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# Topic: Synthetic proposition

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 Synthetic proposition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The terms "analytic" and "synthetic" are philosophical terms, used by philosophers to divide propositions into two types: "analytic propositions" and "synthetic propositions." Different philosophers (e.g. In the Introduction to the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant combines his distinction between analytic and synthetic propositions with another distinction, the distinction between a priori and a posteriori propositions. synthetic proposition: a proposition that is not analytic en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Synthetic_proposition   (1374 words)

 Kant's Theory of Judgment Thus a proposition is the logically well-formed and semantically well-composed, truth-valued, unified objective representational content of a judgment, and more generally it is “what is judged” in the act of putting forward any sort of rational claim about the world (9: 109) (14: 659-660) (24: 934). Synthetic a priori judgments, by contrast, are non-empirical, non-contingent judgments. Propositions are systematically built up out of directly referential terms (intuitions) and attributive or descriptive terms (concepts), by means of unifying acts of our innate spontaneous cognitive faculties, according to pure logical constraints, under a higher-order unity imposed by our faculty for rational self-consciousness. plato.stanford.edu /entries/kant-judgment   (6021 words)

 A Priori and A Posteriori [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] An a priori proposition is one that is knowable a priori and an a priori argument is one the premises of which are a priori propositions. Correspondingly, an a posteriori proposition is knowable a posteriori, while an a posteriori argument is one the premises of which are a posteriori propositions. A related way of drawing the distinction is to say that a proposition is analytic if its truth depends entirely on the definition of its terms (i.e., it is true by definition), while the truth of a synthetic proposition depends not on mere linguistic convention, but on how the world actually is in some respect. www.utm.edu /research/iep/a/apriori.htm   (5580 words)

 Preamble Kant defines syntheticity by means of reversed criteria for analyticity: (1) Semantically the predicate of a synthetic judgment is not contained in the subject but amplifies it, and (2) there is no strict logical connection with the principle of contradiction. Kant disagrees that all synthetic judgments are empirical (although synthesis is a suitable designation for all judgments of this kind, it is not tantamount to empirical linkage of a predicate to the subject). Previous analyses of arithmetical propositions were mislead by the simplicity of their examples (typically, Descartes and Hume were considering very simple operations like "2 + 2 equal 4" or "2 + 3 = 5" which create the impression that the result is analytically deduced from the concepts of additives). www.uri.edu /students/szunjic/philos/preamble.htm   (9093 words)

 Critique of Pure Reason   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06) Upon such synthetic, that is, ampliative principles, all our a priori speculative knowledge must ultimately rest; analytic judgments are very important, and indeed necessary, but only for obtaining that clearness in the concepts which is requisite for such a sure and wide synthesis as will lead to a genuinely new addition to all previous knowledge. We might, indeed, at first suppose that the proposition 7 + 5 = 12 is a merely analytic proposition, and follows by the principle of contradiction from the concept of a sum of 7 and 5. He occupied himself exclusively with the synthetic proposition regarding the connection of an effect with its cause (principium causalitatis), and he believed himself to have shown that such an a priori proposition is entirely impossible. www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/works/ge/kant.htm   (5339 words)

 Alfred J. Ayer's Language, Truth, and Logic Propositions for which we do not have a practical means of verification may still be meaningful if we can verify them in principle. Ayer argues that philosophic propositions are analytic, and that they are concerned with 'relations of ideas.' The task of philosophy is to clarify the logical relationships of empirical propositions. To say that a proposition is true is simply to assert it, and to say that a proposition is false is simply to assert a contradictory proposition. www.angelfire.com /md2/timewarp/ayer.html   (1283 words)

 Empiricism: Hume & Positivism In contrast to analytic propositions, propositions in which the predicate is not part of the meaning or definition of the thing. Synthetic propositions are statements in which the predicate is not contained within the subject; and if we deny such a "matter of fact" proposition (such as saying, "It is not the case that some birds are yellow"), we do not necessarily contradict ourselves. Propositions such as "there is a God" or "there is a spiritual self" are not true by definition nor are they based on sense experience; therefore they are meaningless statements. www-phil.tamu.edu /~sdaniel/Notes/emp-hume.html   (1169 words)

 Analytic Philosophy On the other hand, a synthetic proposition (also called a posteriori or contingent) is one that seems to be true but need not be, an example this time being "all men are mortal". Synthetic propositions are the business of science, of course, which acknowledges these skeptical restrictions on what we can know, so the logical positivists advocated science as the only tool to learn about our world. Nevertheless, to call hinge propositions "true", "absolutely certain" or something similar is to miss the point: for something to be true it must have been possible that it could be false, but it is meaningless to talk of hinge propositions as having been otherwise. www.galilean-library.org /int17.html   (8246 words)

