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Topic: Sympathetic nervous system

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  Sympathetic nervous system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Therefore, this response that acts primarily on the cardiovascular system is mediated directly via impulses transmitted through the sympathetic nervous system and indirectly via catecholamines secreted from the adrenal medulla.
The sympathetic nerves emerge near the spinal cord, inside the vertebral column, travelling along the path of the nerve roots.
The first synapse (in the sympathetic chain) is mediated by nicotinic receptors physiologically activated by acetylcholine, and the target synapse is mediated by adrenergic receptors physiologically activated by either norepinephrine or epinephrine.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sympathetic_nervous_system   (646 words)

 Nervous system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The autonomic nervous system is the involuntary part of the nervous system where all of the internal maintenance is taken care of.
The sympathetic nervous system responds to impending danger or stress, and is responsible for the increase of one's heartbeat and blood pressure, among other physiological changes, along with the sense of excitement one feels due to the increase of adrenaline in the system.
The parasympathetic nervous system, on the other hand, is evident when a person is resting and feels relaxed, and is responsible for such things as the constriction of the pupil, the slowing of the heart, the dilation of the blood vessels, and the stimulation of the digestive and genitourinary systems.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Nervous_system   (464 words)

 Advances - Sympathetic Nervous System
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system may also contribute to blood pressure levels in the long term by other mechanisms, by its effects on the kidney, on the renin-angiotensin system, on blood vessel growth and permeability, and via resetting of the arterial baroreflex.
Traditionally, activity of the sympathetic nervous system was assessed using measurements of urine noradrenaline and adrenaline or their precursors and metabolites.
Secondly, plasma levels of noradrenaline are influenced, in addition to the level of sympathetic neural outflow, by prejunctional modulation of neurotransmitter release, and the clearance, metabolism, and uptake of noradrenaline from the circulation.
www.sns-web.org /pages/advances/13/article.asp   (2340 words)

 The Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system is a part of the peripheral nervous system that functions to regulate the basic visceral (organ) processes needed for the maintenance of normal bodily functions.
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons originate in the lateral horns of the 12 thoracic and the first 2 or 3 lumbar segments of the spinal cord.
The thoracic sympathetic ganglia innervate the trunk region, and the lumbar and sacral sympathetic ganglia innervate the pelvic floor and lower limb.
www.becomehealthynow.com /article/bodynervousadvanced/822   (1644 words)

 The Peripheral Nervous System
The preganglionic motor neurons of the sympathetic system arise in the spinal cord.
The main nerves of the parasympathetic system are the tenth cranial nerves, the vagus nerves.
The acetylcholine from the motor neurons suppresses the release of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., tumor necrosis factor (TNF), from macrophages in the inflamed tissue.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/PNS.html   (904 words)

 Early American Manual Therapy
The sympathetic system of nerves was discovered by Claudius Galen, who was born 131 and died in 201 to 210 A. He lived first at Pergamos, and finally at Rome.
In general medical literature he has the credit of discovering the sympathetic nerve, and as Galen was a practical anatomist (learning his anatomy, however, almost exclusively from animals) he perhaps gave a quite accurate account of the sympathetic, and this became quoted, until he was finally announced to be its father and discoverer.
The ganglionic system of nerves, with the abdominal brain as their central organ, performs the vital functions, which are independent of mind and present to us the idea of life.
www.meridianinstitute.com /eamt/files/robinson/Rob1ch1.htm   (6576 words)

 The Sympathetic Nervous System in Heart Failure
The contribution of the sympathetic nervous system was assessed by administering the adrenergic-blocking agent propranolol before the exercise.
Blockade of the parasympathetic nervous system alone with use of atropine did not interfere with the circulatory response to exercise, whereas when only the sympathetic system was blocked with guanethidine, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and left ventricular work during exercise were significantly lower than during the predrug exercise period.
Thus in the major contribution made by the autonomic nervous system in response to exercise it is the sympathetic division that clearly plays the critical role.
www.icnr.com /SympatheticNervousSystem/SympatheticNervousSystem.html   (4432 words)

 Glossary.18a,.- sympathetic nervous system, syndrome and synovitis
Interfering with, opposing, inhibiting, or destroying impulses from the sympathetic nervous system.
Increased tonus of the sympathetic system with marked tendecy to vascular spasm and heightened blood pressure.
The thoraco-lumbar or sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
www.kneelsit.com /glossary/glossary18a.html   (1496 words)

