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# Topic: Normal surfaces

###### In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

 Normal Development of the Prepuce Moreover, the inner mucosal surface of the prepuce is fused with the underlying mucosal surface of the glans penis. This normal developmental narrowness is sometimes improperly diagnosed as phimosis (a fairly rare pathological condition, characterized by hardening of the tip of the foreskin, and a whitish ring of hardened tissue). This is a normal developmental physiological condition and is not a cause for concern. www.cirp.org /library/normal   (2070 words)

 The negative K-theory of normal surfaces, by Charles A. Weibel   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The negative K-theory of normal surfaces, by Charles A. Weibel We relate the negative K-theory of a normal surface X to a resolution of singularities. The key technical result is that we can resolve the singularities of a surface as the normalization of a blowup along a local complete intersection. www.math.uiuc.edu /K-theory/0367   (101 words)

 Object Files (.obj) For surfaces, this means that the point corresponding to the given surface parameters is included as a triangle vertex in the triangulation. The surface is subdivided in rectangular regions until 1) the distance in real space between the approximating rectangle and the actual surface is less than the maxdist (approximately) and 2) the angle in degrees between surface normals at the corners of the rectangle is less than the maxangle. maxangle is the angle in degrees between surface normals at the corners of the rectangle. local.wasp.uwa.edu.au /~pbourke/dataformats/obj   (7546 words)

 Standard Friction Equation - School for Champions: Succeed in Physical Science The standard friction equation is the relationship between the resistive force of sliding friction for hard surfaces, the normal force pushing the two surfaces together and the coefficient of friction number for the two surfaces. The coefficient may be dependent on the area of the surfaces, the amount of deformation, the amount of adhesion, the shape of the surfaces, the radius of the wheel or the viscosity of the fluid. The standard friction equation is the relationship between the resistive force of sliding friction for hard surfaces, the normal force and the coefficient of friction for the two surfaces. www.school-for-champions.com /science/friction_equation.htm   (1620 words)

 Normal Surfaces and Decision Problems in 3-Manifolds   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Jaco, W. and Rubinstein, J.H., ``A piecewise linear theory of minimal surfaces in 3-manifolds'', J. Diff. Jaco and J. Rubinstein, PL minimal surfaces in 3-manifolds, J. Pitts and J. Rubinstein, Equivariant minimax and minimal surfaces in geometric 3-manifolds, Bull. www.math.ucdavis.edu /~hass/background.html   (240 words)

 System for depicting surfaces using volumetric distance maps - Patent 6040835 An accurate surface normal estimation is essential for haptic data exploration where a force feedback device is used by the user to tactually explore the surface of a graphical object. The distance to the nearest surface point varies linearly in the direction normal to a surface, and varies slowly in the direction parallel to the surface as long as the surface is relatively smooth. When rendering polygonal models, surface illumination at a point P, 30, is calculated from the viewing direction, V, 32, the lighting direction, L, 34, and an estimate, N, 36, of the surface normal at the point P, 30, using an illumination model such as the Phong illumination model. www.freepatentsonline.com /6040835.html   (3934 words)

 Force Frictional resistance to the relative motion of two solid objects is usually proportional to the force which presses the surfaces together as well as the roughness of the surfaces. Friction is typically characterized by a coefficient of friction which is the ratio of the frictional resistance force to the normal force which presses the surfaces together. In many common situations, the normal force is just the weight of the object which is sitting on some surface, but if an object is on an incline or has components of applied force perpendicular to the surface, then it is not equal to the weight. hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/frict.html   (734 words)

 POV-Ray Questions and Tips - The Shadow Line Artifact Perturbed surface normals are used, in fact, to simulate the perturbation of the surface itself. In triangle meshes the normal interpolation is used to simulate curvature of the surface (a curvature which actually isn't there). However, since the normal vector perturbation doesn't affect the surface itself in any way, this kind of artifact will be the price to pay (another one is that although the surface looks bumpy or smooth, its silhouette will still look straight or polygonized, but this usually is not such a big problem). tag.povray.org /povQandT/TheShadowLineArtifact   (1395 words)