 Slick, but - What would you say? An analytic proposition is one in which the intension of the predicate is contained in the subject or vice versa. A synthetic proposition is one where the connection between the subject and predicate is not related to the intension of the terms but it is experientially based. I am aware some people claim an analytic proposition and a tautology are the same - and disagree - ut this does not rebut the fact that the Rev. is using a false analogy. www.truthtree.com /Debating/posts/92.html   (406 words)

 Someplace Somewhere - Reading 10: Kant, Prolegomena, Sections 1-5   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06) Well, the analytical and synthetical examples of 'bodies have extension' and 'bodies have weight' worked for me. We wouldn't consider a body a body if it didn't have extension, so that judgement can be derived from an analysis of what we mean by 'body'. Now, that some of geometry is synthetical i can agree, but it seems to me that the visualization Kant refers to here, for example in forming the proposition that a line is the shortest path between two points, is dependent upon experience; consider, a man blind from birth cannot visualize at all. This was a great mistake, for a synthetical proposition can indeed be comprehended according to the law of contradiction, but only by presupposing another synthetical proposition from which it follows, but never in itself. www.someplacesomewhere.com /topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=4039   (6520 words)

 Kant and Mathematical Knowledge, by Thomas J McFarlane Analytic propositions are tautological truths, which rest on definition and logic alone, and thus are all a priori. Thus to deny an analytic proposition is to assert a contradiction. Thus a priori synthetic judgments of empirical space are possible because all our intuitions, both pure (formal) intuitions and empirical intuitions, rest on this form of intuition; and through the science of geometry as the study of the pure intuition of space we have systematized this knowledge in a science. www.integralscience.org /sacredscience/SS_kant.html   (2955 words)

 Mises Economics Blog: Synthetic Apriori Truths and Mind Structure: A Nominalist Perspective   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06) For it is a contingent proposition, and may be true or false (because it is logically possible that we are conditioned to perceive patterns). To argue, as Hoppe does, that the proposition that humans act is the presupposition of argument as such and so cannot be disagreed with, does not counter the claim that the proposition that humans act is an innate (and therefore possibly false) idea. There are, of course, synthetic propositions; I am not denying their existence, I am just saying that they might be false. blog.mises.org /archives/004607.asp   (7050 words)

 Kant The proposition "all bachelors are unmarried" is analytic because the predicate (being unmarried) being attributed to the subject (bachelors) is contained within the subject. 1 is a proposition that is empirical synthetic. It is synthetic because the predicate is not contained within the subject; it is empirical because the proposition can only be known through experience and not by reason. www2.drury.edu /cpanza/kantarticle.html   (1922 words)

 Meditation II To be sure, a synthetic derivation or attribution is less than to be affirmed by an analytic proposition which is a priori true (for instance, the proposition "Triangle is a plane figure with three sides" provides analytic background for the following deductive reasoning: "This is a triangle, therefore it has three sides"). It is a synthetic conclusion but with a stronger connection between the terms than the one we find in synthetic statements like: "I fish, therefore I smell" or "I sweat, therefore I am thin". Synthetic - from the Greek synthetikos = put together; referring to a statement that asserts something about the real world; its predicate adds something which is not contained in the subject and so its truth is empirical. www.uri.edu /students/szunjic/philos/med2.htm   (8753 words)

 An Atheist's Values   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06) Concerning synthetic statements the reasonable man neither acquiesces in mere possibility nor demands mathematically certain proof, but estimates probabilities and adopts the more probable of the two contradictories. The contrast is that the truth of true mathematical propositions depends only on their meaning, whereas the truth of true chemical propositions depends also on the nature of the world. On all choices between adopting a proposition and adopting its contradictory either reason is competent or nothing is. The Pope in September 1952 said to astronomers that, when the human intellect has done all it can, faith must carry on. www.positiveatheism.org /hist/athval2c.htm   (8663 words)

 [No title] Whether arithmetic or geometry, however, mathematics for Kant is synthetic a priori, not analytic a priori--which is to say that it is a substantive or world-dependent science, not a purely logical science. Second, for Kant the positive mark of the syntheticity of a proposition is its semantic dependence on intuition. If the synthetic judgment is an experiential judgment, the intuition must be empirical; if the judgment is a priori synthetic, there must be a pure intuition to ground it. spot.colorado.edu /~rhanna/APA_symposium_paper.htm   (6121 words)

