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Topic: Symbolic communication

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  Symbolic communication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Symbolic communication is exchange of messages that change a priori expectation of events.
Examples of this are modern communication technology as also exchange of information amongst animals.
The behavior of weaver ant workers has been carefully studied and it has been found that communicative gestures with respect to members of the same colony and intruders is different.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Symbolic_communication   (110 words)

 General Symbol Machines: The First Stage in the Evolution of Symbolic Communication by Thomas E. Dickins
Symbols have distinctive properties that are not seen in other animal communication systems, and as a consequence, require an evolutionary explanation of their own.
Communication will be defined, in line with the common view from behavioural ecology (see Hauser, 1996), as the transfer of information from an actor to a reactor, such that the behavior of the reactor is changed.
As symbolic beings we might well realize that this is a symbol simply from the context in which the utterance is made but we would not have access to the conventions of what is, in fact, Hebrew linguistic culture and therefore we could not use the term symbolically.
human-nature.com /ep/articles/ep01192209.html   (6424 words)

 CONK! Encyclopedia: Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Language is a system of finite arbitrary symbols combined according to rules of grammar for the purpose of communication.
Some researchers argue that there are significant differences separating human language from the communication of other animals, and that the underlying principles are not related.
Some researchers argue that a continuum exists among the communication methods of all social animals, pointing to the fundamental requirements of group behaviour and the existence of ' mirror cells ' in primates.
www.conk.com /search/encyclopedia.cgi?q=Language   (1043 words)

 George Herbert Mead [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
In the conversation of gestures, communication takes place without an awareness on the part of the individual of the response that her gesture elicits in others; and since the individual is unaware of the reactions of others to her gestures, she is unable to respond to her own gestures from the standpoint of others.
The conversation of gestures, that is, is unconscious communication.
This form of communication is quite different from that which takes place in the conversation of gestures, for in the latter there is no possibility of the conscious structuring and control of the communicational act.
www.iep.utm.edu /m/mead.htm   (19418 words)

 Larry P. Gross
Symbolic competence, whether at the level of basic decoding or at more complex levels of appreciating or creating, is characterized by a further set of psychological properties.
Iconic symbols are highly suitable for the purpose of organizing and communicating information about the spatial, topological nature of objects, about relations between objects in space, and for expressing and evoking emotional responses.
Acquiring competence in modes of symbolic communication means learning the "vocabulary" for representing objects and events and the "grammatical" and "syntactical" operations, transformations, and organizational principles that are used to structure these into conveyors of meaning.
www.ucalgary.ca /~rseiler/grosslp.htm   (3652 words)

 EServer TC Library: Persuasion In Technical Communication: Applying Symbolic Interactionism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Symbolic interactionism provides technical communicators with a persuasive tool that facilitates effective communication.
By treating meaning as a socially negotiated and negotiable product rather than apart of language, technical communicators can more easily persuade readers to follow instructions, to grant proposals, or to accept reports.
By taking the sources of meaning away from objects and away from symbols per se, symbolic interaction empowers the technical communicator with the means to effectively communicate and persuade.
tc.eserver.org /14508.html   (136 words)

 Speech Communication   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Communication helps us form relationships, allows cultures to evolve, encourages understanding among people; in short, communication is the thing that makes us human.
Many studies have shown that an ability to communicate effectively is a prerequisite for success in almost all careers as well as social situations thus, practical public speaking skills and diverse communication experiences are facilitated in two laboratories: the speech practicum and internship programs.
Speech communication majors and minors are employed in such diverse areas as hotel management, personnel training, advertising, technical communication, insurance adjusting, teaching, politics, higher education administration, paid speech-writing, political consulting, radio and television broadcasting, the ministry, public relations, business, and a host of others.
www.isu.edu /academic-info/majors/speech.html   (559 words)

 First Amendment to the United States Constitution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Supreme Court ruled that the school could not restrict symbolic speech that did not cause undue interruptions of school activities.
Under the Miller test, a work is obscene if it would be found appealing to the prurient interest by an average person applying contemporary community standards, depicts sexual conduct in a patently offensive way and has no serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value.
Note that "community" standards—not national standards—are applied as to whether the material appeals to the prurient interest; thus, material may be deemed obscene in one locality but not in another.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/First_Amendment   (4035 words)

 Language, Literacy and Cognitive Development: The Development and Consequences of Symbolic Communication - EDITED BY ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The editors explore the significance of communicating symbolically as a means for understanding human symbol skills.
Symbolic communication may play a central role in the representation and manipulation of symbols, processes which seem to have gotten more attention than communication has.
The process of communicating with symbols, perhaps to oneself, or to a real or hypothetical other, may be a central element in explanations of what information comes to be symbolically represented and how those symbols are mentally manipulated.
www.antiqbook.co.uk /boox/hum/011279.shtml   (189 words)