 Advances - Sympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic nervous stimulation augments cardiac output and increases peripheral resistance, and this works in concert with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
This suggests that increased renal sensory inputs from the injured kidney to the central nervous system may contribute to the development of hypertension and to the progression of renal disease in CRF rats.
Sympathetic activity is increased in polycystic kidney disease and is associated with hypertension.
www.sns-web.org /pages/advances/07/article.asp   (3023 words)

 sympathetic nervous system studied at interprofessional...
The profound effects of sympathetic nervous system function on human physiology were emphasized at the most recent interprofessional symposium of the American Chiropractic College of Thermology (ACCT).
The sympathetic nervous system, controlling vascular tonus, skin temperature, sweating and piloerection, has lent itself only to more obscure laboratory testing procedures such as electrical skin resistance and time-intensive thermometric testing of multiple discrete regions of skin temperature.
In a stunning implication for clinical patient management, the effect of photonic stimulation on sympathetic nervous system function was evaluated contemporaneously via high resolution infrared imaging as the treatment was actually being rendered.
www.chiroweb.com /archives/17/19/21.html   (1018 words)

 The Autonomic Nervous System (page 2)
The adrenal medulla is innervated by preganglionic fibres and therefore adrenaline is released from the gland by stimulation of nicotinic Ach receptors.
In contrast to the parasympathetic system, the sympathetic system enables the body to be prepared for fear, flight or fight.
Sympathetic responses include an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output, a diversion of blood flow from the skin and splanchnic vessels to those supplying skeletal muscle, increased pupil size, bronchiolar dilation, contraction of sphincters and metabolic changes such as the mobilisation of fat and glycogen.
www.nda.ox.ac.uk /wfsa/html/u05/u05_011.htm   (699 words)

 Human Sympathetic Nervous System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The sympathetic is a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system, and it operates in antagonism to the other subdivision, the parasympathetic system.
The passage to follow is identical to that in the Parasympathetic Nervous System passage.
Pathology of the autonomic nervous system will be reserved until the end of the parasympathetic discussion, when presumably you will have studied both systems in the normal.
sky.bsd.uchicago.edu /lcy_ref/synap/sympathetic.html   (1775 words)

 Sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system is one of the topics in focus at Global Oneness.
Nervous system influenced by soul mind in charge of instinct, automation, involuntary functions and the memory bank of past incarnations.
This is a gentle, rhythmical technique that cleanses the connective tissue of inflammatory materials and toxins, enhances the activity of the immune system, reduces pain, and lowers the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.
www.experiencefestival.com /sympathetic_nervous_system   (1247 words)

 The Sympathetic Nervous System
A healthy nervous system maintains homeostasis by balancing input from both branches of the ANS during activites ranging from relaxing, digesting and sleeping, to
The context in which threat occurs, the perception of the degree of danger, and the ability to successfully escape from a situation all affect the degree of SNS response.
Activation of the global response and cortisol secretion are costly, both on an energetic level due to the degree to which glucose and metabolites must be mobilized, and on a behavioral level due to the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine, which increase irritability and emotional reactivity, and require time reabsorption (Ganong, 2001).
www.veroniquemead.com /sns.php   (1792 words)

 Neurology-Info.net: Information on the nervous system, diseases and disorders, treatments   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Nervous tissue is an excitable tissue that is capable of receiving and transmitting electrical impulses.
In the peripheral nervous system, each segment of the myelin sheath is made by a single Schwann cell.
The pia mater is the innermost layer and is adherant to the nervous tissue.
www.neurology-info.net   (2030 words)

 The ANS
The sympathetic nerves reach their end-organs through more devious pathways down the spinal cord to clusters of sympathetic nerve bodies (ganglia) alongside the spine where the messages are relayed to other nerve bodies (or neurons) that travel to a large extent with the blood vessels to all parts of the body.
Through these nervous pathways, the autonomic nerves convey stimuli resulting in largely unconscious, reflex, bodily adjustments such as in the size of the pupil, the digestive functions of the stomach and intestines, the rate and depth of respiration and dilatation or constriction of the blood vessels.
Like other nerves, those of the autonomic nervous system convey their messages to the appropriate end organs (blood vessels, viscera, etc.) by releasing transmitter substances to which the receptors of the target cells are responsive.
www.ndrf.org /ans.htm   (1386 words)

The periodic components of this heart rate variation are dictated by the input of the two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous systems.
We observed a paradoxical derangement of the sympathetic nervous system response to the upright posture.
This autonomic nervous system dysfunction could induce other symptoms of fibromyalgia such as irritable bowel, urinary discomfort, limb numbness, anxiety and dryness of the eyes and mouth.
www.martinez-lavin.com /Fibromyalgia.htm   (1417 words)

