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Topic: Taxation

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  Taxation - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The means of taxation, and the uses to which the funds raised through taxation should be put, are a matter of hot dispute in politics and economics, so discussions of taxation are frequently tendentious.
The alternative to ad valorem taxation is a fixed rate tax, where the tax base is the quantity of something, regardless of its price: for example, in the United Kingdom, a tax is collected on the sale of alcoholic drinks that is calculated by volume and beverage type rather than the price of the drink.
Taxation as a percentage of GDP is today (2003) 56.1% in Denmark, 54.5% in France, 49.0% in the Euro area, 42.6% in the United Kingdom, 35.7% in the United States, 35.2% in The Republic of Ireland, and among all OECD members an average of 40.7%.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /taxation.htm   (4785 words)

 Tax - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An alternative to ad valorem taxation is an excise tax, where the tax base is the quantity of something, regardless of its price: for example, in the United Kingdom, a tax is collected on the sale of alcoholic drinks that is calculated by volume and beverage type rather than the price of the drink.
Taxation of business is justified with the claim that business necessarily involves use of publicly established and maintained economic infrastructure, and businesses are in effect charged for this use.
Compulsory taxation of individuals, such as income tax, is based on similar arguments to those for universality of law, territorial sovereignty, and the social contract.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Tax   (5251 words)

Taxation is a form of extortion, where a threat is offered, and unless the victim pays up, the threat will be followed through.
Taxation is a form of initiation of force, which is immoral, destructive, and unacceptable whether perpetrated by an individual, mafia, or government.
Some people, like Benjamin Franklin, see taxation as an inescapable fact of nature ("In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes.") Others see it as a method of draining their work for uses they neither approve of nor enjoy.
www.importanceofphilosophy.com /Politics_Taxation.html   (1112 words)

 Taxation is Robbery, by Frank Chodorov
Until recent times taxation rested its case on the need of maintaining the necessary functions of government, gener­ally called "social services." But, such is the nature of polit­ical power that the area of its activity is not self-contained; its expansion is in proportion to the lack of resistance it meets.
Taxation is now justified not by the need of revenue for the carrying on of specific social services, but as the necessary means for un­specified social betterment.
Since taxation, even when it is clothed with social betterment, must be accompanied with compulsion, the limits of taxation must coincide with the limits of political power.
www.mises.org /etexts/taxrob.asp   (6571 words)

 Taxation of Employee Stock Options
Taxation "at grant" is favourable to the option holder when the share price increases more than the value deemed at the date of grant and no further or low taxation is imposed on later capital gains.
Exercise taxation is used by many countries and has the advantage that tax is paid on realized income only and that the value of the benefit can be clearly determined.
In order to avoid cross-border taxation problems in a regional grouping, the taxation right for stock options could always be allocated to the country in which the employee's salary was taxed at the time of grant.
www.iccwbo.org /home/statements_rules/statements/2002/tax_options.asp   (3289 words)

 taxation on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Aside from being relatively permanent, taxation is compulsory and does not guarantee a direct relationship between the amount contributed by a citizen and the extent of governmental services provided to him.
An enforced levy to meet an emergency (e.g., capital levy) is distinguished from taxation as not being part of a long-term system; fees for special services, such as postage, are not taxes.
Des téléphones portables Le gouvernement français n'envisage pas de "taxation" particulière des opérateurs mobiles à l'occ.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/t1/taxation.asp   (875 words)

 Taxation, A Preface, by Joseph J. Minarik: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty
Taxation was a principal issue in three consecutive presidential elections—with a large tax cut as a winning issue in 1980, a tax increase a losing issue in 1984, and a pledge of "Read my lips: no new taxes" providing one of the enduring images of 1988.
Taxation was also the subject of two major, and largely inconsistent, policy changes.
Efficiency means that taxation interferes as little as possible in the choices people make in the private marketplace.
www.econlib.org /library/Enc/TaxationAPreface.html   (2750 words)

Generally, church property is not exempted from taxation by designation because it is exempted by classification under § 58.1-3617.
Authorizes local governments to partially exempt from taxation real estate that has been improved with bulkheads or other structural improvements installed to control erosion, and is used primarily for the purpose of abating or preventing pollution.
Grants a sales and use tax exemption for purchases by any nonprofit organization exempt from federal income taxation which is organized for the purpose of providing treatment to individuals suffering from the effects of substance abuse and their families, regardless of economic status, and which has provided such services for 30 or more years.
dls.state.va.us /pubs/summary/1998/SUMINT48.HTM   (13579 words)

