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Topic: Suprasegmental

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  English Suprasegmentals
The suprasegmental symbols are called that because they apply to more than one segment (vowel or consonant).
In English, the relevant suprasegmentals are the markings for primary and secondary stress.
Because people usually say a word in isolation when transcribing it, they tend to mark primary and secondary stress, but this is not necessary for English.
www.englishlanguageguide.com /english/pronunciation/suprasegmentals.asp   (0 words)

 What is a suprasegmental?
A suprasegmental is a vocal effect that extends over more than one sound segment in an utterance, such as pitch, stress, or juncture pattern.
In SIL contexts, suprasegmental is often used for
This page is an extract from the LinguaLinks Library, Version 5.0 published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 2003.
www.sil.org /linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsASuprasegmental.htm   (70 words)

  Scott's Suprasegmental features article 1
The suprasegmental features are those which operate over longer stretches of speech, such as, stress, rhythm, intonation, pitch, and voice quality as opposed to the segmental features which are referred to as the individual sounds.
Although the suprasegmental features are sometimes called the 'unteachables', Laroy (1995) suggests that they are not 'unlearnable'.
By beginning with the overall voice setting or voice quality of English and engaging the learner in activities which raise his or her awareness to the way the language sounds, (perhaps by comparing it with other languages), is in line with a holistic, "top-down" approach.
www.developingteachers.com /articles_tchtraining/supra1_scott.htm   (941 words)

  The Language Teacher Online: Cross, April 2002
The major suprasegmental features are stress, rhythm, and intonation (Jenkins, 1998; Roach, 2000) and these features are shaped by the dynamic patterns of pitch, duration, and loudness (Clark and Yallop, 1995).
Suprasegmental pronunciation is of significant communicative importance in discourse.
For teachers of English in Japan, one way to raise learner awareness of suprasegmental features of pronunciation may be through the recognition and comparison of these aspects in English and Japanese in order to highlight similarities or to emphasize differences that will require greater attention.
www.jalt-publications.org /tlt/articles/2002/04/cross   (2339 words)

 English Teaching Forum Online – Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
The course design was based on the view that training in suprasegmental features may be more valuable than work on individual sounds or phonemes for accurate perception and production of the target language, even at the segmental level.
This view hinges on the notions that suprasegmental features are the key to pronunciation teaching and that "accurate production of segmental features does not in itself characterize native-like pronunciation, nor is it the primary basis of intelligible speech" (Pennington and Richards 1986: 218).
Thus, teaching suprasegmental aspects of pronunciation was found to be of limited value because students had little desire to modify their speech patterns in this respect.
exchanges.state.gov /forum/vols/vol39/no3/p10.htm   (2670 words)

 English Teaching Forum Online – Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
Although rules for suprasegmental use exist, these rules are broader and have much more variation than is involved in learning articulation of the individual sounds.
As noted, the suprasegmentals generally are among the most difficult features of English for nonnative speakers to recognize and acquire.
Even when students accept the importance of suprasegmentals, they are dismayed by what they perceive as a lack of rules or regularity associated with these elements.
exchanges.state.gov /forum/vols/vol38/no1/p24.htm   (2417 words)

 Research - The University of Iowa   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In my study of both segmental and suprasegmental phenomena, I have found that there is a great deal of interaction among phonological units of different levels.
This phenomenon also involves the interaction between segmental and suprasegmental structure since I found that the syllabization of sonorant consonants through the absorption of an adjacent high vowel occurs only when the latter segment bears either primary or secondary stress.
That is to say that for syllabicity to transfer from the vowel to the consonant the absorbed vowel must be the head of a primary or secondary foot.
www.uiowa.edu /~spanport/personal/Pineros/research.htm   (561 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Nasal vowel   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In Min Chinese, nasal vowels carry persistent air flow though both the mouth and the nose, producing an invariant and sustainable vowel quality.
That is, this type of nasalization is synchronic and suprasegmental to the voicing.
In contrast, nasal vowels in French or Portuguese are transitional, where the velum ends up constricting the mouth airway.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Nasal-vowel   (1150 words)

 Table of Contents
Suprasegmental and segmental speech perception tasks were administered to 8 patients with single-channel cochlear implants.
Suprasegmental tasks included the recognition of syllable number, syllabic stress, and intonation.
The patterns of responses for both suprasegmental and segmental tasks were highly similar for both groups of subjects, despite differences between the characteristics of the subject samples.
www.asha.org /about/publications/journal-abstracts/jshr/33/02?articleabstract=229   (235 words)

