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Topic: Surfactant


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In the News (Tue 22 Jul 14)

  
  Surfactant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids.
Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are amphipathic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (their "tails") and hydrophilic groups (their "heads").
Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by adsorbing at the liquid-gas interface.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Surfactant   (466 words)

  
 Pulmonary surfactant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The proteins and lipids that comprise surfactant have both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region.
By adsorbing to the air-water interface of alveoli with the hydrophilic headgroups in the water and the hydrophobic tails facing towards the air, the main lipd component of surfactant, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, reduces surface tension.
The remaining 10% of surfactant is comprised of proteins.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pulmonary_surfactant   (795 words)

  
 Surfactant
Radiology of the lungs involves the observation of shadows that are caused by temporary or permanent collapse of portions of the lung.
Micrographs show that pulmonary surfactant is primarily a monolayer in the alveolus, separating the minimal water phase from the air and lying almost adjacent to the surface of cells.
The surfactant response to overinflation is not predictable, but must rely upon lung elasticity in the stretched alveoli and a normal film of surfactant (folding) in the smaller alveoli.
myweb.lsbu.ac.uk /dirt/museum/surfactant.html   (2076 words)

  
 Surfactant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Surfactant is a complex substance containing phospholipids and a number of apoproteins.
Surfactant reduces surface tension throughout the lung, thereby contributing to its general compliance.
Surfactant is formed relatively late in fetal life; thus premature infants born without adequate amounts experience respiratory distress and may die.
oac.med.jhmi.edu /res_phys/Encyclopedia/Surfactant/Surfactant.HTML   (150 words)

  
 Surfactants: Detergent Chemistry
In each case, the hydrophilic end of the surfactant is strongly attracted to the water molecules and the force of attraction between the hydrophobe and water is only slight.
Each of these three functions is related to the surfactant absorbing at a surface, either gas, liquid or solid with the hydrophilic ends of the molecules oriented to the water phase.
In addition to surfactant effects the stability of these suspensions is related to the particle size and density of the suspended material.
www.chemistry.co.nz /surfactants.htm   (680 words)

  
 Chronically ventilated premature infants need continued surfactant - The Doctors Lounge(TM)
Surfactant is a naturally produced mixture of proteins and lipids (fats) that lowers surface tension within alveoli, the tiny air sacs within the lungs.
Seventy-five percent of the infants on at least one occasion had abnormal surfactant function, and diminished amounts of an important component of surfactant, called surfactant protein B. In addition, these surfactant abnormalities were significantly more likely to occur during periods of respiratory infection and worsened respiratory status.
He and his colleagues are currently carrying out a pilot trial of surfactant therapy in preterm infants older than 7 days, and they are planning a clinical trial to investigate short- and long-term safety and effectiveness of surfactant treatment in these infants.
www.thedoctorslounge.net /pediatrics/articles/surfactant/index.htm   (601 words)

  
 Surfactant Proteins - Ambry Test Genetic Testing for Cystic Fibrosis, Pancreatitis - Ambry Genetics
Surfactant proteins are critical for pulmonary health as they manage infectious challenges and the biomechanical stresses of oxygen exchange on the lung tissue.
Surfactant Protein B (SP-B) is a critical component of pulmonary surfactant.
Surfactant Protein B/C Deficiency is a complex clinical disorder, which in the majority of cases is due to alterations in the Surfactant Protein B gene generally detected by the Ambry Test: SFTPB/SFTPC except as noted above.
www.ambrygen.com /ts/ts_sp.htm   (699 words)

  
 Survanta - Parent information - RDS - Treatment with a Surfactant
Surfactant treatment is given to babies through a tube inserted into the windpipe.
More than one dose of surfactant may be given to your baby in the first 48 hours of her life.
The goal of this treatment is to remove your baby from the ventilator sooner by decreasing the amount of extra oxygen and lowering the ventilator pressures that are needed for normal breathing.
www.survanta.com /parents/surfactant.asp   (210 words)

  
 Pharmacology Review: Why Surfactant Works for Respiratory Distress Syndrome -- Jobe 7 (2): e95 -- NeoReviews
The surfactant from the preterm infant is intrinsically "immature"
Surfactant facilitates inflation of the lung from a lower pressure, permits the lung to open to a higher volume, and prevents the lung from collapsing when pressure is decreased (deflation stability).
Surfactant was recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage, and the recovered surfactant then was used to treat preterm rabbits, with the resultant lung function used as a bioassay for the quality of the surfactant.
neoreviews.aappublications.org /cgi/content/full/7/2/e95?rss=1   (3669 words)

  
 Surfactant Leaching   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Surfactants (surface active agents) are a necessary component of latex house paint.
Surfactants are soap compounds that impart color and package stability to the paint.
Surfactants contain water-soluble solid matter that migrates from the paint film over time and deposits itself on the surface of the paint.
www.dalyspaint.com /new_page_13.htm   (478 words)

