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Topic: Tautology

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  Tautology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In traditional grammar, a tautology is a redundancy due to superfluous qualification, often leading to the schoolboy definition of "saying the same thing twice".
A logical tautology is a statement that is true regardless of the truth values of its parts.
Tautologies can be used to introduce a red herring in an argument, but neither necessarily implies the other.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Tautology   (760 words)

 PlanetMath: tautology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
A tautology is a statement (or form) which is true solely on account of its logical form rather than because of the meaning of the terms employed.
In propositional logic, a tautology is a statement which is true regardless of the truth value of the substatements of which it is composed.
In predicate logic, a tautology is a statement which is true no matter what choice one makes for the predicates which appear in that statement.
planetmath.org /encyclopedia/Tautologically.html   (266 words)

 Tautology Info - Encyclopedia WikiWhat.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Tautology refers to redundancy, repetition, and circular reasoning within an argument or statement.
In logic, a tautology is a statement that is true regardless of the truth-values of its parts.
In linguistics, a tautology is often a fault of style.
www.wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/t/ta/tautology.html   (157 words)

 Talk:Tautology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
I am unhappy with the assertion that "the opposite of a tautology is a contradiction, which is a statement that is always false." Given the definition of a tautology ("A logical tautology is a statement that is true regardless of the truth values of its parts") this is not true.
A tautology is a statement that is necessarily true, and a contradiction is a statement that is necessarily false.
The claim that "all true statements of mathematics are tautologies" seems to me practically the defining belief of logicism, a foundational school that has fallen into severe disfavor (but it would be a POV assertion even if logicism were the dominant school).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Talk:Tautology   (1524 words)

 CIRCULAR REASONING, ITS OWN PROOF   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
A "tautology" means the useless repetition of an idea in different words, or a statement that is true because it includes all possibilities.
Both sides of the equation are again the same; again we have a tautology.
It follows that `the survival of the fittest' is not a testable theory, but a tautology.
www.pathlights.com /ce_encyclopedia/09nsel06.htm   (1051 words)

 Re: Re: re: Tautology
However a tautology such as "It is raining or it is not raining" is not true by definition in any straightforward way.
The fact that something you write down is a tautology (or a contradiction) does not relieve one of any burden of proof.
Writing down "It is raining or it is not raining" does not prove it is a tautology and the fact that something is true does not show that it is a tautology.
www.mail-archive.com /pen-l@galaxy.csuchico.edu/msg32712.html   (416 words)

 Enter...ZAMOSCIA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
When the negative sense of "tautology" is taken to be the important sense, in terms of understanding, Zamosc's worry is seemingly justified.
If we evoke another sense or use of "tautology" the question "Isn't Brentano's thesis tautological?" can be answered by affirmation followed by the assertion that it does not provide illumination into understanding his thesis.
Tautology is equivalent to a positive statement of identity, which makes a significant assertion, as opposed to the sense we are presupposing in class which makes it devoid of function.
orpheus.ucsd.edu /phenom/old/zamoscia.html   (507 words)

 Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus 4.46 (English)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The tautology has no truth-conditions, for it is unconditionally true; and the contradiction is on no condition true.
Tautology leaves to reality the whole infinite logical space; contradiction fills the whole logical space and leaves no point to reality.
Tautology and contradiction are the limiting cases of the combination of symbols, namely their dissolution.
www.kfs.org /~/jonathan/witt/t446en.html   (427 words)

 Tautology - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
A logical tautology is neither good nor bad, but is a mathematical description of the truth value of a particular statement not implying any particular state of truth values of its component parts.
Is a tautology, because the definition of the House Republican Caucus consists of those people who voted for the resolution.
Often a tautology is used in combination with a logical fallacy, commonly the fallacy is one of equivocation, using a word or phrase which has two definitions.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Tautology   (222 words)

 Stephen Jay Gould, "Darwin's Untimely Burial" 1976
(A tautology is a phrase—like "my father is a man"—contain no information in the predicate ("a man") not inherent in the subject my ("my father").
Tautologies are fine as definitions, but not as testable scientific statements—there can be nothing to test in a statement true by definition.)
"Survival of the fittest" is not a tautology.
www.stephenjaygould.org /library/gould_tautology.html   (2204 words)