 Climate Change and Environment Blog from The Weather Channel - Forecast Earth When comparing the IPCC process to normal peer-review, one should note that there are substantial differences: normal peer-review is not only anonymous but also non-public; in normal peer-review the reviewers do the whole paper not just bits; in normal peer-review the authors have a different balance of power with the reviewers. Volunteers who are investigating the surface temperature sensors and reporting their findings on the web site surfacestations.org are charging that many are located too close to hot pavement or in otherwise unsuitable locations. The surface response, which is much slower, therefore reacts more proportionately to the 'adjusted' forcing and this is generally what is used in lieu of the instantaneous forcing. climate.weather.com /blog?from=footer   (12326 words)

 USQ ePrints - Spectral shade ratios on horizontal and sun normal surfaces for single trees and relatively cloud free sky The spectral shade ratios defined as the ratios of the spectral irradiances on horizontal and sun normal planes in the tree shade to those on a horizontal plane in sunlight were calculated. The sun normal plane was employed as there are some activities that have exposures to parts of the body that are orientated in a sun normal plane. The horizontal plane shade ratios for the medium density canopy dropped by 47% - 56% from the ratios in the range 301 to 310 nm to the ratios in the range 391 to 400 nm. eprints.usq.edu.au /archive/00001177   (366 words)

 Ask the PLM: Tips & Techniques Q&A from the ISDX II Product Specialist Before you connect the surface normal to the plane, you want to make sure the centerline curve is 2D (not formally planar, but it should not deviate from the plane) and that any adjacent curves have a 'normal' tangent that is perpendicular to the centerline plane. Normally, when you drag a single point on a curve, the other points on that curve remain in their same locations so that the curve changes shape. Since a surface model usually is made of individual surface patches merged together to form a surface quilt, you could measure the overall quality of a quilt by analyzing the continuity between patches. www.ptc.com /products/proe/isdx/tips_and_techniques.htm   (1721 words)

 Agnes Pockels & Lord Rayleigh -Between, two normal surfaces, which are unequally contaminated by one and the same substance, a current sets in from the more to the less contaminated when the partition is removed; much weaker, indeed, than that exhibited in the anomalous condition by differences of tension, but, all the same, distinctly perceptible. If the surface be then made normal again by immersing and withdrawing strips of paper, and if this process be repeated several times, a normal surface is at last attained, which is contaminated by sugar only, and on the tension of this the sugar produces no further effect. That the surface layer really possesses a higher dissolving power is further shown by the experiment, which is well known to you, in which a thin disk of camphor, so hung that it is half immersed in the cleanest possible water surface, is cut through in the course of a few hours. www.physics.ucla.edu /~cwp/articles/pockels/pockels.html   (2180 words)

 What is the "collision normal"? - GameDev.Net Discussion Forums   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The collision normal is a vector which is used to calculate impulses after the collision. Moreover, if the surfaces aren't differentiable at that points, which could be the fact by 2 polygons or by aproximated surfaces, a normal vector doesn't exist.. A good approximation to the collision normal can be found when using the Separating Axis Theorem (not mentionned in Physics for Game Developers) by using the axis with maximum overlap as the collision normal direction. www.gamedev.net /community/forums/topic.asp?topic_id=323489&whichpage=1&   (759 words)

 GSII snippets 1.3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Surfaces of a small enough size are eliminated and groups of large numbers of small surfaces forming objects are replaced by clumps as shown in Figure 1. Normal surfaces are large enough to be used both in the radiosity solution and in the final rendering. Simple surfaces are used in place of clusters of complex surfaces in the radiosity solution and during the low resolution requirements of the final rendering. www.cc.gatech.edu /gvu/people/Phd/Charles.Patterson/research/gsii/gsii.html   (1415 words)

