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# Topic: Symmetric key algorithm

###### In the News (Tue 16 Apr 19)

 Symmetric key algorithm - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Symmetric-key algorithms are a class of algorithms for cryptography that use trivially related cryptographic keys for both decryption and encryption. The encryption key is trivially related to the decryption key, in that they may be identical or there is a simple transform to go between the two keys. Symmetric cyphers are often susceptible to known-plaintext attacks, chosen plaintext attacks, differential cryptanalysis and linear cryptanalysis. www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Symmetric_key_algorithm   (485 words)

 Symmetric-key algorithm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Symmetric-key algorithms are a class of algorithms for cryptography that use trivially related cryptographic keys for both decryption and encryption. Since keys are subject to potential discovery by a cryptographic adversary, they need to be changed often and kept secure during distribution and in service. Symmetric ciphers have historically often been susceptible to known-plaintext attacks, chosen plaintext attacks, differential cryptanalysis and linear cryptanalysis. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Symmetric_key_algorithm   (810 words)

 Key size - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Keys are used to control the operation of a cipher so that only the correct key can convert encrypted text (ciphertext) to plaintext. As of 2002, a key length of 1024 bits was generally considered the minimum necessary for the RSA encryption algorithm. NIST guidelines state that ECC keys should be twice the length of equivalent strength symmetric key algorithms. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cryptographic_key_length   (1103 words)

 rbc.com - RBC Financial Group - Security In cryptography, a key is complex mathematical algorithm applied to plain data to produce encrypted data, or applied to encrypted data to produce the original information. Public Key Encryption, sometimes known as asymmetric key encryption, uses a pair of private and public keys that are mathematically related for the encryption and decryption of data. Symmetric or Private Key Encryption uses the same private key shared by the sender and recipient for the encryption and decryption of data. www.rbc.com /security/glossary.html   (2000 words)

 Symmetric key algorithm: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) An algorithm (the word is derived from the name of the persian mathematician al-khwarizmi), is a finite set of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some... In cryptography, a stream cipher is a symmetric cipher in which the input digits are encrypted one at a time, and in which the transformation of successive... In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation.... www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/sy/symmetric_key_algorithm.htm   (1023 words)

 Symmetric key algorithm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) A symmetric-key algorithm is an algorithm for cryptography that uses the same cryptographic key to encrypt and decrypt the message. Symmetric-key algorithms are generally much faster to execute electronically than asymmetric key algorithm s. Since keys are subject to discovery by a cryptographic adversary, they need to be changed often and kept secure during distribution and in service. www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Symmetric_key_algorithm.html   (355 words)

 SecureTask - Encryption Freeware A symmetric cryptographic algorithm is a cryptographic algorithm that typically uses a single key for encryption and decryption. Symmetric algorithms can be divided into two categories: stream algorithms and block algorithms (also called stream and block ciphers). A block cipher is a type of symmetric-key encryption algorithm that transforms a fixed-length block of plaintext data into a block of ciphertext data of the same length. securetask.net /overview.html   (246 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Algorithm Interoperability rules To maximize efficiency and minimize algorithm interoperability problems, the Federal PKI should be designed so that two end-entities who use the same signature algorithm, should be able to find a certification path that does not require use of a second algorithm. Since compromise of the CA private key does not itself compromise the private keys of its subordinates (although it may allow the forgery of new certificates), it is not, in general necessary to replace the subordinate public-private key pairs, and the new certificates may retain the old user public key. If the algorithms used are not FIPS approved, a FIPS waiver may be required; In general, it is the algorithm used in the key management certificate of the destination of an encrypted message that determines the key management algorithm used to establish the key the message encryption key. www.va.gov /proj/vapki/documents/PKICON980904.doc   (14579 words)

 SIDEBAR: So What Exactly is Encryption? - E-Commerce - CFO.com An encryption key is like the password or PIN that you use to log onto your computer network or to access your bank account, except that the keys used internally by most commercial applications are numbers and are substantially longer than the keys used by ordinary human beings. Symmetric key encryption is easy to implement and manage when there are only two or three computers communicating over the internet, though even in that case you have the problem of how to transport the shared key securely from one computer to another. Dual key encryption uses different keys for encryption and decryption, one of which is known as a "public key," and one of which is a "private key." The public key can be made freely known, and anyone can use it to encrypt a message. www.cfo.com /article.cfm/2988874/c_2984283?f=bc   (585 words)