 Man is the Measure Proposition: a statement which has truth value (T or F) Analytic Proposition (priori) - a proposition which is T or F by virtue of its terms and/or structure Synthetic proposition (posteriori) - propositions which are not analytic Asserts a connection between a subject and a predicate by a copula (the verb is or are) www.geocities.com /sphstok/books/mitm/mitm.html   (598 words)

 A History of Philosophy. Immanuel Kant: biography, summary, theory Synthetic a-priori propositions: their truth is not dependent on reality, but only on intuition ("2+2=4", "A straight line is the shortest distance between two points", "Every event has a cause"), they could be denied without logical absurdity although we consider them "true" (e.g., non-Euclidean geometry) Synthetic propositions are applications of a concept (universal) to an object (particular) Synthetic a-priori propositions are applications of categories (a specific kind of concepts) to the perceived objects www.scaruffi.com /phi/kant.html   (986 words)

 Question on Kant As for the proposition "All true propositions are tautologies," if one defines "true proposition" as being equivalent to "tautology with true premises." Then it works out like this: the set of tautologies with true premises is a member of the set of tautologies. For example, to propose that a "true proposition" (TP) be defined as one that must "have both a true conclusion and one that follows logically from its premises" is to mistake propositions and arguments. For the proposition "A triangle has three sides" to be true, there has to be a proposition behind the term "triangle" and one behind the term "three sides." At this point, I should probably consult Quine on this. www.h-net.org /~ideas/archives/disthread/kant.html   (11700 words)

 [No title] \par }{\ul\insrsid214648 Analytic and Synthetic Propositions}{\insrsid2644291 : \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f10\insrsid214648 \loch\af10\dbch\af0\hich\f10 \'d8\tab}}\pard \ql \fi-360\li720\ri0\widctlpar\jclisttab\tx720\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\ls1\adjustright\rin0\lin720\itap0\pararsid2644291 {\insrsid214648 An }{\i\insrsid214648 analytic}{ \insrsid214648 proposition is one that is true or false depending upon the concepts involved. Thus, these }{ \insrsid2644291 are both analytic propositions. \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f10\insrsid2366187 \loch\af10\dbch\af0\hich\f10 \'d8\tab}}{\i\insrsid2366187 Rationalism}{\i\insrsid8211933 :}{\insrsid8211933 It IS possible to know a synthetic proposition }{\i\insrsid8211933 a priori}{\insrsid8211933.}{ \insrsid13394195 \par }\pard \ql \li432\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin432\itap0\pararsid2644291 {\insrsid8211933 \par }\pard \ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid2644291 {\b\insrsid543205 Locke\rquote s Theory: Representative Realism}{\insrsid8211933 \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f10\insrsid543205 \loch\af10\dbch\af0\hich\f10 \'d8\tab}}\pard \ql \fi-360\li360\ri0\widctlpar\jclisttab\tx360\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\ls4\adjustright\rin0\lin360\itap0\pararsid12199978 {\insrsid543205 Locke is an empiricist. www.isu.edu /~baerralp/LockeMetaphys.rtf   (732 words)

 Mises Economics Blog: Doubt the Action Axiom? Try to Disprove It   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06) And the contrary proposition that humans don't act is a performative contradiction and incoherent. It is known a priori, it is synthetic, and it is indisputable. If you are to continue to maintain that it is a synthetic a priori truth and not an innate idea then it is not me who must refute the proposition that humans act, but you who must prove it, taking into account all my (however ridiculous) situations. blog.mises.org /archives/004878.asp   (19009 words)

 Kant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06) proposition which in being thought is thought as necessary, it is an a priori a proposition that holds a priori and is not empirical. propositions, it is evident, are not only necessary, and therefore in their origin stjohns-chs.org /general_studies/philosophy/Romantic/Kant.html   (3926 words)

 Critique of Calvin define any two propositions into a contradictory set; but such an exercise may be completed at the expense of saying absolutely nothing about the external world. [13]  Briefly, the first type is the analytic proposition where the predicate is already contained in the subject, e.g., "All barking dogs bark" or "Rectangles have four sides."  These propositions are true by definition and cannot be denied without self-contradiction. Thus we cannot attain the same degree of evidence about analytic and synthetic knowledge:  whereas an analytic proposition such as 2+2=4 cannot be denied without self-contradiction, the contrary of all synthetic propositions is possible because no contradiction whatsoever is implied. www.trinitysem.edu /journal/andersenv3n2.htm   (5219 words)

 Introduction to Philosophy What is the difference between denying a true analytic proposition and denying a true synthetic proposition? What is the difference between discovering the truth of an analytic proposition and discovering the truth of a synthetic proposition? Is the assertion that this central concept is true an analytic or synthetic proposition? www.madwizard.com /intro08.htm   (1107 words)

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