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# Topic: Superstring theory

 Kids.net.au - Encyclopedia Superstring theory -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) Superstring theory, is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings. The graviton (the proposed messenger particle of the gravitational force), for example, is predicted by the theory to be a string with wave amplitude zero. Superstring theory is not the first theory to propose extra spatial dimensions; see Kaluza-Klein theory. www.kidsseek.com /encyclopedia-wiki/su/Superstring_theory   (714 words)

 Superstring theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Superstring theory is a shorthand for "supersymmetric string theory" because unlike bosonic string theory, it is the version of string theory that incorporates fermions and supersymmetry. The deepest problem in theoretical physics is harmonizing the theory of general relativity, which describes gravitation and applies to large-scale structures (stars, galaxies, super clusters), with quantum mechanics which describes the other three fundamental forces acting on the microscopic scale. This theory is special in the sense that it is based on unoriented open and closed strings, while the rest are based on oriented closed strings. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Superstring_theory   (1003 words)

 String theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Superstring theories related by S-duality are: type I superstring theory with heterotic SO(32) superstring theory, and type IIB theory with itself. Coupling constant: in quantum field theory this is, roughly, the probability for one particle to emit or absorb another particle, the latter typically being a gauge boson (a particle carrying a force). Note: formally, gauge symmetries in string theory are (at least in most cases) a result of the existence of a global symmetry together with the profound gauge symmetry of string theory, which is the symmetry of the worldsheet under a local change of coordinates and scales. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/String_theory   (6112 words)

 Superstring Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) Superstring theory is a type of theory of particle physics that treats elementary particles as extended one-dimensional "string-like" objects rather than as the dimensionless points in space-time used in other theories. Superstring theories became popular during the 1980s when Michael Green of Queen Mary College, London, and John Schwarz of the California Institute of Technology showed that certain types of such theories might provide a fully self-consistent quantum theory that describes gravity as well as the weak, strong, and electromagnetic forces. Although quantum chromodynamics was soon accepted as the correct theory of the strong force, string theory was given new life with the incorporation of supersymmetry, the symmetry between fermions (particles with half-integral values of spin) and bosons (particles with integral values of spin). abyss.uoregon.edu /~js/glossary/string.html   (380 words)

 Superstring theory: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) Quantum gravity is the field of theoretical physics attempting to unify the theory of quantum mechanics, which describes three of the fundamental forces of... This has been solved by the second superstring revolution[For more info, click on this link] in the 1990s during which the five superstring theories were discovered to be different limits of a single underlying theory. P-branes or branes are terms from quantum superstring theory used to refer to membrane-like structures of one to eleven dimensions that arise in equations... www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/su/superstring_theory.htm   (2205 words)

 SUPERSTRING THEORY This unification must go beyond current thought, and new theories are being developed in order to connect the four forces: the electromagnetic force, the weak force, the strong force, and the force of gravity. Many theoretical physicists have turned toward superstring theories and M-theory to solve the anomalies in the standard model, and they continue to struggle and develop a "theory of everything". String theory takes a step in another direction and assumes strings are one-dimensional objects with no thickness and radii of 1.0 x 10^ -34 inches (the Planck length). www.angelfire.com /il/theoreticalphysics/sstheory.html   (1321 words)

 The Superstring Mystery This was a breakthrough because the superstring theory had the potential to include all the particles and forces in nature. He tried to formulate a theory in which the gauge potential could be singular along a string joining two magnetic charges in such a way that the singularity could be displaced through gauge transformations and must therefore be considered physically inconsequential. TQFT is a special quantum field theory which has the same number of degrees of gauge symmetry as it has fields, consequently it is possible to transform away all field variables except those which depend on the topology of space-time. www.weburbia.com /pg/strings.htm   (3685 words)

 Open Questions: Superstring Theory Richard Feynman was one of the key contributors to the formulation of a satisfactory theory of quantum electrodynamics. Although string theories automatically avoided the sorts of problems which typically introduce infinities into point particle theories, it is still necessary to prove that string theories don't have new kinds of inifinities of their own. In this theory, however, the strings are oriented, and the fermionic vibrations move in one direction around the loop, while the bosonic vibrations move in the opposite direction. www.openquestions.com /oq-ph001.htm   (16723 words)

 Untitled More generally, in type II theories, one can consider open strings with specified positions for the end-points in some of the dimensions, which implies that they are forced to end on a preferred surface. Two important examples of superstring theories that are T-dual when compactified on a circle are the IIA and IIB theories and the HE and HO theories. According to Einstein's theory of general relativity, such a system ought to be losing orbital energy through the radiation of gravitational waves at a rate that would cause them to spiral together on a time scale of about 3 108 years. www.superstringtheory.fanspace.com /whats_new.html   (4850 words)

