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Topic: Syntactic pivot

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In the News (Mon 22 Jul 19)

 Pivot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In mathematics, specifically linear algebra, a pivot is the first non-zero value of each row of a matrix after the matrix has been converted to row echelon form.
In foreign exchange market trading, pivot points are frequently used in technical analysis to generate resistance and support levels.
In statistics a pivot is 'the norm' to determine confidence intervals.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pivot   (396 words)

 Pivot Hinges
Pivot was born in Lyon, France, the son of grocers.
At age 10, Pivot went to a Catholic boarding school and discovered a consuming passion for sport, a passion which helped teachers to overlook his general mediocrity in all traditional school subjects except French language and history.
The pivot states fallout from treating both the number of electoral votes as well as how tight voting/polling is. Pivot Factor=electoral votes/%difference, applied to states where the losing % is 45 or greater for the 2 major parties.
www.breadlike.com /pages7/65/pivot-hinges.html   (1118 words)

 Morphosyntactic alignment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the system used to distinguish between the arguments of transitive verbs and intransitive verbs.
The distinction can be made morphologically, with morphemes that mark grammatical case; syntactically, through word order; or both.
In W. Lehmann (Ed.), Syntactic typology: Studies in the phenomenology of language (pp.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Morphosyntactic_alignment   (1708 words)

 [No title]
But empty positions, their immediate reconstructability, and their structural significance are manifestations of the underlying configuration too: as is the case with assumed zero-marking in a morphological paradigm, it is the potential reconstruction and the contrast with filled in forms which renders phenomena such as pro-drop meaningful and significant.
Its peculiar status as a syntactic constituent is further emphasized by the fact that it is not marked by }{\plain \i\f1 -guuq}{\plain \f1, an affix indicating reported events, also frequently used to refer to traditional knowledge, indicating past.\par }\pard \qj {\plain \f1 (21)...
Either we are left with a most peculiar syntactic structure allowing several "subjects" and two different types of direct objects which calls for major revisions of syntactic theory, or we will have to look for an explanation in terms of a synthetic representation.
angli02.kgw.tu-berlin.de /staff/Nowak/HALLE-AU.doc   (3915 words)

 Linguistics Research Specialities: Introduction to Role and Reference Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
This semantic hierarchy inter acts with the syntactic hierarchy of juncture-nexus types as follows: there is an iconic relation between the semantics and syntax of clause linkage, such that the tightness of the syntactic linkage directly reflects the semantic integration of the units in the linkage (cf.
In place of thes e notions, RRG employs the notion of syntactic pivot, which is a construction-specific relation and is defined as a restricted neutralization of semantic roles and pragmatic functions for syntactic purposes.
Syntactic functions like pivot and direct core argument (which are structurally instantiated in the LSC) represent the syntactic pole of the system, while LS s represent the semantic pole.
wings.buffalo.edu /linguistics/research/rrg/rrg_paper.html   (5438 words)

 Pivot - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Pivot is also the abbreviated name (full name: Pivotlog) of a free weblog tool written in PHP.
This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title.
You can find it there under the keyword Pivot (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pivot)The list of previous authors is available here: version history (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pivotandaction=history).
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Pivot   (330 words)

 Glot International, Journal Section
De Vries indicates that the "pivot" referred to in (1b) purports to be "a constituent semantically shared by both the relative clause and the matrix clause", and furthermore one that has some syntactic realization in both clauses, possibly as a phonological "gap".
Be this as it may, the fact that restrictives, unlike appositives, involve syntactic, rather than discourse binding, is brought out by the insensitivity of the binding relation to the presence/absence of modal subordination (note the contrast in acceptability between (3d) and (5)).
This suggests that syntactic A'-movement is not involved in the derivation of these constructions, and that their interpretation is achieved due to binding operations; this is in effect the tack pursued in Bonneau (1992), Grosu (2000c), and Watanabe (2002).
www.linguistlistplus.com /glot/html/Gi6206/GI6602_SOA.htm   (11487 words)

Syntactic Ergativity which deals with ergatively motivated syntactic constraints on clause combination and on the omission of coreferential constituents in clause combinations.
According to the pivot constraints, the absence of a P-function argument in the second clause signals the omission of a NP that is coreferential with the S-function argument in the first clause.
In this case, the syntactic conditions for coordination are not met since the coreferential NP in the second clause is not in the pivot-relation with the verb.
www.graywizard.net /Conlinguistics/ergativity.htm   (1747 words)

 [No title]
Chapter 2 investigates the syntactic properties of CIL from the perspective of the theory of movement and finds that the movement involved in scrambling cannot be characterized as either movement for Case/agreement, WH-movement, Topicalization or (S-Structure) QR.
I propose that the distribution of verbal reflexives is determined primarily by argument-structure representations while the distribution of nominal reflexives is determined primarily by syntactic representations.
Results (measuring children's coreference and disjoint reference judgements in interpretation) showed that children differentiated all connectives in their interpretation, and were sensitive to both syntactic finitiness and semantic tense in their complex sentence interpretation, from earliest ages tested.
www.ling.upenn.edu /sassn/5   (3993 words)