 Tautology - TheBestLinks.com - Acronym, Abbreviation, Biologist, Crow, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Tautology - TheBestLinks.com - Acronym, Abbreviation, Biologist, Crow,...
Tautology, Acronym, Abbreviation, Biologist, Crow, HTML, Linguistics, Logic...
Other examples of linguistic tautologies are: "boys will be boys," "free gift," "in this day and age," "helpful assistance," "new innovation," and "business is business".
www.thebestlinks.com /Tautology.html   (465 words)

 MidTerm Theory Quiz: Answers
A tautology is true on every row of its truth-table, so when you negate a tautology, the resulting sentence is false on every row of its table.
That is, the negation of a tautology is a TT-contradiction.
A conditional sentence with a tautology as its consequent is a tautology.
faculty.washington.edu /smcohen/120/TheoryQuizMQAnswers.htm   (1679 words)

 Tautology or Truism
A truism is distinct from a tautology in that it is not true by definition.
Clearly, the truism argument is more tricky than a tautology in that it is rooted in what people believe and not pure logic, as a tautology argument is rooted.
That is a tautology and it is a fallacy and it makes it impossible for the opposition to win the debate.
www.wcdebate.com /1parli/29truism.htm   (844 words)

 [Sophia] TV Tautology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
On this basis alone, it is disqualified from being a tautology, because it does not come out true under all possible meanings.
If meaning (b) were the only possible reading, your statement might have a chance of being a tautology; but the other reading (a) is not unusual and is, in fact, the meaning you yourself require in your argument about protecting children from TV.
For your tautology to follow, both (c) and (d) must be the case.
lists.ccil.org /pipermail/sophia/2001q4/005785.html   (463 words)

 Sierpinski Tautology Map
In Figure 21, 0000 is represented using the darkest grey, tautologies are shown in fl, and the fact just noted is represented by fl values representing tautology in all cases along the left column and along the top row--all cases in which a value of 0000 appears on either side of the stroke.
Given our representation of values in terms of binary decimals, those points which generate tautologies under NAND will be precisely those same points: points with axis values with no 1's in corresponding truth-table lines, or equivalently with no 1's in corresponding decimal places of their binary representation.
The initially startling appearance of the Sierpinski gasket as a map of tautologies under the Sheffer stroke can thus be understood in terms of (i) what a binary representation of values means and (ii) a corresponding rendering of the familiar 'doubling the distance from the nearest vertex' route to the Sierpinski in terms of binaries.
www.sunysb.edu /philosophy/fractal/Sierpins.html   (2671 words)

 Language Log: Bushian tautologies? I don't think so
The literary term "tautology" means a redundant expression like I myself personally, but that doesn't seem to be the applicable sense in the context of what Gourevitch is saying.
In logic, a tautology is a statement that depends on no state of affairs for its inescapable truth: a statement like "When you've gotta go, you've gotta go." A tautology simply can't be false.
But a claim that you do what is right because it's right is a claim about the reasons for your actions, and it could be false (if all cases of you doing what was right were actually due to inept and blundering attempts at evil).
itre.cis.upenn.edu /~myl/languagelog/archives/001588.html   (471 words)

Returns a reference to this Tautology, as the dnf transformation of a tautology T remains the same as the tautology.
Returns a reference to this Tautology, as the cnf and dnf transformations of a tautology T remain the same as the tautology.
This shallow cloning is acceptable since the cnf and dnf transformations of a tautology T remain the same as the tautology.
www.cs.sfu.ca /research/groups/CL/software/COBA/Javadoc/revisionlogic/Tautology.html   (447 words)

 Symbolic Logic: lessons on negation, conjunction, disjunction, conditional, compound, biconditional, equivalence, ...
The goal of this unit is to teach concepts in symbolic logic including sentences and statements, logical connectors, conditional and biconditional statements, and equivalence and tautologies.
To construct a truth table for a compound statement to determine whether or not it is a tautology.
To recognize that the biconditional of two equivalent statements is a tautology.
www.mathgoodies.com /lessons/toc_vol9.html   (469 words)