 How To: Encrypt and Decrypt Data Using a Symmetric (Rijndael) Key (C#/VB.NET) AES) algorithm and use this key to encrypt and decrypt a text string. The key is derived from several characteristics passed to encryption and decryption routines. As long as encryption and decryption routines use the same ' parameters to generate the keys, the keys are guaranteed to be the same. www.obviex.com /samples/Encryption.aspx   (2945 words)

 Dr. Dobb's | Programming Public Key CryptoStreams, Part 1 | January 23, 2004 Symmetric encryption decreases the likelihood that unauthorized third parties can gain access to data by ensuring that a copy of the symmetric key is in the possession of any person or computer that reads the data. Symmetric encryption is useful to protect data on demand, where only an authorized user with a copy of the encryption key can decipher and use the data and the key is never stored on the computer for it to use later in automatic decryption. The symmetric key is usually very small compared to the plaintext data, so the preferred attack would be to intercept only the key at the point of encryption since intercepting all of the plaintext would require more effort and more likely produce signs of theft and system penetration. www.ddj.com /windows/184416903   (1989 words)

 XML Encryption Syntax and Processing Simple stream encryption algorithms generate, based on the key, a stream of bytes which are XORed with the plain text data bytes to produce the cipher text on encryption and with the cipher text bytes to produce plain text on decryption. In cases where the key size is not apparent from the algorithm URI or key source, as in the use of key agreement methods, this parameter sets the key size. Where a symmetric key is shared amongst multiple recipients, that symmetric key should only be used for the data intended for all recipients; even if one recipient is not directed to information intended (exclusively) for another in the same symmetric key, the information might be discovered and decrypted. www.w3.org /TR/xmlenc-core   (8771 words)

 Security Symmetric key algorithms use the same key to encrypt and decrypt a message. Symmetric key algorithms can be of two types: block (encrypt/decrypt blocks of data) or stream (encrypt/decrypt data at the bit level). Key length is limited to 512 and 1024 bits, and the algorithm can only be used for digital signatures. www.ou.edu /edi/security/securitystandards.htm   (1282 words)

 RFC 2405 (rfc2405) - The ESP DES-CBC Cipher Algorithm With Explicit IV Algorithm and Mode DES-CBC is a symmetric secret-key block algorithm. [It is commonly known as a 56-bit key as the key has 56 significant bits; the least significant bit in every byte is the parity bit.] [arch] describes the general mechanism to derive keying material for the ESP transform. While the above does not provide specific recommendations for key lifetime, it does reinforce the point that for a given application the desired key lifetime is dependent upon the perceived threat (an educated guess as to the amount of resources available to the attacker) relative to the worth of the data to be protected. www.faqs.org /rfcs/rfc2405.html   (2109 words)

 Changes in encryption file properties in Office 2003 and Office 2002 RC4 is a stream cipher symmetric key algorithm that was developed by Ronald Rivest in 1987. Key Length: The Office 97/Office 2000 Compatible encryption method does not support changing the key length, so this control is unavailable, and no number is displayed. Symmetric key algorithm: An algorithm that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt. support.microsoft.com /default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;290112   (1163 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Symmetric key algorithm Symmetric-key algorithms are generally much faster to execute electronically than asymmetric key algorithms. The consequent requirement to choose, distribute and store keys without error and without loss is difficult. Symmetric cyphers are often susceptible to known-plaintext attacks, chosen plaintext attacks, differential cryptanalysis and linear cryptanalysis. www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Symmetric_key   (486 words)

 Public Key Encryption  Why Encryption   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The most important part of this algorithm is the key generation process which generated two keys one a public key and other a private key. The concept in this algorithm is that encryption is done using public key and decryption is done using private key. Therefore this algorithm is mainly used for authentication and exchanging shared key once the authentication and the shared keys are established they can use symmetric key algorithms which are cheaper. www.cs.odu.edu /~smyadam/cs595/public_key_encryption.htm   (389 words)

 HMAC (FIPS 198); Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) dated March 6, 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The CMAC algorithm is specified in Special Publication 800-38B dated May 2005, Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: The CMAC Mode for Authentication. CCM is based on an approved symmetric key block cipher algorithm whose block size is 128 bits, such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm currently specified in Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Pub. CCM Validations are included on the validation list of its approved symmetric key block cipher whose block size is 128 bits-- therefore it is included on the AES Validation List. csrc.nist.gov /cryptval/MsgAuth.htm   (742 words)

