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Topic: Synthetic language

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In the News (Tue 25 Jun 19)

  Synthetic language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-to-word ratio.
Synthetic languages are frequently contrasted with isolating languages.
Synthetic languages are numerous and well-attested, the most commonly cited being Indo-European languages such as German and Russian, virtually the entire Altaic superfamily (comprising Turkish, Mongolian and the Tungusic languages), the Uralic languages (including Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian) and Korean, as well as many languages of the Americas, including Navajo, Nahuatl, Mohawk and Quechua.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Synthetic_language   (568 words)

 Encyclopedia: Synthetic language
An analytic language (or isolating language) is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and considered to be full-fledged words.
A nominative-absolutive language is one that marks the subject of a transitive verb or a voluntary subject of an intransitive verb distinctly from the object of a transitive verb or an involuntary subject of an intransitive verb.
Synthetic languages An analytic language (or isolating language) is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and considered to be full-fledged words.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Synthetic-language   (1871 words)

 Edward Sapir. 1921. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In a synthetic language (Latin, Arabic, Finnish) the concepts cluster more thickly, the words are more richly chambered, but there is a tendency, on the whole, to keep the range of concrete significance in the single word down to a moderate compass.
A polysynthetic language, as its name implies, is more than ordinarily synthetic.
In the more highly wrought prefixing languages the word is apt to affect us as a crystallization of floating elements, the words of the typical suffixing languages (Turkish, Eskimo, Nootka) are “determinative” formations, each added element determining the form of the whole anew.
www.bartleby.com /186/pages/page135.html   (346 words)

 Station Information - Synthetic language
A synthetic language, also called an inflected language, is a language which uses inflectional forms, such as affixes, as a primary means of indicating the grammatical function of the words in the language.
The opposite of a synthetic language is an analytic language, also known as an isolating language, in which the word forms are mostly or totally fixed, and grammatical functions are indicated through the use of helper words and word order.
Synthetic languages can be further broken down into agglutinative and fusional categories.
www.stationinformation.com /encyclopedia/s/sy/synthetic_language.html   (119 words)

 Finnish language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Finnish (suomi [▶]) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92%) and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Ruija dialect (Ruijan murre) is spoken in Finnmark (Finnish Ruija), in Norway.
The spoken language, on the other hand, is the main variety of Finnish to be used in popular TV and radio shows, at workplaces and it is sometimes preferred to speaking a dialect in personal communication.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Finnish_language   (5333 words)

 Grammar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
A descriptive grammar is a grammar that describes the language as it is actually used by people, regardless of whether prescriptive grammars would consider a construction correct or not.
Analytic languages use syntax to convey information that is encoded via inflection in synthetic languages.
In other words, word order is not significant and morphology is highly significant in a purely synthetic language, whereas morphology is not significant and syntax is highly significant in an analytic language.
www.secaucus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Grammar   (859 words)

 Pro-drop language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Among major languages, a clearcut case of a pro-drop language is Japanese (featuring pronoun deletion not only for subjects, but for practically all grammatical contexts).
Romance languages such as Portuguese, Spanish, Italian and Romanian are also pro-drop (though they only allow deletion of the subject pronoun).
Pro-drop languages deal naturally with these, whereas many non-pro-drop languages such as English and French have to fill in the syntactic gap by inserting a dummy pronoun.
www.butte-silverbow.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Pro-drop_language   (577 words)

 [No title]
This theory of the abrupt creation of language is held today by some, considering that it is difficult to definitely say that the ability for humans to communicate took time in a process of physical evolution.
Languages were created nonetheless, and as languages grow over time, and the area over which they are spoken expands, “[a language] tends to break up over time, first into regional dialects and finally into several quite distinct languages” (Trask 1998).
Synthetic languages can be created for any group of languages, as Esperanto has been for European languages, or for the entire world.
www.mccallie.org /wrt_ctr/Doc11.doc   (1180 words)

