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Topic: Szlachta


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  Szlachta - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The szlachta enjoyed substantial and almost unrivalled political privileges until the Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the late 18th century.
The equality among szlachta was no more, as the law systems of the partitioning powers recognized only the privileged aristocracy and treated the poorer szlachta as normal citizens, or extreme cases, peasants.
The szlachta's prevalent mentality and ideology were manifested in "Sarmatism," a name derived from supposed ancestors of the szlachta, the Sarmatians.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Szlachta   (3385 words)

  
 Szlachta - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
The szlachta were formed in the late Middle Ages and existed through the 18th century and into the 19th century.
Traditionally, the szlachta were owners of landed property, often in the form of folwarks.
The Polish word "szlachta" (meaning the "gentle class" or "noble class", an untranslatable term essentially encompassing the idea of gentility or nobility of blood, and treating the English words gentry and nobility as roughly coterminous: a specific nobleman was a "szlachcic," a noblewoman was a "szlachcianka").
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Szlachta   (3373 words)

  
 Wikipedia: Szlachta
Szlachta (read: [shlah:hta]) - The privileged class in Poland since late middle ages up to 18th and to a lesser extent to the 19th century.
Szlachta were also more numerable than the usual noble class - about 10% of population of Poland, and in some regions like Mazowsze even about 30% population were members of the Szlachta - while the usual percentage in Europe was closer to 1-3% (with the exception of Spain).
Szlachta was also protected by laws similar to Habeas corpus (law called neminem captivabimus - granted by act of Jedlnia, 1430) and had many privileges that were denied to all other classes.
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/s/sz/szlachta.html   (364 words)

  
 Szlachta - Wikipedia
Origins of szlachta can be probably traced to Slavic class of free warriors, but it's far from being certain, as we have very little documentation on early history of Poland.
Two most important were that the king was elected by all members of Szlachta, during Jagielonian Dynasty from all members of dynasty, and later without any limitations.
Members of Szlachta could legally make confederations, that is armed rebellions, against the king or state officers if they thought that the law was being broken.
nostalgia.wikipedia.org /wiki/Szlachta   (381 words)

  
 Szlachta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Szlachta formed in the late Middle Ages and existed through the 18th century and even into the 19th century.
Szlachta, as the Commonwealth itself, was extremly tolerant of the religious matters.
There were almost no conflicts based on faith, and szlachta members are known to have intervented several times to pacify religious based conflicts in cities and towns.
www.worldslastchance.com /encyclopedia/index.php/Szlachta   (2257 words)

  
 Szlachta - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Szlachta (pronounced: ['ʃlaxta]) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth).
The Polish word "szlachta" ("noble class": a specific nobleman was a "szlachcic," a noblewoman was a "szlachcianka") may derive from the name of the legendary proto-Polish chief, Lech, mentioned in Polish and Czech writings.
Szlachta, as the Commonwealth itself, was extremly tolerant of other religions.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Szlachta   (2044 words)

  
 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
democracy, since all the szlachta were equal in rights and privileges, and the Sejm could veto the king on important matters, including legislation (the adoption of new laws), foreign affairs, declaration of war, and taxation (changes of existing taxes or the levying of new ones).
Sarmatism enshrined equality among szlachta, horseback riding, tradition, provincial rural life, peace and pacifism; championed oriental-inspired attire (żupan, kontusz, sukmana, pas kontuszowy, delia, szabla); and served to integrate the multi-ethnic nobility by creating an almost nationalistic sense of unity and of pride in the szlachta's Golden Freedoms.
After the Counter-Reformation, when the Roman Catholic Church regained power in Poland, the szlachta became almost exclusively Roman Catholic, despite the fact that Roman Catholicism was not a majority religion (the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches counted approximately 40% of the population each, while the remaining 20% were Jews and members of various Protestant churches).
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (5235 words)

  
 Szlachta
The szlachta were also more numerous than the usual noble class - about 10% of the population, and in some regions like Mazowsze even about 30% population were members of the szlachta - while the usual percentage in Europe was closer to 1-3% (with the exception of Spain).
Monarchs granted the privileges to szlachta for short-term gains like favour during elections (in their promised pacta conventa), permission to raise taxes or call pospolite ruszenie outside of what normal laws allowed.
The szlachta are conceded the right to refuse to obey the King or his representatives - non praestanda oboedentia and form confederations, that is armed rebellions, against the king or state officers if they thought that the law and granted priviliges were being broken.
encycl.opentopia.com /term/Szlachta   (1530 words)

  
 Szlachta: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
...Szlachta Szlachta The privileged class in Poland since late middle ages up to...the origins of the szlachta can be probably traced to a Slavic class of free warriors.
Szlachta were also more numerable than the usual noble class - about 10% of population of Poland, and in some regions like Mazowsze[?] even about 30% population were members of the Szlachta - while the usual percentage in Europe was more like 1-3%.
Szlachta was also protected by laws similar to Habeas corpus (law called neminem captivabimus nissi iure victum[?] - granted by act of Jedlnia, 1430) and had many privileges that were denied to all other classes.
www.encyclopedian.com /sz/Szlachta.html   (453 words)

  
 Tzimisce
Szlachta may be human or animal--the origin matters little, given the end result.
Szlachta are warriors and the clan uses Vicissitude to heighten its troops' combat prowess.
Some szlachta are used as scouts; Tzimisce often hypertrophy or otherwise alter these ghouls' sensory organs in efforts to increase the ghouls' awareness.
www.angelfire.com /de/MoonShadowEstate/servitors.html   (1076 words)