 Ashutosh's Weblog During the handshake, protocol preferences are exchanged, and single secret session key is used via a symmetric key algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data sent across the wire. SSL eliminates the possibility of third-party examination of cleartext data by using a single shared secret key, with a symmetric key algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data on both ends of the data transaction during a session. Public-key algorithms are used to establish a secure mechanism for validation and key exchange, while a symmetric algorithm encrypts data via a shared secret sesion key. blog.sun.com /roller/page/ashutosh/20060313   (1612 words)

 EncrypTix - GLOSSARY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Alice (the sender) uses an asymmetric key encryption algorithm (typically RSA) to encrypt the message digest, or hash function, of a message, using her private key. Secret key cryptography (also called symmetric key cryptography) - Cryptography in which the encryption key and the decryption key are the same or effectively the same. At the beginning of an SSL session, techniques of asymmetric key cryptography are used for authentication and to establish a session key; communications for the remainder of the session then use symmetric key cryptography, encrypting and decrypting with the session key. websites.gofuse.com /encryptix/03-technology/glossary.html   (1974 words)

 AlgID (Phaos Security Engine 2.2.3) The Blowfish symmetric key encryption algorithm in CBC mode. RSA-registered identifier for the DES-EDE symmetric key encryption algorithm in CBC mode, as cited in RFC 2311. The DES symmetric key encryption algorithm in CBC mode. www.phaos.com /resources/docs/Phaos_Security_Engine_2.2.3/apidoc/com/phaos/crypto/AlgID.html   (716 words)

 The CPA Journal The Caesar Cipher is an example of a symmetric key algorithm, meaning the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt the message. A symmetric key encryption method that uses a sophisticated algorithm and a unique key for every communication (a one-time pad) is the most secure form of encryption. Symmetric key encryption is used because its computation efficiency makes it nearly 100 times faster than public key encryption. www.nysscpa.org /cpajournal/2002/1102/features/f114202.htm   (2649 words)

 Security Forums :: View topic - PGP Question   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The key properties indicate that the cipher that should be IDEA, though for policy is that we are not to allow this cipher. Thereafter the shared key is used with a symmetric key algorithm like 3DES or IDEA to encrypt/decrypt your data. The key for the symmetric cipher is sent encrypted via the RSA public key. www.security-forums.com /viewtopic.php?p=193312   (924 words)

 [No title] Key server preferences (N octets of flags) This is a list of flags that indicate preferences that the key holder has about how the key is handled on a key server. Either of these keys can verify a signature created by the other, and it may be reasonable for a signature to contain an issuer subpacket for each key, as a way of explicitly tying those keys to the signature. The signature serves to certify the corresponding public key and user ID. In effect, the signer is testifying to his or her belief that this public key belongs to the user identified by this user ID. After the User ID packets there may be one or more Subkey packets. www.ietf.org /rfc/rfc2440.txt   (11344 words)

 Public-Key Recap Now, they have a mutual key for use in a symmetric (secret-key) algorithm to handle all further communications. In practice, the message usually is a random key for use in a symmetric (secret-key) algorithm, however. For this, something called a hashing algorithm is used, also known as a message digest algorithm. www.geocities.com /developergrp/presentations/crypto.htm   (1027 words)

 News Release 980727 An encryption algorithm that uses the same key to both encrypt and decrypt data. This is a quantitative scale to determine a cipher's strength against differential and linear cryptanalysis, etc. It determines the security of the whole cipher by evaluating the security of round function of the cipher. A technique for attacking encryption algorithms that involves trying every possible key and testing to see which one is correct. www.ntt.co.jp /news/news98e/980727.html   (1123 words)

 Symmetric-key algorithm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The current version of SOLApack is specifically written to infer the symmetric component of the 2-d solar rotation rate from measured rotational frequency splittings of the eigenmodes of global solar oscillation. Algorithm for use with the automatic external defibrillator based on the American Heart's guidelines. Algorithm for the numerical integration of systems of ordinary differential equations arising in chemical problems. www.omniknow.com /common/wiki.php?in=en&term=Symmetric_cypher   (2167 words)

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