 Sketching of Auxiliary Views   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Often there are surfaces that are not parallel to the viewing planes hence they are not shown to the viewer in terms of that surface’s true size and shape. Indicate on one of the orthographic views where that auxiliary view is taken with an arrow point normal to that surface. There may be one surface edge in the auxiliary view that is not shown in its true length in any of the orthographic views. www.engin.umich.edu /class/aero384/currentfiles/Auxiliary-views.html   (629 words)

 Manual/Bump and Normal Maps - BlenderWiki Normal Maps and Bump Maps both serve the same purpose: they simulate the impression of a detailed 3D surface, by modifying the shading as if the surface had lots of small angles, rather than being completely flat. Normal maps are images that store a direction, the direction of normals directly in the RGB values of an image. The drawbacks to normal maps are that unlike bump maps, which can easily be painted by hand, normal haps usually have to be generated in some way, often from higher resolution geometry than the geometry you're applying the map to. wiki.blender.org /index.php/Manual/Bump_and_Normal_Maps   (1011 words)

 Cancer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Initiation of cancer is a multi-step process involving the transition of a previously normal, healthy gene to one that no longer recognizes growth constraints. As of the end of the 20th century, cancer metastasis was thought to be a two-part process commencing within the genes of a single cell.(2) The stage is set when genes with essential roles in control of cell growth and development become oncogenes. For while normal cell surfaces facilitate cohesion with like cells, which orchestrates containment, the cell surfaces of cancerous cells encourage their spread in the body. home.comcast.net /~medicalink/W-cancer.htm   (808 words)

 Zhen Wu We are interested in the surface interactions of spin polarized alkali metal atoms and inert gas atoms in optical pumping cells. This normal gradient of the spin polarization at the surface palys an important role in the study of surface interactions of spin polarized species. We have been able to deduce the hyperfine polarization, its normal gradient and normal gradient coefficient of the Rb atoms at the surface in uncoated cells. andromeda.rutgers.edu /~physics/zwu.htm   (439 words)

 [No title] The roughness of a pair of surfaces is measured by a quantity known as the static coefficient of friction. Experimental research on friction forces exerted during sliding have revealed that the friction force during sliding is proportional to the normal force and independent of the speed of sliding. Values for the kinetic coefficient of friction also vary from 0 to roughly 1 but for any particular pair of contacting surfaces, the kinetic coefficient of friction is always less than or equal to the static coefficient of friction for that pair of surfaces. www.eng.auburn.edu /department/me/courses/nmadsen/egr182a/pliers30.html   (1024 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) A normal surface in a triangulated 3-manifold is an embedded surface that intersects each tetrahedron in a disjoint union of normal triangles (= a disc whose boundary intersects exactly three different edges of the tetrahedron) and normal squares (= a disc whose boundary intersects exactly four different edges of the tetrahedron). This is an embedded sphere formed by normal triangles and squares, and exactly one normal octagon (= a disc in a tetrahedron whose boundary meets two opposite edges twice and each of the four remaining edges once. This is certainly non-trivial, since a priori F might be a disjoint union of copies of the boundary of N and an almost normal surface of higher genus. www.lehigh.edu /~dmd1/sk517.txt   (671 words)

 Physics Lecture Notes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Friction acts parallel to the surfaces that are in contact and in the direction opposite to the motion of the object or to the net force tending to produce the motion. B. There are numerous special cases where the normal force does happen to be the weight of the object, but it is sometimes and wrongly assumed that the normal force and weight always have the same magnitude. The friction force depends on how easily two surfaces become stuck relative to becoming unstuck; it is proportional to the degree of irreversibility of the force that squeezes the two surfaces together, rather than the strength of the force. www.parisisd.net /parishigh/teachers/kferguson/page2.htm   (3920 words)