 Social Psychological Dimensions of Electronic Communication   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Symbols are the means by which phenomena are known and the mechanism for generating social and psychological realities.
The absence of concrete symbols within a chat room represents a relatively unique situational context in which the impact of cultural or normative expectations on behaviour is relatively unknown.
We anticipated that stronger inverse relationships between the communication variables and the emotion management factors would be found among individuals with high normative perceptions of chat rooms in comparison to those with low normative perceptions.
www.sociology.org /content/vol004.001/bellamy.html   (5280 words)

 UNL | SECD Faculty | Cress Presentations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Many early communicative routines familiar to parents involve hand or vocal skills, both of which may be unavailable to children.
Describe language and communication development in young children who are at risk for being nonspeakers, and derive predictions of future language skills at using AAC 1.
When introducing new language, particularly new picture symbols, we tend to redirect the child's attention to that symbol rather than waiting for them to discover it and what it might mean.
www.unl.edu /barkley/present/cress/cress2.shtml   (2332 words)

 Typical and atypical pathways to symbolic communication
This symposium focuses on the emergence of symbolic communication in the second year of life.
Since conventions are mid-way between actions and symbols, this explains why sharing a communication focus through conventional means may serve as a bridge between sharing an attentional focus and sharing symbols.
Visual attention is thus crucial for the successful use of language and communication by deaf children and their communicative partners.Attention to the message is not, however, the only requirement for successful language development.
www.isisweb.org /ICIS2000Program/web_pages/group319.html   (1567 words)

 Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
When two persons, A and B, are attempting to communicate with each other, their communication is distorted by their personalities, attitudes, values, belief systems, biases, the assumptions they are making about each other, their experience, background, and so on.
One's nonverbal communication, or body language, is usually involuntary, and the nonverbal signals are expressed through behavior as well as verbally and also have symbolic meaning.
The communication mode which we rely on most often to carry meaning from one person to another is the verbal mode.
www.cps.usfca.edu /ob/studenthandbooks/321handbook/verbal.htm   (2389 words)

 Gesture and Sign Language and Human Evolution
In comparison with the very limited progress toward effective communication previously exhibited by the children, their progress in sign acquisition was remarkable.
However, at the early stages the "cognitive" organization underlying symbol use in gesture and in speech appears to be the same.
For Piaget, the words "symbol" and "symbolic function" refer to the larger class, while "signs" are defined as the subclass of symbol relations that are arbitrary and conventional.
www.humanevolution.net /a/signlanguage.html   (7055 words)

 Powell's Books - Analyzing Media: Communication Technologies as Symbolic and Cognitive Systems (Revisioning Rhetoric) ...
Providing a history of human communication from a technological perspective, the book proposes that communication technologies, rather than being neutral conduits of information, are active and creative determinants of human communication that shape both what we know and understand and how we perceive ourselves as individuals and members of society.
For the past 25 years, critics of communication have focused on the content and form of verbal and nonverbal communication, while for the most part neglecting what traditionally has been considered a technical rather than a critical issue--the impact of how messages are produced or formatted in the various media.
Widely published, he was the Editor of Communication Quarterly from 1985 through 1987, and his articles have appeared in such publications as the Quarterly Journal of Speech, Communication Monographs, Communication Education, Text and Performance Quarterly, and Critical Studies in Mass Communication.
www.powells.com /cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-1572301546-2   (640 words)

 Civilian Etiquette: Symbolic Communication
Too, if that form of communication had been in widespread use, it stands to reason that publications of the day would have had cartoons or humorous accounts dealing with overheated young ladies sending out all sorts of outlandish or outrageous messages inadvertently.
There are a number of visual communications that may have been carried on with a lady’s fan that have been circulated in recent years, and if true, it would have behooved a gentleman to understand "fan language" if such was used.
As we’ve noted before about the "fan language", communication from one person to another during the period of the War Between the States through herbs is apocryphal, by and large.
www.geocities.com /heartland/woods/3501/civilian10.htm   (1249 words)

 KYPT - Communication
You might raise your hand in class to communicate to the teacher that you have something to say.
We also communicate to others how we are feeling in a variety of ways.
Other students with disabilities may use nonsymbolic communication.  They do not use or understand symbols.  They rely on their bodies or the environment around them to communicate.
www.kypeertutoring.org /units/Communication/EveryoneCommunicates.htm   (195 words)

 The Lingual Aspect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Analytic interpretation is when we 'interpret' signs that were not meant as communication, such as a detective interpreting clues left at the scene of a crime.
Only to the symbol itself: a circular kind of relationship, which means that here, at the very bottom level of language is something that is floating.
It is not fully clear to me. But placing the lingual aspect after that of formative power makes some sense because to truly communicate by symbols one needs not only to sense them, to distinguish meaningful signs from other patterns, but also to construct.
www.isi.salford.ac.uk /staff/ab/WWW/Dooy/lingual.html   (854 words)

 CyberStage 2.2: Jaron Lanier Interview
Post-symbolic communication is one of Lanier's basic tenets, that eventually VR systems may become advanced to the point where entire new forms of communication can evolve out of virtual environments, whereby one can create meaning instead of simply referring to it, which is what we do with literal language today.
Lanier said we had it all wrong, that the very principals of post- symbolic communication which was the basis of Taylor's points "completely inverted" what he meant by it.
Music is our most prominent non-symbolic form of communication, and there are some theorists who try to frame music in symbolic terms and say that this major chord means this or that, but I think even the people who write that stuff ultimately realise they're winking.
www.cyberstage.org /archive/cstage22/Jaron22.htm   (3020 words)