 Synthetic adhesives (from adhesive) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Synthetics can be produced in a constant supply and at constantly uniform properties.
any language in which syntactic relations within sentences are expressed by inflection (the change in the form of a word that indicates distinctions of tense, person, gender, number, mood, voice, and case) or by agglutination (word formation by means of morpheme, or word unit, clustering).
Synthetic diamond resembles natural diamond in most fundamental properties, retaining the extreme hardness, broad transparency (when pure), high thermal conductivity, and high electrical resistivity for which diamond is highly prized.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-82534?tocId=82534   (786 words)

 The Synthetic Images
Synthetic images are very useful in the visualization of concepts, and Blinn is one of the people who have proved this.
The language of synthetic animated images opens up a world of creation which, for the first time, is three dimensional; as Escher said the world of three dimensions "is the only true reality we know".
All cases of synthetic images suffer a limitation, their visual quality, which is not the consequence of a limitation in the computer, but in the use of a limited support like video.
www.iua.upf.es /~berenguer/textos/sint/sinteta.htm   (5263 words)

 Subject Verb Object - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Languages are classified according to the dominant sequence of these constituents of sentences.
English, Chinese, the Romance languages, Russian, Kiswahili, and Indonesian are examples of languages that follow this pattern.
German verbs appear before their subjects when an adverb modifying the verb, or a phrase acting as such an adverb, is at the beginning of the sentence.
www.hartselle.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Subject_Verb_Object   (272 words)

All ostensibly a priori propositions are really synthetic empirical propositions of a certain kind, viz., announcements by the speaker of his present intention to use certain words and phrases in certain ways or statements about the current usage of certain words and phrases in a certain language.
That all natural languages are defective and distorting media is almost certain, and is what might be expected from their history.
But there is always a tendency for empiricists to base their denial of synthetic a priori propositions on some tacitly assumed epistemological premise which is certainly synthetic and which they take to be self-evident.
www.ditext.com /broad/apriori.html   (4673 words)

 Learn Turkish - Lesson 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Turkish is the principle language in a group of eight languages, known as the Turkic group: Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Uighur & Uzbek.
In a synthetic language, the form of each word changes according to tense, person, etc; whereas in an analytic (isolating) language the differences in form have disappeared, and meaning is thus conveyed by the presence and order of words, all of which appear isolated from one another.
Nearly all synthetic languages are of a type called fusional, where several grammatic functions are fused into a single affix.
lavocah.org /turkce/turkce.html   (416 words)

 Synthetic language -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Synthetic languages are frequently contrasted with (Click link for more info and facts about isolating languages) isolating languages.
(The official language of Finland; belongs to the Baltic Finnic family of languages) Finnish: hiutaleannos = "flake-ration"; hiuta+le has the components hiutua "to thin" and -le "a small thing produced by the action", and ann+os is derived from antaa "to give" and -os "a mass transferred or made by the action".
(The Iroquoian language spoken by the Mohawk people) Mohawk: Washakotya'tawitsherahetkvhta'se means "He ruined her dress" (strictly, "He made the thing that one puts on one's body ugly for her").
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/sy/synthetic_language.htm   (679 words)

A synthetic language, in linguistic_typology, is a language with a high morpheme-to-word ratio.
Synthetic languages are numerous and well-attested, the most commonly cited being Indo-European_languages such as German and Russian, virtually the entire Altaic superfamily (comprising Turkish, Mongolian and the Tungusic_languages), the Uralic_languages (including Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian) and Korean, as well as many languages of the Americas, including Navajo, Nahuatl, Mohawk and Quechua.
Oligosynthetic_languages are a theoretical notion created by Benjamin_Whorf with no known examples existing in natural languages.
www.gottogetflowers.com /synthetic_language   (547 words)

Synthetic languages, in contrast, are those where we find affixes and free morphemes conjoined in different combinations.
However, I will expect you to remember that a morphological typology exists and that home languages you’ll encounter in your ESL classrooms may be of a different type than English (which is, of course, a moderately syntheticinflectionallanguage).
In general, a language will be primarily of one type while including some features from others.
www.hamline.edu /personal/ferku/linguisticsfall2002/5typologies.htm   (785 words)