  
 Surfactant for Preemies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Surfactant for Preemies P90-41 Food and Drug Administration FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Eva Kemper -- (301) 443-3285 The Food and Drug Administration today approved a drug for the inside of immature lungs that may save thousands of premature infants born with an often fatal breathing difficulty called Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
It goes to the lungs where it substitutes for a naturally occurring surfactant -- a foamy substance that coats the inside of the lungs and keeps them from collapsing when the infant exhales.
The surfactant can be administered in up to 3 doses starting immediately after birth to help prevent death in high-risk infants under 1,350 grams (under 3 pounds) or in two doses, 12 hours apart, to treat infants who have P90-41, Exosurf, Page 2 developed the disease.
www.fda.gov /bbs/topics/NEWS/NEW00044.html   (328 words)

  
 Practice Standard for the Administration of Exogenous Surfactant (SURVANTA)
One may consider continued treatment with additional doses of surfactant (total of 4 doses maximum) for preterm infants with RDS and worsening oxygenation 6-12 hours after the second dose.
There is no contraindication to following another type of exogenous surfactant given at an outside institution (e.g., Exosurf) with the NICU standard dose of Survanta.
Couser, RJ, Ferrara, TB, Ebert, J, Hoekstra, RE, Fangman, JJ: Effects of exogenous surfactant therapy on dynamic compliance during mechanical breathing in preterm infants with hyaline membrane disease.
neonatal.peds.washington.edu /NICU-WEB/surf.stm   (639 words)

  
 EVALUATION OF EXOGENOUS SURFACTANT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The amount of surfactant delivered to the alveoli and distal airways will depend on methods of administration, numbers of dose aliquots, patient positioning during administration, stage and severity of pulmonary disease, presence or absences of pulmonary obstructions, properties of the surfactant, and pulmonary care after exogenous surfactant administration.
This percent measure was theorized to be a marker of duration of exogenous surfactants residing in the trachea.
Neither exogenous surfactant nor any of their components are eliminated by renal excretion or hepatic metabolism, so the dosage of both drugs does not need to be modified in the presence of renal dysfunction or hepatic dysfunction.
daccx.bsd.uchicago.edu /drug/Bulletins/N0295.html   (6734 words)

  
 Surfactant Short Course   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Surfactants find numerous applications in chemical process industries, in the formulation of pharmaceuticals, household products, and agricultural chemicals, in mineral processing technologies, and in food processing industries.
The widespread applications of surfactants originate from the intrinsic duality in their molecular characteristics; namely, they are composed of a polar head group that likes water and a non-polar tail group that dislikes water.
This variety in the molecular structure of the surfactants allows for extensive variation in their solution and interfacial properties.
fenske.che.psu.edu /faculty/nagarajan/surfactant-short-course.html   (241 words)

  
 Surfactant Protein B in Type II Pneumocytes and Intra-Alveolar Surfactant Forms of Human Lungs -- Brasch et al. 30 (4): ...
of the pulmonary surfactant in hereditary SP-B deficiency, in
A mutation in the surfactant protein B gene responsible for fatal neonatal respiratory disease in multiple kindreds.
Heterogeneity of alveolar surfactant in the rabbit: composition, morphology, and labelling of subfractions isolated by centrifugation of lung lavage.
ajrcmb.atsjournals.org /cgi/content/full/30/4/449   (5941 words)

  
 Surfactant Replacement Therapy for Respiratory Distress Syndrome -- Committee on Fetus and Newborn 103 (3): 684 -- AAP ...
Surfactant replacement therapy should be directed by physicians qualified and trained in its use and administration.
Kattwinkel J, Bloom BT, Delmore P Prophylactic administration of calf lung surfactant extract is more effective than early treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates of 29 through 32 weeks' gestation.
Dunn MS, Shennan AT, Hoskins EM, Enhorning G Two-year follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomized trial of surfactant replacement therapy for prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.
aappolicy.aappublications.org /cgi/content/full/pediatrics;103/3/684   (1373 words)

  
 surfactant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Surfactant is the detergent-like substance in the lungs that dramatically lowers the surface tension of the fluid normally present within the air sacs.
Lack of adequate surfactant is thus the cause of what used to be called hyaline membrane disease, or now more properly respiratory distress syndrome type I (RDS).
Treatment of surfactant deficit has been revolutionized in recent years by the development of artificially supplied surfactant (harvested from cow lungs).
www.drhull.com /EncyMaster/S/surfactant.html   (141 words)

  
 Surfactant Replacement   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Surfactant can be extracted from animal lung lavage and from human amniotic fluid or produced from synthetic materials.
The frequency with which surfactant replacement is performed should depend upon the clinical status of the patient and the indication for performing the procedure.
Surfactant replacement therapy with a single postventilatory dose of a reconstituted bovine surfactant in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome: final analysis of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial and comparison with similar trials.
www.rcjournal.com /online_resources/cpgs/srtcpg.html   (2455 words)