 LUCS 91: Cooperation and the Evolution of Symbolic Communication   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The main thesis of this article is that symbolic communication evolved in order to make cooperation about future goals possible.
A consequence of this position is that the meanings of symbolic expressions emerge from the cooperation between individuals.
As a paradigmatic case, I describe pragmatic settings of referential communication and provide a model of how the roles of names, nouns and adjectives can be explained by a process of abstraction that is based on principles of cognitive economy.
www.lucs.lu.se /Abstracts/LUCS_Studies/LUCS91.html   (137 words)

 Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) (Wetherby & Prizant)
Its 22 5-point rating scales survey children's language skills as well as their symbolic development, which is demonstrated in the children's gestures, facial expressions, and play behaviors.
The early childhood professional then takes a direct sampling of the child's communicative behaviors in structured and unstructured play situations in the child's natural environment.
Data from the Caregiver Questionnaire and play observations (the Behavior Sample) are tallied on a Record Form that identifies the 22 communication and symbolic rating scales.
www.brookespublishing.com /store/books/wetherby-csbs   (681 words)

 CLAS: Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS)
The CSBS is a standardized, norm-referenced evaluation instrument that examines communicative, social, affective and symbolic abilities of children whose chronological age ranges from nine months through 6 years and functional communication age is between eight months and two years.
Two purposes of the test are: 1) early identification of children who have or are at-risk for developing a communication impairment; and 2) establishment of a profile of communication, symbolic and social-affective functioning to provide direction for future assessment, plan intervention and monitoring of behavioral changes.
The instrument is to be administered by a certified speech-language pathologist, early interventionist, psychologist, or other professional trained to assess developmentally young children.
clas.uiuc.edu /special/evaltools/cl00978.html   (218 words)

 A Comparison of Some Similar Chimpanzee and Human Behaviors
Context: The benefits of communication can be learned along with an awareness of the benefits derived therefrom, such as success in food aquisition.
In humans the capacity for symbolic communication has evolved to surpass the level of this capacity in our ape cousins.
Our reasons for and use of symbolic communication is far greater and more diverse than in the apes, to the best of our knowledge.
www.jqjacobs.net /anthro/paleo/primates.html   (1728 words)

 Early Intervention and AAC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Abstract: Standard strategies for play and communication assessment/intervention often require vocal and physical skills unavailable to children at risk for being nonspeaking.
Communication starts with interaction and the earliest behaviors of children - there are no prerequisites.
Failure to respond meaningfully to parent feedback for spontaneous behavior communicators may reflect children’s difficulty in associating the child’s own behavior with the response received.
www.unl.edu /barkley/present/cress/cress2.html   (2286 words)

 Science Matters   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
At another level, research into the evolution of sophisticated representational communication (the ability to abstractly encode and transmit information) approaches the giant goal of understanding the evolution of cognition and communication.
However, we are not alone in the world and to understand how other sophisticated animal societies, namely the highly social bees, perceive and communicate information about their world may enable us to understand some of the possibilities that exist for the evolution of symbolic communication.
By decoding the symbolic communication of some species, we will also be able to learn where food sources are located, how their foraging range changes seasonally.
www.ucsd.tv /sciencematters/lesson2-bees.shtml   (854 words)

 Paleolithic origins of graphic symbolic communication   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The first forms of symbolic communication is believed to have originated during the upper Paleolithic Period.
Scholars differ on which came form of symbolic communication came first - oral, gestural or graphic.
During the Paleolithic period, the earliest human-mediated symbols are found.
et.sdsu.edu /JJubran/project/paleolithic.htm   (120 words)

 Analysis and Satire on Symbolic Communication Techniques Used in Advertising for Cotton   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
TV spots touting cotton as "the fabric of our lives" appear to be attaining a new level in symbolic communications.
Certainly one thing the cotton commercial is saying, in symbolic terms, is that cotton is to be associated with "nice" people—people who are high-minded, and so forth.
What this commercial appears to be doing is putting across a symbolic message that cotton is the choice of "the better sort of people," clearly differentiating its wearer from the vulgar rabble in their polyester.
www.notesinbottle.com /cognrd19.htm   (264 words)

 Symbolic communication mechanisms played a significant part in the evolutionary process by allowing plants, animals and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Symbolic communication mechanisms played a significant part in the evolutionary process by allowing plants, animals and humans
   Symbolic communication mechanisms,   which have always played a crucial role in society, are now undergoing revolutionary changes, bringing us to the brink of a major new phase in the development of economic systems.
The intelligent software and   its human users form a distributed synergistic human-machine intelligence that not only optimizes the utilization of economic resources, but aggregates and distributes knowledge about their value and draws rational conclusions about economic data flows and their relationship to world events.
www.lucifer.com /~sasha/HEDG/wfs99_abstract.html   (262 words)

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