 Taxation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In this system, manifold new methods are adopted and taxation department scan monitor invoices all through the invoice circulation, which improves the comprehensive management of taxation invoices and increases national taxation.
Based on the encrypted information database of taxation organs, the system makes the best of the latest data safety techniques, such as digital encryption anti-fake, digital printing, audio, network and communication and fingerprint identification, to create a powerful software platform with a perfect set of operation flow.
Complying with the philosophy of "Govern taxation by laws, Charge taxation by invoices", the solution manages invoices (important legal accounting and taxation vouchers in the whole economic circulation) in an omnibearing, effective and scientific way, so that taxation is actually controlled.
www.neusoft.com /framework/browse/F1110F29D7@0000   (1037 words)

 Internet Taxation and the States - May 12, 1998
Taxation of calls made over the Internet appears to be prohibited or questionable under all four versions of the proposed legislation.
In sum, the longer the moratorium from state and local taxation of electronic commerce is in place, the greater is the likelihood that the electronic commerce industry will seek to make it permanent.
The prohibition on "indirect" taxation of the "use of the Internet" under the new Senate version of the legislation could therefore cause additional sales tax revenue losses on the order of $5 billion annually by that time.
www.cbpp.org /512webtax.htm   (15177 words)

Unlike many firms of accountants our taxation staff visit clients and their businesses to get a better understanding of the nature of our clients' business and their operations.
So much can be gained by a taxation expert physically inspecting a client's premises which will assist him or her in negotiating allowances with the Inland Revenue for the benefit of the client.
So much can be missed by sitting behind a desk that great importance is placed upon members of the taxation department being present during the course of the audit to discuss any problems with the directors and the audit staff whilst on site, rather than months after the event.
www.mouldgroup.co.uk /tax.htm   (182 words)

 Swiss individual income taxes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The cantonal and municipal income and net wealth taxation is settled in cantonal tax laws.
Resident taxpayers are subject to world-wide taxation in Switzerland, subject to unilateral exemptions and prevailing tax treaty provisions, of course.
The lump-sum taxation, however, must not be lower than the ordinary income tax on certain Swiss-sourced income.
www.taxation.ch /engl/individuals.php   (1190 words)

 1777-1815: The Revolutionary War to the War of 1812
Holders of government securities, meanwhile, disliked the fact that southern legislatures were granting tax relief to specific groups of citizens, thus diminishing the flow of revenue and delaying redemption of public debts.
They established that both representation and direct taxation would be proportional to population, with African-American slaves counting as three-fifths of a person in census tabulations.
Patrick Henry argued passionately that "the oppression arising from taxation, is not from the amount but, from the mode — a thorough acquaintance with the condition of the people, is necessary to a just distribution of taxes.
www.tax.org /Museum/1777-1815.htm   (5192 words)

 [No title]
The revenue that can be generated from property taxation depends directly on the two main components of a property tax: the tax base (assessed value of real property interests on reserve) and the tax rate.
The rate of taxation is applied to the assessed value of real property to arrive at the amount of tax levied.
In order for a First Nation property taxation regime to be valid, enforceable and recognized by the courts, a rates bylaw must be enacted annually.
finmin.nic.in /topics/taxation   (1324 words)

 JOINT COMMITTEE ON REVENUE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
It shall be the duty of the committee on Revenue to consider all matters concerning Federal financial assistance, state fees, the raising of revenue for the Commonwealth by means of taxation, certain matters relating to the local property tax and such other matters as may be referred.
HOUSE NO. 2356 the taxation of income of residents of the Commonwealth serving in the armed forces of the United States.
HOUSE NO. 2395 to clarify the limited exemption from taxation of certain facilities for the treatment of committed mentally ill persons.
www.state.ma.us /legis/comm/j26.htm   (3628 words)

 Taxation — Australian Government, The Treasury   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Treasury is responsible for assessing and advising on the general design of the tax system and its components, and retirement incomes policy, in relation to economic efficiency, equity, income distribution, budgetary requirements and economic feasibility.
Legislation relating to Taxation can be found on this website under Bills, Acts and Legislation.
For comprehensive information on the taxation system, including tax legislation and personal taxation issues, please consult the Australian Taxation Office website at www.ato.gov.au.
www.treasury.gov.au /content/taxation.asp?ContentID=343&titl=Taxation   (778 words)