 The Mavens' Word of the Day
Or, at least, a reasonable place; as with Bildungsroman and Entwicklungsroman, the distinctions are, as you suspect, blurry.
Some sources introduce other viewpoints, for example the rhetorical use of these terms (that is, the intentional use of repetition for effect, as opposed to the accidental use of repetition regarded as a fault).
Tautology is from Greek elements meaning 'to say the same', and is first found in English in the sixteenth century.
www.randomhouse.com /wotd/index.pperl?date=19990120   (452 words)

 5.1 Tautology...
I believe that the charge of tautology leveled against Organismic Darwinism is quite mistaken.
There are a number of more or less authoritative replies to the tautology charge already available in the literature (some of which I shall comment upon below); but these have, in general, only recognised one or another of the various possible misconceptions.
This last error does involve an element of circular reasoning, and might therefore be still said to "smack" of tautology; in many ways it is the most pernicious misconception of all.
www.eeng.dcu.ie /~tkpw/tcr/volume-01/number-04/node13.html   (411 words)

 Language Log: Another informative tautology
Lyn Walker's dissertation provides an enlightening discussion of why "informationally redundant utterances" are often communicatively useful, but doesn't have much to say about informative tautologies.
I believe that Ward & Hirschberg's 1988 paper "The pragmatics of tautology" is relevant, but I don't have a copy at hand.
I hypothesize that this is connected to the death of AI, because (classical) AI researchers were the key market for this kind of research, even though much of the work was actually done by linguists.
itre.cis.upenn.edu /~myl/languagelog/archives/000045.html   (356 words)

 Evolution and Philosophy: Tautology
Summary: The claim that evolutionary theory is a tautology rests on a misunderstanding of the theory.
Therefore, evolution by natural selection is a tautology (a circular definition).
This is not a tautology, or, if it is, then so is the Newtonian equation F=ma [Sober 1984, chapter 2], which is the basis for a lot of ordinary physical explanation.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/evolphil/tautology.html   (975 words)

 Survival of the fittest is a tautology - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Survival of the fittest is a tautology - EvoWiki
Natural selection, or "survival of the fittest," is tautologous (uses circular reasoning) because it says that the fittest individuals leave the most offspring, but it defines those that leave the most offspring as the fittest.
Grabbing one statement out of the whole evolution argument and calling it a tautology is like looking at a mathematical proof where the statement (a+b)*c = a*c + b*c is used, then denouncing the whole proof on the basis that (a+b)*c = a*c + b*c is a tautology.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Survival_of_the_fittest_is_a_tautology   (380 words)

 Gene Expression: Is Natural Selection a Tautology?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
It may therefore be said that the ‘reproduction of the fittest’ is a tautology: the fittest individuals necessarily have the most offspring, because that is how fitness is defined.
This is not a tautology: it is an empirical matter of fact.
It is not a tautology that adaptive traits exist.
www.gnxp.com /blog/2005/11/is-natural-selection-tautology.php   (796 words)

 Darwin's Evolution Theory Dissected
A tautology is defined as a series of statements that comprise an argument, which statements are constructed in such a way that the truth of the proposition is guaranteed.
It must be kept in mind that the requirement for evolution to occur, by definition, is not a single function, rather two functions: (1.) is development of a novel genome (phenotype), and (2.) is survival of the phenotype.
www.tdtone.org /darwin/Darwin1.htm   (3543 words)

 Basic Tautologies
A formula is a tautology if it evaluates to 1 for every input.
For example aa= is a tautology while aa=- is not.
The output is "tautology" if the input string is a formula that is a tautology.
acm.uva.es /p/v108/10847.html   (405 words)

 CA500: "Survival of the Fittest"
The phrase cannot be a tautology if it is not trivially true.
With that definition, survival of the fittest is not a tautology.
Similarly, survival can be defined not in terms of the individual's life span, but in terms of leaving a relatively large contribution to the next generation.
www.talkorigins.org /indexcc/CA/CA500.html   (435 words)

 Tautology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
I think, however deliberately GB might have defined his terms, that he picked the wrong words to convey that idea.
I wish GB hadn’t used the word ’tautology’ – which has the connotation now of circular reasoning, i.e., meaningless formalism.
And an explanation is a consistent mapping of (a posteriori) experience onto a self-consistent (a priori) model, thus giving us a consistent overall model for our experience, or rather, for a subset of our experience.
www.pkimaging.com /mik/kdot/teach/tools/reason/tautology.html   (397 words)

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