The i960 CA processor was introduced as the world's first superscalar 32-bit processor developed for embedded applications.
developer.intel.com /design/i960/superscalar.htm   (349 words)

  
 Research Papers
Wallace and N. Bagherzadeh, Performance Issues of a Superscalar Microprocessor, Microprocessors and Microsystems, May 1995.
Wallace, Performance Analysis of a Superscalar Architechture, Master's thesis, UCI, September 1993.
Mat Loikkanen and Nader Bagherzadeh, A Fine-Grain Multithreading Superscalar Architecture, Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques '96, October 1996.
www.eng.uci.edu /comp.arch/papers/index.html   (1070 words)

  
 The 6th International Conference on Linux Clusters
GRID superscalar is a programming framework that enables to automatically exploit inherent concurrency of sequential applications and to run them in computational Grids.
The concurrent execution is performed at task level, where tasks are subroutines or functions that form part of the sequential application that have a certain level of CPU consumption.
The tutorial goal is to give and general overview about GRID superscalar, about its internals and about the programming with GRID superscalar.
www.cluster2005.org /superscalar.html   (608 words)

  
 The Microarchitecture of Superscalar Processors - Smith, Sohi (ResearchIndex)
Abstract: Superscalar processing is the latest in a long series of innovations aimed at producing ever-faster microprocessors.
By exploiting instruction-level parallelism, superscalar processors are capable of executing more than one instruction in a clock cycle.
Dataflow: A Complement to Superscalar - Budiu, Artigas, Goldstein (2005)
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /35243.html   (1070 words)

  
 Superscalar Challenges
However, stride prefetchers have not typically been evaluated in the context of a modern superscalar processor that can issue several instructions per cycle.
The first problem is that superscalar processors can execute multiple instructions per cycle.
A lookahead PC that is only incremented by one every cycle may therefore not be able to advance ahead of the PC fast enough to be of much benefit.
www.bergs.com /stefan/general/general_slides/tsld015.htm   (158 words)

  
 JOT: Journal of Object Technology -Java Optimization for Superscalar and Vector, Douglas Lyon
1 THE SUPERSCALAR G4 TextThe superscalar G4 core (also known as the Motorola MPC74xx series processor) is capable of executing four instructions per clock cycle.
Superscalar processors are based on pipelined MIMD (Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data) architectures.
In an effort to get the superscalar nature of the processor to kick-in, it is typical for the C programmer to unwind the loop.
www.jot.fm /issues/issue_2005_03/column3   (2296 words)

  
 Superscalar Microprocessors Design - $73.10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The term superscalar describes a computer architecture that achieves performance by concurrent execution of scalar instructions.
Superscalar architectures represent the next step in the evolution of microprocessors.
begins by showing how superscalar processors relate to other architectural organizations, highlighting the unique characteristics of general-purpose microprocessors, and how these characteristics affect design decisions.
www.phptr.com /title/0138756341   (224 words)

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