 Bibliography - Sympathetic Nervous System
Grassi G. The sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cardiovascular disease.
Raised sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure and central sleep apnea is due to heart failure severity.
Sympathetic nervous system in acute and chronic blood pressure elevation.
www.sns-web.org /pages/bibliography/comments.asp   (887 words)

 NDI Terminology - sympathetic nervous system   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The portion of the autonomic nervous system that receives its fibers of connection with the central nervous system through the thoracolumbar outflow of visceral efferent fibers.
These fibers (preganglionic) arise from cells in the thoracic and upper lumbar levels of the spinal cord, leave by way of ventral roots, and, by way of rami communicantes, enter sympathetic trunks, where some synapse with ganglion cells.
Some preganglionic fibers pass through the sympathetic trunks and synapse in the prevertebral ganglia; postglanglionic fibers from those ganglia supply adjacent viscera.
www.ndif.org /Terms/sympathetic_nervous_system.html   (86 words)

 the nervous system
Nervous tissue is composed of two main cell types: neurons and glial cells.
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the CNS to other parts of the body, and is composed of nerves (bundles of neurons).
For example: when you are scared the sympathetic system causes your heart to beat faster; the parasympathetic system reverses this effect.
www.emc.maricopa.edu /faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookNERV.html   (3645 words)

At the same time, this sympathetic- sensory coupling was believed to be part of a vicious circle, where the abnormal afferent activity - via sensitized central nervous (spinal cord) structures - could maintain sympathetic hyperactivity and consequently pain (Livingston 1976).
The patients of the first group are characterized by the occurrence of a rather complex clinical symptomatology, in whom predominantly the distal part of the extremity is affected, where the symptoms - independently of the kind and location of a preceding lesion - appear in a glove- or sock-like distribution manner.
Consistent signs of sympathetic hyperactivity are not found in SMP and autonomic changes, which may be present inside the lesioned area (Frost et al 1988), can be related to denervation and reinnervation of sympathetic effector organs.
www.bbsonline.org /Preprints/OldArchive/bbs.neur5.blumberg.html   (6556 words)

 Sympathetic Nervous System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)- Not the Somatic Nervous System (Somatic- includes all nerves controlling the muscular system and external sensory receptors), even though the SNS is used to officially describe the Somatic nervous system, not the sympathetic.
The sympathetic nervous system dominates in stressful or emergency situations and prepares the body for strenuous physical activity, e.g., causing the heart to beat faster.
Researchers always motion the Sympathetic Nervous System when writing or discussing obesity, but I think they mean Somatic, because the somatic nervous system is associated with the the nerves of the muscular system- regulating body temperature.
www.getdiesel.net /def/sns.htm   (115 words)

 Interactions Between Leptin and the Human Sympathetic Nervous System -- Eikelis et al. 41 (5): 1072 -- Hypertension   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
thesis, of sympathetic nervous system inhibition of leptin release,
and the sympathetic nervous system inhibits leptin release.
The role of the sympathetic nervous system in the regulation of leptin synthesis in C57BL/6 mice.
hyper.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/41/5/1072   (4686 words)

 PPS and the Sympathetic Nervous System
The sympathetic nervous system is a subcategory of the autonomic nervous system.
The sympathetic subcategory is the part of the autonomic system that prepares the body for action eg.
Sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic nerves emerge from different areas of the spinal cord.
www.skally.net /ppsc/sym.html   (169 words)

 Books/Autonomic nervous system/Sympathetic system - Pharmpedia
sympathetic nervous system have their origin (cell bodies) in the thoracic and lumbar region (thoracolumabar) of the spinal cord.
There are two major groups of sympathetic ganglia, Para vertebral ganglia (lie in vertebral column) and prevertebrl column (lie in abdomen; e.g.
The adrenal medulla resembles a sympathetic ganglia and preganglionic fibres innervate it.
www.pharmpedia.com /Books/Autonomic_nervous_system/Sympathetic_system   (99 words)

 sympathetic nervous system
nervous system - nervous system, network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and...
Tyrosine hydroxylase activity in sympathetic nervous system of rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes.
Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Insulin in Enhancing Glucose Uptake in Peripheral Tissues After Intrahypothalamic Injection of Leptin in Rats.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/sci/A0919300.html   (201 words)

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