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Topic: Tectonics

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  Plate tectonics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century.
The key principle of plate tectonics is that the lithosphere exists as separate and distinct tectonic plates, which "float" on the fluid-like asthenosphere.
Tectonic plates are comprised of two types of lithosphere: continental and oceanic lithospheres; for example, the African Plate includes the continent and parts of the floor of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Tectonics   (4019 words)

 MSN Encarta - Plate Tectonics
The theory of plate tectonics was formulated during the early 1960s, and it revolutionized the field of geology.
Tectonic plates are made of either oceanic or continental crust and the very top part of the mantle, a layer of rock inside the earth.
Tectonic plates are able to float upon the fluid asthenosphere because they are made of rigid lithosphere.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761554623/Plate_Tectonics.html   (577 words)

 Plate tectonics: a paradigm under threat
According to the orthodox model of plate tectonics, the earth's outer shell, or lithosphere, is divided into a number of large, rigid plates that move over a soft layer of the mantle known as the asthenosphere, and interact at their boundaries, where they converge, diverge, or slide past one another.
Surge tectonics postulates that the main cause of geodynamics is lithosphere compression, generated by the cooling and contraction of the earth.
In plate tectonics, the origin of marginal basins, with their complex crustal structure, has remained an enigma, and there is no basis for the assumption that some kind of seafloor spreading must be involved; rather, they appear to have originated by vertical tectonics (Storetvedt, 1997; Wezel, 1986).
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/dp5/tecto.htm   (13451 words)

 Plate Tectonics
The crust of the earth is thought to be made of semi-rigid plates that float on the plastic (here we use the word "plastic" to mean it flows under long term pressure) mantle of the earth.
The movement of the plates is considered as the Plate Tectonic Theory.
Tectonic forces, volcanoes and earthquakes all occur together and are interrelated.
www.rockhoundingar.com /geology/condrift.html   (838 words)

 Plate Tectonics
This map shows the major tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s crust and the directions in which they are moving.
The theory of plate tectonics became widely accepted by scientists in the 1960s and 1970s.
Conversely, when tectonic plates meet, the force causes mountains to rise and deep trenches to form.
www.ocean.udel.edu /deepsea/level-2/geology/plate.html   (624 words)

 Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics describes the intricate design of a complex, living planet in a state of dynamic flux.
The Tectonic Globe is a unique globe that accurately describes all of the Earth's crustal tectonic features.
Here we explore the wide ranging effects of plate tectonics on global climate, the origin of life an Earth, and the course of biological evolution.
www.platetectonics.com   (137 words)

 Directory - Science: Earth Sciences: Geology: Tectonics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Tectonic Forces: by Robert Maurer  · This is the origin and mechanics of the forces responsible for tectonic plate movements.
Piñon_Flat_Observatory  · cached · To measure crustal deformation in a tectonically active area, improve estimates of the earthquake hazard in southern California, and to serve as a testing ground for new geophysical instrumentation.
Plate Tectonics and Climate  · cached · Plate Tectonics and Climate by Dorian J. Burnette.
www.incywincy.com /default?p=26963   (605 words)

 plate tectonics, ore deposits, and the expanding Earth
That consensus continues to tout plate tectonics as a "pinnacle of achievement" whilst at the same time ignoring important geological considerations that automatically invalidate it, is offensive to the public support of science and a serious indictment of consensus politics.
Plate tectonics repeats the flat-earthism and geocentricism of earlier centuries, has papal parallels, and is equally nonsensical in the face of the evidence.
Although Carey long since outlined the empirical statement of geological fact of expansion, stated comprehensive reasons why plate tectonics could not be correct, and offered the concept of the 'null universe' as a possible explanation for the phenomenon, his work remains vitually ignored in the fields of both geology and physics.
users.indigo.net.au /don   (500 words)

 structure_tectonics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Many tectonic features on the earth are immediately visible because they contribute to the physical appearance of the environment of life.
Research in tectonics has always been distinguished by two additional attributes, regardless of the size or scope of a particular project.
To study, for example, the growth and decay of mountainous topography, we need to investigate not only the forces and displacements at relevant plate boundaries, but also phenomena as diverse as the influence of climate on fluvial erosion and the influence of orogenic topography on local precipitation and global climate.
www.norvol.hi.is /%7Eamy/structure_tectonics.html   (183 words)