 -continuous Connections Between Normal Ringed Surfaces   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) A ringed surface is a surface generated by sweeping a circle with non constant radius along a curve. The ringed surface is called normal if the circles are contained in the normal planes of the curve. -connection of a) a pipe surface and a surface of revolution, b) 5 pipe surfaces c) 5 cylinders with coplanar axes and a cone d) 5 cylinders with parallel axes www.mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de /~ehartmann/pub/parblrings_abs/parblrings_abs.html   (142 words)

 dhpoware Parallax mapping is a method for approximating the correct appearance of uneven surfaces by modifying the texture coordinate for each pixel. Normal mapping is commonly used to provide surfaces with very detailed shading without requiring additional geometry to be added to the polygonal model. Parallax mapping is commonly used in conjunction with normal mapping because parallax mapping is a relatively inexpensive means to enhance the normal mapping effect. www.dhpoware.com /demos/xnaParallaxNormalMapping.html   (396 words)

 id.sdk [Bump Maps] A local normal map encodes the actual perturbation angle of the surface at each point in the RGB color, so it is complete by itself without any scaling parameters. Renderbump is also capable of generating "global normal maps", which encode an absolute direction in object space, instead of in local surface space, but global maps cannot be deformed or used on different wall orientations in the same object. Height maps must be converted to normal maps at load time, so it is usually superior to use normal maps unless you need to manually create or manipulate the image in a way that is easier with height maps. www.iddevnet.com /doom3/bumpmaps.php   (1111 words)

 Simple Curves and Surfaces The center of an ellipse and hyperbola, in normal form, is the coordinate origin and the curve is symmetric about its center and its axes. In this normal form, for any point (x,y) on a parabola, the value of y must be positive and the opening of this parabola is upward. It is easy to see (from their normal forms) that ellipsoids, hyperboloids and paraboloids are rank four quadrics, and cones and cylinders are rank three quadrics. www.cs.mtu.edu /~shene/COURSES/cs3621/NOTES/geometry/simple.html   (1319 words)

 EJGE Paper 2005-0514 Consequently, slip surfaces that are solutions of Euler’s first equation posses the characteristic property of log-spirals, namely the angle between the normal and the radius vector is equal to the local value of mobilized friction angle. In this limiting case the critical slip surface coincides with the surface of the slope, and the critical normal stress function is identically equal to zero, i.e. This limiting normal stress is a singularity of Euler's differential equations, and these equations have a solution only in a finite zone bounded by two points at which normal stresses are equal to the negative of the tensile strength. www.ejge.com /2005/Ppr0514/Ppr0514.htm   (7570 words)

 normal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) In generating the surface, the first curve (base curve) is stationary. A drive plane is defined by the first two links (or single arc link) in the drive curve; if this plane’s normal vector is not parallel to the first link of the base curve, the drive curve will be automatically rotated to this parallel condition in calculating the surface. The rotation is internal to the surface calculation and the curve will not be moved on the screen. www.ezcam.com /web/products/help/ezmill/menu_surfaces/normal.htm   (304 words)

 Regina Calculation Engine: Normal Surfaces A normal surface vector that is mirrored in another coordinate system to avoid frequent lengthy calculations. Determines whether or not normal discs of the given type are numbered away from the given vertex. the normal disc type under consideration; this should be between 0 and 9 inclusive, as described by the NDiscSpec class notes. regina.sourceforge.net /engine-docs/group__surfaces.html   (1312 words)

 Reconstructive Open Bite Occlusion Porcelain Veneers Santa Monica California CA Ceramic Biting Adjustment Sam Muslin ... This represents a disturbance in the normal occlusal relationships we are all supposed to have. This restoration of normal bite has resulted in a lengthening of the vertical dimension and is manifested in a larger, broader smile. Normal wear and tear on teeth usually cause shifts in bite and occlusion... www.santamonicacosmeticreconstructivefaceliftdentist.com /reconstructive_openbite_veneers.html   (706 words)

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