 [No title]
Cen tral to it are two formal devices which have been proposed in connection with phonology: harmonic alignment of prominence scales, and local conjun ction of constraints.
It is shown that application of harmonic alignment to scales involving syntactic relations and several substantive dimensions characterizes the universal markedness relations operative in this domain, and provides the constraints nece ssary for grammar construction.
These adjuncts allow reference to 1st and 2nd person, but are syntactically 3rd person, corresponding roughly to \ldblquote the one who is me/you\rdblquote.
people.ucsc.edu /~aissen/ot.paper.rtf   (5788 words)

 [No title]
Word categories are determined based solely on their syntactic distribution, whereas the function of words is a grammatical property which the words in each category carry.
He compared the syntactic structures of Polynesian languages, and proposed a hypothesis that Proto-Polynesian was ergative and changed into accusative in some daughter languages.
It is reconstructed here as a personal noun predicate marker because of the syntactic distribution of the reflexes of this form in the daughter languages (Kikusawa, in preparation), and it extended its function to mark personal noun phrases in general between Proto-Central Pacific and Fijian.
www3.aa.tufs.ac.jp /~ritsuko/papers/8ical_97pr.doc   (12427 words)

 [No title]
Further research is needed to determine whether these developmental stages are accountable purely in terms of internal syntactic considerations (which depends to a certain extent on the particular theory of grammar one espouses) or whether they are determined by underlying cognitive operations of a conceptual and perceptual nature.
Thus the distinction between "pivot" sad "open" class in the two-word constructions of children beginning to talk is based on a distinction of categories of syntactic function (e.g.
Children's early speech is characterized by a simple syntactic structure of the universal kind (subject-predicate, subject-verb-object) and by an absence of transformations (McNeill, 1966).
www.soc.hawaii.edu /leonj/499cl97/kaihilei/verbal16.html   (3093 words)

 analytic language Information Center - analytic language
By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings.
Since words are not marked by morphology showing their role in the sentence, word order tends to carry a lot of importance; for example, Chinese and English make use of word order to show subject-object relationship.
As can be seen, each syllable (or sometimes two) corresponds to a single concept; in addition it can be seen that two words (所有 and 都) cooperate to form the concept of "all", which gives an idea of the syntactical rules that dominate the grammars of such languages.
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Linguistic_Topics_A_-_Co/analytic_language.html   (532 words)

 The Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar
Specificational pseudoclefts (SPCs) have been a great challenge for a syntactic theory, because, despite the surface division between the pre- and post-copular elements, the post-copular `pivot' behaves as if it occupied the gap position in the precopular wh-clause.
Observing the parallelism between SPC pivots and short answers to questions, it proposes an HPSG account based on a non-deletion-based QDT (Question-in-disguise theory) approach and on the equative analysis of the specificational copular sentences.
The paper shows that SPCs must be handled by an integrated account of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties of the construction, and argues that the connectivity problems should be approached from such an integrated view.
cslipublications.stanford.edu /HPSG/4/abstr-yoo.shtml   (147 words)

Based on tongue edge tracings of frames from ultrasound and x-ray dynamic imaging of the vocal tract, I will show that the pivot pattern is used in a variety of sequences, and I will discuss the possible causes of the pattern.
Evidence will be presented to show that there's a great deal of regularity in the way that pointing gestures are aligned on a small temporal scale with the syntactic boundaries of the phrases that they accompany.
It will be shown that the speech gesture alignment problem is non-trivial, and that syntactic and prosodic information are a key to the alignment.
www.ifp.uiuc.edu /IDFL/papers/papersmorgan.html   (363 words)

 Morphosyntactic Alignment info here at en.86-of-100.info   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the order used to distinguish at intervals the arguments of transitive verbs und intransitive verbs.
The alterity can be made morphologically, with morphemes that humor grammatical case; syntactically, ended excursus order; or both.
In W. Lehmann (Ed.), Syntactic typology: Studies in the phenomenology of (pp.
en.86-of-100.info /ohio-department-of-education/Morphosyntactic_alignment   (1904 words)

 Journal for the Anthropological Study of Human Movement: Parsonian Action Theory and Dynamic Embodiment Info,Free ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In these languages NPs are marked `according to their actual [semantic] role in a given instance of the use of a verb` (p.29)¸ rather than (as in the vast majority of languages) simply according to their role in relation to the prototypical meaning of that verb.
Chapter 6 deals with inter-clausal (syntactic) ergativity (/accusativity)¸ and covers in considerable depth the topics of passive and antipassive¸ syntactic pivots¸ and the issue of ergativity in inter-clausal syntax.
He then gives an excellent illustration of what he means concerning the possible relationship between syntactic organisation on the one hand and discourse organisation on the other¸ by comparing the narrative styles of Dyirbal and Yidiny and the syntax of coordination and relativisation in these languages.
ewet.info   (7338 words)