The chiropractor must ascertain the function of the neurons in the canalized pathways as well as the sum of suprasegmental excitatory or inhibitory effects that are acting upon the pathways -- the CIS of the presynaptic integrated pools.
There could be ablation in the pathway such as compression axonopathy (which often occurs as a consequence of aberrant suprasegmental modulation as discussed in module 3) but there could also be a hyperpolarization of the neurons which reduces the probability of summation.
The fatiguability could be related to a global disturbance, or perhaps an axonopathy with its segmental and suprasegmental effects; a brain lesion, a segmental lesion, or a compartment lesion could all possibly explain these effects.
www.dendrites.com /mod_6.html   (5462 words)

 Speech Synthesis with Improved Prosody   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The goal of this project is to improve the intelligibility and naturalness of synthesized diphone speech by incorporating suprasegmental information into the speech.
Suprasegmental information, or prosody, includes pitch and intonation, rhythm, lexical and phrasal stress, emphasis, and all other information in speech that is separate from the segmental information.
In addition, certain suprasegmental features such as ambiguous phrase boundaries and contrastive stress cannot be reliably inserted automatically.
www.asel.udel.edu /speech/Sp_syn/diph_synth_prosody.html   (263 words)

 Phonology home   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Phonology is often divided into segmental phonology and suprasegmental phonology, or prosody.
Suprasegmental phonology is concerned with other aspects of phonology, such as tone, stress and intonation.
This is presumably because, in most fields of scientific inquiry with the exception of physics, a linear world view has held sway, and also because the orthography of languages such as English encourages one to see the sound system as being a simple linear sequence of segments.
www.pu-kumamoto.ac.jp /~rlavin/ling/phon.html   (142 words)

 Gues the Stress: glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Suprasegmental features are traditionally defined as pitch, stress, and quantity (or F0, loudness/intensity, and duration — details of definition depend on whether you have a phonetic, psychophysical, or acoustic perspective).
Suprasegmental features may be part of the lexical make-up of individual words (e.g.
In a narrower use of the term, intonation is restricted to pitch, and excludes paralinguistic features such as range and voice quality.
www.hrelp.org /student_projects/guess_the_stress/glossary.html   (206 words)

Areas of research within phonetics, segmental structure of speech (the system and characteristics of speech sounds), suprasegmental structure of speech (intonation, stress, tempo, pauses, voice quality, intensity), possibilities of analysing these; interrelations of physiological, acoustic, and perceptual study of speech, particulars of phonetic analysis.
This course discusses the suprasegmental structure of speech (intonation, stress, tempo, rhythm, pauses, voice quality) in terms of both articulation and acoustic patterns, with practice in analysing these factors.
It introduces students to the topic of suprasegmentals and possibilities of an experimental approach on the one hand, and the process and results of contrastive research on the other.
www.btk.elte.hu /fonetika/foneng.html   (3598 words)

 Transcription systems   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The process of prosodic encoding can be defined as the symbolization of the linguistically relevant variations that occur in the domains of time, frequency and intensity in the sound wave corresponding to a speaker's utterance.
It was concluded that additions were needed to represent suprasegmentals within the IPA framework.
On the other hand, the theory behind systems used in discourse and conversation analysis is defined by the needs, the practices and the models used in the field, since the events which are coded are those which are known to be relevant in order to explain the discursive or the interactional behaviour of the speakers.
www.ilc.cnr.it /EAGLES96/spokentx/node31.html   (1887 words)

 HLW: Word Forms: Units: Syllables
The suprasegmental dimensions of pitch, loudness, and length also play a somewhat different role in languages.
Notice how suprasegmentals (loudness, length, and pitch) are used to emphasize different words in the sentences and to indicate whether the sentence is a statement or a question.
These uses of suprasegmentals are referred to as intonation.
www.iub.edu /~hlw/PhonUnits/syllables.html   (2948 words)

 SP2004 Abstract: Sittiprapaporn et al.
Electrophysiological approach was used to examine effects on the amplitude and latency of segmental and suprasegmental (speech prosody) phonological units MMNs in response to consonant-vowel (CV) syllables in lexical tones.
Our result suggests that the MMN responses to the suprasegmental (speech prosody) phonological unit were greater than the segmental phonological unit.
These data are relevance to a growing number of researches of MMN effects in response to changes of speech prosody in normal adults.
www.isca-speech.org /archive/sp2004/sp04_613.html   (147 words)