  
 Szlachta: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Polish word "szlachta" ("noble class": a specific nobleman was a "szlachcic," a noblewoman was a "szlachcianka") may derive from the name of the legendary proto-Polish chief, EHandler: no quick summary.
Sarmatism was the prevalent mentality and ideology of szlachta in the polish-lithuanian commonwealth in 16th century to 19th century....
Kontusz was, from the 16th century, the outer garment of polish and lithuanian male szlachta (nobility or gentry)....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /enc3/szlachta   (5267 words)

  
 PNAF - Polish Nobility of the Commonwealth
The word szlachta defied translation because everyone who had a noble status was a member of it, irrespective of his wealth or social position.
This unique group was descendents of warriors of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries who had been endowed with land but whose families had sunken to a lower socioeconomic level as a consequence of their numerical increase and division of land.
In a sense the szlachta was the nation, and it could rightly claim that it had achieved a degree of liberty and of participation in state affairs unsurpassed by any other nation in Europe.
www.pnaf.us /commonwealth.htm   (4509 words)

  
 Polish Nobility and Its Heraldry: An Introduction
The emergence of szlachta as a distinct estate was well advanced by the reign of Kazimierz Wielki (Casimir the Great, 1333-1370), however, the process of reinforcing and codifying its legal privileges continued up until the middle of the 16th century, when, as it is commonly held by the academics today, nobility became a closed society.
Kulikowski [21] indicates that in the middle of the 14th century it was agreed that belonging to szlachta comes from belonging to one of the knightly clans - nobilitatis stripes ex progenitoribus eorum originem semper ducunt - as it was outlined by the statutes of Kazimierz
Szlachta was rightly cautious, however, when it believed that not all ennobled persons were worthy of this honour.
www.szlachta.org /heraldry.htm   (16740 words)

  
 Szlachta Encyclopedia @ LaunchBase.org (Launch Base)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Finally, this privilege obliged the King to pay indemnities to nobles injured or taken captive during a war outside Polish borders.
The king could promulgate new laws, raise taxes, or call for a levée en masse (pospolite ruszenie) only with the consent of the sejmiks, and the nobility were protected from judicial abuses.
The most important difference was that, while in most European countries the nobility lost power as the ruler strove for absolute monarchy, in Poland the reverse process occurred: the nobility actually gained power at the expense of the king, and the political system evolved toward a partial democracy.
www.launchbase.org /encyclopedia/Szlachta   (2278 words)

  
 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Zebrzydowski's rokosz (1606–7) marked a substantial increase in the power of the magnates, and the transformation of szlachta democracy into magnate oligarchy.
This economic arrangement worked well for the ruling classes in the early era of the Commonwealth, which was one of the most prosperous eras of the grain trade[11].
However the country's situation worsened from the late 17th century on, when the landed szlachta sought to compensate for falling grain prices by increasing the peasants' workload, thus leading to the creation of second serfdom, a phenomena common throughout contemporary Eastern Europe.
www.proxy7.com /nph-proxy3.cgi/110010A/http/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish-Lithuanian_Commonwealth   (4063 words)

  
 Courtly Lives - Polish Noblity and Their Coats of Arms
Szlachta (shlákh-ta) comes from the Old German slahta that is now schlagen ("to strike, fight, cleave, breed") and Geschlecht ("sex, species, family race").
The szlachta were a blend of "high birth" and "military prowess" (Davis, 207).
Szlachta was the highest estate of the gentry.
www.angelfire.com /mi4/polcrt/PolNobleArms.html   (1159 words)

  
 List of szlachta: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Szlachta (pronounced: image:ltspkr.png) was the nobilitynoble class in poland and the grand duchy of lithuania (polish-lithuanian commonwealth)....
Poniatowski is the surname of polish nobility (szlachta) family, most prominent in the 18th century and 19th century....
Mikoaj wiatopek-mirski, a member of the szlachta, whose family used the biaynia coat of arms, purchased the famed mir castle complex...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/l/li/list_of_szlachta.htm   (3579 words)

  
 Talk:Szlachta - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The word "Szlachta" was borrowed in Romanian as "Şleahtă", with a changed meaning: "a gang or mob of people with dubious intentions" and it's almost always used as a pejorative.
The point is that the szlachta were mutually equal and obsessive about that equality, went to law to resolve disputes not to a feudal superior, but were also an exclusive, superior class, based on heredity, so they had some citizen-like characteristics and some noble-like characteristics.
The article states that the reasons for this privilige was: "a compensation for the unsuccessful incursion on Moldavia which had decimated the szlachta".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Talk:Szlachta   (1867 words)

  
 CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS 1180-1572
Vacant judicial posts were filled by the King selecting one of four candidates suggested by the szlachta; and higher office holders (wojewodowie, kasztelanie who automatically had a seat in the Council, later the Senate) had to nominated during the sessions of the Sejm.
At the first sejm of Piotrków, the szlachta turned their attention to restricting the powers of the magnateria, who were to become impeachable for malpractice in the recently ccreated Senate.
These estates with time became hereditary domains; and the szlachta demanded their restitution to the Crown: this was one of the key issues of the demand for the egzekucja praw (Executionist movement).
www.arts.gla.ac.uk /Slavonic/staff/Szlachta.html   (2093 words)

  
 PNAF - Polish Noble Estate
The term Szlachta or gentry originated from the term,Lechici, as they were first called, until their descendants became known as the z Lechcicow or from the gentry, which later evolved into the word Slachta or Szlachta.
The Szlachta now chose to classify them as a lower class of servants and it was strictly forbidden for the Szlachta sons to marry Kmiecie daughters.
The heritage of the mother made no difference to the szlachta, and her ancestral line except that if the wife's family did have a family shield, these marriages or close relationships with non szlachta were avoided.
www.pnaf.us /polnoblestate.htm   (6033 words)

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