 Theta role   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
As such it is a semantic rather than a syntactic feature, in contrast to such notions as the subject of a sentence or a prepositional object.
In languages such as English which rely heavily on word order and use frequent passivization, identification of theta roles from merely syntactic clues is often impossible.
In more heavily case-marked languages, however, more information is often encoded syntactically.
www.tocatch.info /en/Object_(linguistics).htm   (518 words)

 [No title]
The descriptive knowledge about the source language is a set of statements about morphological, syntactic, and lexical properties (parameters) of a language, listed together with their values and realization options.
An example of a syntactic parameter is head-modifier dependency, whose values include such pairs as "head: noun; modifier: adjective;" "head: verb; modifier: adverb," "head: noun; modifier: relative clause" and others.
Rather, one should revive the thirty-year-old CETA hypothesis (see, for instance, Vauquois 1969; Veillon 1968) that the syntactic interlingua ("pivot language") is determined by a specific SL-TL pair, extending it to cover the set of activated parameters in an MT system.
crl.nmsu.edu /expedition/publications/coling.html   (3231 words)

 [No title]
pivots have a restricted position (utterance initial or utterance final)
Pivot grammar offers an initial learning heuristic for building word classes and rules from distributional evidence (positional consistency).
Grammar 2 is not strictly a pivot grammar.
www.ku.edu /~pyersqr/Ling709/note8.htm   (950 words)

 Udi Morphosyntax
These means that the bulk of syntactic organisation is encoded by morphology, which is (in parts) also reflected in discourse cohesion.
The relational primitives S (subjective), A (agentive), and O (objective) organize a syntactic structure in co-paradigmatization with the morphological resp.
Rather, the motivation of Udi passives is based on pragmatic and in parts semantic aspects.
www.lrz-muenchen.de /~wschulze/udisynt.htm   (3814 words)

For a simple transfer to occur at the level of universal parameter representation, a complete syntactic identity of the sentences in SL and TL has to be obtained.
This is plainly unattainable in the general case, and a considerable number of rules describing discrepancies in the syntactic structures of SL and TL put in correspondence in transfer will have to be elicited from the acquirer and formulated (see below).
Syntagmatic parameters tend to have conjunctive values while paradigmatic parameters tend to have disjunctive values: thus, the parameter of agreement is syntagmatic because its values are expressed as a combination of realizations of several (paradigmatic!) parameters such as gender, case and number.
crl.nmsu.edu /expedition/publications/granada.htm   (6153 words)

 [No title]
Linguistics 5450 Spring 2003 A subject is a grammatical relation.
A grammatical relation is “a restricted neutralization of semantic roles for syntactic purposes”.
The presence of voice alternations is the major indicator that a given language has grammatical relations.
www.colorado.edu /linguistics/courses/LAM5450/Whatisasubject.doc   (1498 words)

 LINGUIST List 17.493: Discourse/Syntax/Semantics:Hakulinen&Salting(2005)
syntactically similar, but prosodically different utterances do perform
syntactic break-off, it is actually a genuine syntactic structure with
linguists that syntactically marked constructions are, due to their
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/17/17-493.html   (1986 words)

 polysynthetic language Information Center - polysynthetic language
It is that in which the greatest number of ideas are comprised in the least number of words.
Language: An introduction to the study of speech (Chap.
Language typology and syntactic description: Grammatical categories and the lexicon (Vol.
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Linguistic_Topics_N_-_P/polysynthetic_language.html   (880 words)

 Grammatical Relations in Pali and the Emergence of Ergativity in Indo-Aryan
- Subordination involoving clauses in the locativus absolutus construction operates on a purely SYNTACTIC PIVOT (i.e., S/A);
- Subordination involving a verbum absolutivum operates along a SYNTACTIC PIVOT (S/A) which is restricted to the PRAGMATIC PIVOT (core NP in clause-initial position of the clause it appears in).
Also, it was found that word order in the Pali of our text sample is of grammatical significance, as it plays the decisive role in clause combining.
www.ling.upenn.edu /sassn/512/node12.html   (547 words)

 Random Works of the Web » Blog Archive » Pro-drop language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In some cases (impersonal constructions), a proposition has no referent at all.
Pro-drop languages deal naturally with these, whereas many non-pro-drop languages such as English and French have to fill in the syntactic gap by inserting a dummy pronoun.
There are some languages that are not pro-drop but do not expect this syntactic gap to be filled.
random.dragonslife.org /pro-drop-language/1634   (733 words)

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