 Stibbard-Teaching English Intonation with a Visual Display of Fundamental Frequency
Brown states that "[w]riters are now convinced of the importance of suprasegmentals in pronunciation" and argues for more attention to intonation in the classroom (Brown 1995: 172).
Finally, although not a matter of suprasegmental features, it will be noted from the phonetic transcription that the learner makes a number of errors at the segmental level.
It is this kind of speech, in which segmental and suprasegmental inaccuracy combine, that leads to poor performance in interactive situations.
iteslj.org /Articles/Stibbard-Intonation/index.html   (3578 words)

 INTAS Project 00-915 — Jyväskylän yliopisto - University of Jyväskylä
The aim of this project was to determine the phonetic differences between read and spontaneous speech of typologically unrelated languages and define which of these features are universal and which are language dependent.
Prosodic properties are likely to undergo changes in the first place, and consequently under their influence, changes of phonetic characteristics of sounds (co-articulation, reduction etc.) take place, leading to allophonic variations of speech sounds.
The study of typologically unrelated languages where segmental and suprasegmental characteristics are in different linguistic relations, is of great interest.
www.jyu.fi /hum/laitokset/kielet/oppiaineet_kls/venaja/henkilosto/intas00915   (463 words)

 Definition of suprasegmental - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
Learn more about "suprasegmental" and related topics at Britannica.com
Find more about "suprasegmental" instantly with Live Search
See a map of "suprasegmental" in the Visual Thesaurus
www.m-w.com /cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=suprasegmental   (0 words)

 Asian EFL Journal: English Language Teaching and Research Articles
Comparing segmental and suprasegmental aspects of both languages, this study also discusses several problematic areas of pronunciation for Japanese learners of English.
Suprasegmental aspects of the English sound system such as rhythm, stress, and intonation are often distinguished from the segmental aspects such as consonants and vowels discussed earlier.
These suprasegmental aspects of English are also considered to be different from those of Japanese in many respects.
www.asian-efl-journal.com /december_04_KO.php   (3712 words)

 IngentaConnect Voornaam is not (really) a Homophone: Lexical Prosody and Lexical...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Words embedded in nonsense strings were harder to detect if the nonsense string itself formed the beginning of a competing word, but a suprasegmental mismatch to the competing word significantly reduced this inhibition.
The same nonsense strings facilitated recognition of the longer words of which they constituted the beginning, but again the facilitation was significantly reduced by suprasegmental mismatch.
Nonetheless, suprasegmental mismatch appears to be somewhat less effective in constraining activation than segmental mismatch.
www.ingentaconnect.com /content/king/ls/2001/00000044/00000002/art00003   (254 words)

 Speech Synthesis
As with phonemes, linguists disagree as to how many distinct allophones there are in the English language, but high-quality speech synthesizers have been developed on the basis of around _sixty_ of them.
In addition to how the individual phonemes or "segments" of speech are generated, speech also includes features which span segments, i.e., "suprasegmental" features.
Suprasegmental features impart more information than is contained in the words alone.
www.rit.edu /~easi/itd/itdv01n2/edwards.htm   (2241 words)

 Segmental and suprasegmental contributions to spoken-word recognition in Dutch   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Studies from English suggest that suprasegmentals play little role in human spoken-word recognition; English stress, however, is nearly always unambiguously coded in segmental structure (vowel quality); this relationship is less close in Dutch.
The present study directly compared the effects of segmental and suprasegmental mispronunciation on word recognition in Dutch.
There was a strong effect of suprasegmental mispronunciation, suggesting that Dutch listeners do exploit suprasegmental information in word recognition.
www.nici.kun.nl /Publications/1997/11090.html   (162 words)

 Voice Quality
Voice quality in speech is influenced by several factors, segmental as well as suprasegmental.
One of the suprasegmental features correlated with good voice quality is the rate of speech.
Studies evaluating the characteristics of the speech of “superior speakers” have found them to have a slower rate of speech (Cowan, 1934).
www.indiana.edu /~voice/stimula.htm   (964 words)

 Measuring Behavior 2005: Ciceri and Biassoni   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Suprasegmental and verbal features of repeated questions in interview during the process of secret disclosure
The repetition of the same question (from the verbal content point of view) brings the interviewer nearer to the subject secret; acustic digitalized analysis, then, put into evidence the role of suprasegmental dimension in this strategy.
The suprasegmental dimension of all the questions, and in particular of repeated questions, has been analyzed using CSL (Computerized Speech Laboratory, Kay Elemetrics Corps).
www.noldus.com /mb2005/program/abstracts/ciceri2.html   (266 words)

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