 Human brain works heavy statistics learning language
Newport and Aslin devised a test where babies and adults listened to snippets of a synthetic language: a few syllables arranged into nonsense words and played in random order for 20 minutes.
Language does not only consist of relationships between adjacent syllables or other language elements.
Newport and Aslin devised a new, more complex, synthetic language where three-syllable words had constant first and last syllables, but the middle syllable was interchangeable.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2004-05/uor-hbw050404.php   (814 words)

 Ceisiwr Serith's Homepage - The Kwendyngu Language
This became the standard language of the land, and the ancestor of both Kwendyngu and the various dialects of the Common Tongue.
The synthetic origin of Kwendyngu was soon forgotten, and the belief arose that it was the language of the gods, and that the gods had given it to men.
Hiladyngu: The language spoken by the pre-Tua inhabitants of Tuadem.
www.ceisiwrserith.com /tuadem/kwendyngu.htm   (2846 words)

 Typology of Language Grammars
A synthetic language is one in which grammatical relationships are expressed by modifications of the form of words.
Most languages have the subject added at the beginning of a phrase, but there is a small proportion which add the subject at the end of a phrase.
The tense of a verb is indicated by a tense-auxiliary.
www2.sjsu.edu /faculty/watkins/langtyp.htm   (1686 words)

 Articles - Agglutinative language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
An agglutinative language is a form of synthetic language where each affix typically represents one unit of meaning (such as "diminutive", "past tense", "plural", etc.), and bound morphemes are expressed by affixes (and not by internal changes of the root of the word, or changes in stress or tone).
Agglutinative languages are not entirely grouped by the family (although Finnish and Hungarian are definitely related, as are possibly Japanese and Korean).
It is possible that convergent evolution had many separate languages develop this property, but there seems to exist a preferred evolutionary direction from agglutinative synthetic languages to fusional synthetic languages, and then to non-synthetic languages, which in their turn evolve again into agglutinative synthetic languages.
gaple.com /articles/Agglutinative_language?...   (543 words)

 macmodlan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Bulgarian is the official language of the Republic of Bulgaria and is spoken as their native language by about 8.5 million people within the boundaries of Bulgaria.
The issue of the Macedonian language, in official use as separate literary language in the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia since 1944 (about 1.5 million speakers), is heavily charged with political emotions on the part of Bulgaria, Greece, and the former Yugoslavia, and has to be approached carefully.
Middle Bulgarian was a transitional stage during which the language underwent crucial changes leading to its emergence as a 'Balkan' language with analytic characteristics; owing to the strong tradition of the liturgical literature, however the actual changes found in the vernaculars were hardly reflected in the manuscripts.
www.ucc.ie /staff/jprodr/macedonia/macmodlan.html   (1060 words)

 Creating a Grammar for your Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Analytical languages have few prefixes and suffixes, and functions such as number, gender, tense and person are indicated by separate words.
Synthetic languages can be further divided into three classes: fusional, agglutinative and polysynthetic.
The third kind of synthetic language is polysynthetic, in which noun-elements may be combined into the verb, making lengthy word-sentences.
leighkimmel.freeservers.com /writing/grammarconstruction.html   (533 words)

 MSU-LGCLL:: Anatoliy A. Polikarpov - Some Factors and Regularities of Analytic/Synthetic Development of Language System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Each language system is noticeably involved in one or the other kind of the development from time to time in its history.
It is also important to note that the degree of relative shortening of words in a more analytic language should be approximately the same as the degree to which its sentences and texts on the whole are lengthier (in number of running words expressing some certain content) than sentences of a more synthetic language.
Again, history of languages intensely developing in the direction of greater analyticity is richer on cases of this kind than history of more synthetic languages.
www.philol.msu.ru /~lex/articles/fact_reg.htm   (2553 words)

 Citations: Language games for autonomous robots - Steels (ResearchIndex)
In order to meet the animate, adaptable and accessible criteria for intelligent service robots, it is, therefore, necessary to include in their design such basic capabilities as linguistic communication, reasoning, reactivity and learning.
As a result, robots can navigate in free space some of them can already build 2D maps of their environments and even plan and follow paths to reach given goals, but they can t recognize and locate most of the objects in the environment [7] Current robotic vision approaches are highly....
In this model, however, the mechanism for using and sharing language will be more contrived for the sake of scientific rigour.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/1953938/0   (935 words)

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