  
 Natural vs synthetic surfactant
Surfactant administration decreases the severity of respiratory distress, decreases the frequency of pneumothorax, increases survival without chronic lung disease, and decreases mortality (Soll 1992).
Synthetic surfactants and natural surfactant extracts have both been proven to be effective in the prevention and treatment of RDS and have become widely available for clinical use.
Modified bovine surfactant (Survanta) versus a protein free surfactant (Exosurf) in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants: a pilot study.
www.nichd.nih.gov /cochrane/Soll2/Soll2.HTM   (2147 words)

  
 New Products and Applications in Surfactant Technology
Surfactant technology represents a vibrant and challenging area of physico-chemical science — exact mechanisms of well-established processes are not often fully understood, thus creating continued debate.
From the Preface: “Surfactants represent one of the most diverse classes of performance chemical available, being derived from a broad spectrum of organic chemicals of varying ionic type, with each product exhibiting one of more surface-active properties.
Target Audience: Surfactant, analytical, and environmental chemists; manufacturers and users of surfactants; health and safety personnel; and other professionals working with surfactants in specialty chemicals, polymers, and detergents.
www.polysurfacesbookstore.com /pages/3226.html   (215 words)

  
 Lung Surfactant and Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome -- CLEMENTS and AVERY 157 (4): 59 -- American Journal of ...
Ontogeny of tracheal fluid, pulmonary surfactant, and plasma corticoids in the fetal lamb.
Acceleration of appearance of pulmonary surfactant in the fetal lamb by administration of corticosteroids.
Surfactant replacement therapy with a single postventilatory dose of a reconstituted bovine surfactant in preterm neonates with respiratory distresss syndrome: final analysis of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial and comparison with similar trials.
ajrccm.atsjournals.org /cgi/content/full/157/4/S59   (5203 words)

  
 Clinical Trial: Human Surfactant Treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome Bicenter Trial
The surfactant used in the clinical trial was derived from human amniotic fluid.
Two basic different strategies for surfactant treatment of respiratory distress syndrome have emerged: prophylactic, or preventilatory, treatment at or shortly after birth versus rescue treatment after the initiation of mechanical ventilation in instances of clinically confirmed respiratory distress syndrome.
Although treatment at birth has the theoretic advantage of delivering surfactant more uniformly to the airways before mechanical ventilation, it has the disadvantages of delaying physiologic stabilization after birth and resulting in unnecessary treatment, at considerable cost, of 20 percent to 40 percent of infants born at or less than 30 weeks of gestation.
clinicaltrials.gov /ct/show/NCT00000570   (567 words)

  
 Systematic review of prophylactic vs rescue surfactant -- Morley 77 (1): 70 -- Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal ...
Surfactant treatment has been shown by careful randomised trials to reduce the mortality and morbidity of very premature babies.
surfactant for each extra survivor is the cost of seven doses.
Prophylactic administration of calf lung surfactant extract is more effective than early treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates of 29 through 32 weeks' gestation.
fn.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/77/1/F70   (2444 words)

  
 Tiger Chemicals Online - Surfactant Guide
Where surfactants are used to emulsify oils the Hydrophobic part of the surfactant embeds itself in the oil droplet and the Hydrophilic Ethylene oxide chain interacts with water to surround the oil droplet and form an emulsion.
Surfactants must remain in solution to perform their role Unlike salts which dissolve more readily in hot water, nonionic surfactant solubility has a temperature limit called the cloud point.
These Cationic surfactants are used less for their wetting abilities than for their pronounced germicidal properties and their ability to adsorb onto the surface of hair, skin and fabrics.
dwb.unl.edu /Teacher/NSF/C01/C01Links/www.tigerchem.com/surf.html   (3969 words)

  
 Secretion of Surfactant Protein C, an Integral Membrane Protein, Requires the N-terminal Propeptide -- Conkright et al. ...
HA adenovirus, mice were lavaged and surfactant was isolated by centrifugation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
A duplicate blot containing 2% of the total surfactant pellet was probed with an antibody directed against the SP-C mature peptide.
A, 4 days after injection, mice were lavaged, large (LA) and small (SA) aggregate surfactant fractions were isolated, and 4 or 0.5% of each fraction was analyzed by Western blotting with anti-HA antibody or an antibody directed against the SP-B mature peptide, respectively.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/276/18/14658   (5273 words)

  
 Sandia National Labs: News: Sandia researchers develop unique 'surfactant' material
Some surfactant systems require the invasive addition of an acid or base to separate the surfactant into fragments in order to eliminate surface active properties.
Five anionic surfactants are available which incorporate hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments that covalently degrade at elevated temperatures.
Surfactants, when used in small quantities, reduce surface tension in a fluid or the interfacial tension between two immiscible fluids, such as oil and water.
www.sandia.gov /news-center/news-releases/2005/mat-chem/cleavable-surfactant.html   (485 words)

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