 Eleventh Dimension This is an elegant theory that describes the macroscopic world of fl holes, quasars and the big bang. The form of quantum theory that goes furthest in describing matter and its interactions is the Standard Model, which is based on a bizarre bestiary of particles such as quarks, leptons and bosons (see Diagram). In superstring theory, the subatomic particles we see in nature are nothing more than different resonances of the vibrating superstrings, in the same way that different musical notes emanate from the different modes of vibration of a violin string. www.fortunecity.com /emachines/e11/86/dimens.html   (3039 words)

 Home Page The Theory that I am about to propose is a modification to M-Theory that explains the problem of SUSY and those hidden dimensions. One was that the theory required the existence of a kind of particle that we didn't want -- namely a particle with no mass and two units of spin. The second problem was that the theory required that space-time have ten dimensions (nine space and one time), whereas the correct answer is clearly four (three space and one time). www.superstringtheory.fanspace.com   (1019 words)

 fUSION Anomaly. Superstrings   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) It is the elementary particle in a theory of space-time incorporating supersymmetry. The quantum theory reduces "forces" to the exchange of discrete packet of energy or quanta, while Einstein's theory of gravity, by contrast, explains the cosmic forces holding the galaxies together by postulating the smooth deformation of the fabric of space-time. This is the superstring theory, which postulates that all matter and energy can be reduced to tiny strings of energy vibrating in a 10 dimensional universe. fusionanomaly.net /superstrings.html   (2331 words)

 Superstring Theory Construction of the superstring theory starts with the "Action Principle", which confines the movement of the string such that the world sheet sweeps out a minimum area (similar to the shorest distance for the case of point particle). Thus, unlike the case of the superstring, the absence of tachyons in the Heterotic theory is not enforced by a GSO projection. Non-perturbation Theory - Interactions in superstring theory are expressed in terms of the splitting and joining of strings (see Figure 14 and 15). universe-review.ca /R15-18-string.htm   (7901 words)

 Energy Science FAQ...relativity, carnot, superstring, battery, general, special, string, everything, theory, space, ... In 1986 the string theory, a little later the superstring theory, membrane theory, and around 1998 the M-theory were proposed. In all these theories it is suggested that matter and forces are the result of different frequencies of a single elementary vibrating string or membrane. Each of the theories explains a part of how the universe operates by using models that are valid only in a very limited sense. www.benwiens.com /energyFAQ.html   (7453 words)

 Amazon.com: Superstring Theory: Volume 2, Loop Amplitudes, Anomalies and Phenomenology (Cambridge Monographs on ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) While the first volume demonstrated that string theory gives general relativity in the low energy limit, this volume explores some of the possible string theory implications in particle physics and how six of ten dimensions get compactified leaving the familiar four spacetime dimensions. The background in differential geometry needed to understand gauge theory, as expressed in the language of forms, is presented in an earlier chapter. If their emphasis is on string theory as a grand unified theory, or other implications of the low energy limits of string theory, then there's likely little doubt this is required reading. www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0521357535?v=glance   (1118 words)

 NOVA | The Elegant Universe | PBS In this excerpt from his book The Elegant Universe, Brian Greene explains why string theory might hold the key to unifying the four forces of nature. The series host says we may not be smart enough to ever fully understand the universe, he'd like to know now if string theory is wrong, and more. An everyday string and the tiny strings of string theory have a lot in common. www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/elegant   (333 words)

 String Theory Discussion Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) String Theory and M Theory Duality VI String Theory and M Theory Duality V String Theory and M Theory Duality IV String Theory and M Theory Duality III String Theory and M Theory Duality II String Theory and M Theory Duality I www.superstringtheory.com /forum/forums_i.html   (596 words)

 Understanding Physics :: Main Page With the help of the computer, physicists hope to determine the properties of a state of matter currently under intense study at Brookhaven's premiere accelerator, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Related to this effort, the supercomputer will be used for calculations in quantum chromodynamics – the physics theory that describes the interactions of subatomic quarks and gluons. In particular, physicists hope to understand the reason for the existence of six types of quarks that have widely varied masses. www.physics-blog.com   (2484 words)

 A Brief History of Superstings   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05) The history of string theory is very fascinating, with many bizarre twists and turns. It has not yet received the attention it deserves from historians of science. Here we will settle for a very quick sketch. www.theory.caltech.edu /people/jhs/strings/string13.html   (36 words)

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