 Regressive, Progressive taxes/taxation explained.
All known functioning systems of taxation have a balance of progressive and regressive taxes.
Some say, for the same reason reason John Dillinger robbed banks: because that's where the money is. There is some logic to that, the richest 2% control in the ballpark of 40% of the private wealth in the USA.
One of the main functions of taxation is to balance the flow of money between the employer and the employee.
www.psnw.com /~bashford/taxation.html   (1586 words)

 Taxation of Internet Commerce by Zak Muscovitch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The problem of defining residency for taxation purposes is made less difficult when we apply the "facts-and-circumstances test" which is generally thought to be more reliable than the "bright-line" test [ 24 ].
An alternative to the traditional forms of taxation may be appropriate in light of this.
Where double taxation agreement provides for source taxation in respect of some, but not all, royalties, software payments that have the characteristics of royalties will normally be characterized as paid in respect of copyright.
www.firstmonday.dk /issues/issue2_10/muscovitch   (6233 words)

 Tax Policy Center | Publications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The main transition issue is the taxation of "old capital"—capital assets accumulated earlier out of after-tax income whose principal would not have been taxed again under the income tax.
Although some transitional treatment of old capital is typically thought to be likely, not having a transition—that is, implicitly taxing old capital again under a consumption tax—is arguably consistent with the three main goals of tax reform: efficiency, equity, and simplicity.
Because these households would benefit most from eliminating the double taxation on future saving under a consumption tax, it is reasonable that they pay for some of the costs.
taxpolicycenter.org /publications/template.cfm?PubID=8521   (2519 words)

 Taxation No Tyranny - Samuel Johnson
That the Americans are able to bear taxation, is indubitable; that their refusal may be overruled, is highly probable; but power is no sufficient evidence of truth.
Of every empire all the subordinate communities are liable to taxation, because they all share the benefits of government, and, therefore, ought all to furnish their proportion of the expense.
That a freeman is governed by himself, or by laws to which he has consented, is a position of mighty sound; but every man that utters it, with whatever confidence, and every man that hears it, with whatever acquiescence, if consent be supposed to imply the power of refusal, feels it to be false.
www.samueljohnson.com /tnt.html   (9572 words)

 New Rules Project - Taxation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Taxation is the most visible and perhaps the most important issue to voters and policymakers around the world.
Although it is often criticized as excessive government, taxation is an important policy tool.
Taxes can be used to level the playing field, to limit size or sprawl, to protect the environment, and to encourage local ownership and production.
www.newrules.org /tax   (343 words)

 The Center For The Study Of Taxation Estate and gift tax,Generation skipping tax,GST,Death tax,Death Taxes,Inheritance ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Center for the Study of Taxation ("CST") was formed in 1992 by a group of families and family owned enterprises concerned with the impact of estate, gift and generation-skipping taxes ("Death Taxes").
It is dedicated to preserving a healthy economic and tax climate that will be beneficial to all Americans.
The Center for the Study of Taxation is a 501(c)(6) organization.
www.center4studytax.com   (455 words)

 A History of Taxation
However, his problems with Parliament came about because of a disagreement in 1629 about the rights of taxation afforded the King and the rights of taxation afforded the Parliament.
Senator Garret Davis, in discussing the guiding principle of taxation, stated "a recognition of the idea that taxes shall be paid according to the abilities of a person to pay."
After the war the tax was declared unconstitutional by the same court because it represented direct taxation on the citizenry which was not allowed under the constitution.
www.taxworld.org /History/TaxHistory.htm   (1794 words)

 Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal LLP - Taxation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Sonnenschein’s Taxation Practice advises clients on a broad array of U.S. and non-U.S. corporate and general transactions and creates for our clients tax efficient structures that satisfy our clients' business and financial concerns.
The national reputation of Sonnenschein’s taxation practice is supported by the leadership positions that its partners have held in a variety of professional associations, including: the Tax Section of the American Bar Association, the Practicing Law Institute, the American College of Tax Counsel and the International Fiscal Association.
Representation of a number of U.S. public companies, primarily in the retail industry, in connection with issues concerning U.S. taxation of their foreign operations, including Subpart F issues and Section 482 issues, arising out of restructuring their foreign operations, e.g.
www.sonnenschein.com /practice_areas/taxation   (1705 words)

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