 Historical perspective [This Dynamic Earth, USGS]
The theory of plate tectonics states that the Earth's outermost layer is fragmented into a dozen or more large and small plates that are moving relative to one another as they ride atop hotter, more mobile material.
Plate tectonics is a relatively new scientific concept, introduced some 30 years ago, but it has revolutionized our understanding of the dynamic planet upon which we live.
Plate tectonics has proven to be as important to the earth sciences as the discovery of the structure of the atom was to physics and chemistry and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences.
pubs.usgs.gov /publications/text/historical.html   (1240 words)

 USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Plate tectonics tells us that the Earth's rigid outer shell (lithosphere) is broken into a mosaic of oceanic and continental plates which can slide over the plastic aesthenosphere, which is the uppermost layer of the mantle.
One of the keys to plate tectonics was the discovery that the Earth's magnetic field has reversed its polarity 170 times in the last 80 million years.
Perhaps the most important role of plate tectonics is that it is a guide to the use of finer techniques for earthquake prediction.
wwwneic.cr.usgs.gov /neis/plate_tectonics/rift_man.html   (1346 words)

 plate tectonics -> Development of Plate Tectonics Theory on Encyclopedia.com 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The beginnings of the theory of plate tectonics date to around 1920, when Alfred Wegener, the German meteorologist and geophysicist, presented the first detailed accounts of how today's continents were once a large supercontinent that slowly drifted to their present positions.
Others brought forth evidence, but plate tectonics processes and continental drift did not attract wide interest until the late 1950s, when scientists found the alignment of magnetic particles in rock responded to the earth's magnetic field of that time.
Synthesized from these findings and others in geology, oceanography, and geophysics, plate tectonics theory holds that the lithosphere, the hard outer layer of the earth, is divided into about 7 major plates and perhaps as many as 12 smaller plates, c.60 mi (100 km) thick, resting upon a lower soft layer called the asthenosphere.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/section/platetec_DevelopmentofPlateTectonicsTheory.asp   (468 words)

 The Planets After Formation: Tectonics
Plate tectonics on Earth involves the formation, lateral movement, interaction, and destruction of lithospheric plates.
There are no true tectonic features on the Moon, only a few expansion/compression faults formed as the body cooled early in its history.
The nature of the geologic activity on Enceladus is unknown, but since a debris torus is observed in orbit near the moon, it may spew material off the surface in geyser-like bursts.
www.dtm.ciw.edu /akir/Seminar/tectonics.html   (1236 words)

 Plate tectonics: a paradigm under threat
Dillon, L. Neovolcanism: a proposed replacement for the concepts of plate tectonics and continental drift.
Plate tectonics and continental drift in geologic education.
Saxena, M. N., & Gupta, V. Role of foredeep tectonics, geological and palaeontological data, gravity tectonics in the orogeny and uplift of the Himalayas, vis-a-vis continental drift and plate tectonics concepts.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/DP5/tectoref.htm   (3509 words)

 Is catastrophic plate tectonics part of Earth history?
Plate tectonics was little accepted by scientists until the magnetic anomalies in the ocean crust were discovered in the 1960s.
The pattern of mid-ocean ridges and their 900 fractures could simply be the expression of differential vertical tectonics between the ridge and adjacent abyssal plains.
I interpret the forearc areas of trenches as caused by rapid sedimentation and downward vertical tectonics of the ocean basins during the later stages of the Genesis Flood.
www.answersingenesis.org /tj/v16/i1/plate_tectonics2.asp   (3731 words)

 Tectonics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The subject of tectonics concerns the deformation and motion of large regions of the Earths lithosphere and the evolution of the major features on its surface, such as mountain belts.
rift valleys, ocean basins etc. The modern theory of plate tectonics that has evolved in the last 25 years or so is a comprehensive theory that explains many aspects of the Earth's appearance and behaviour.
Simply because plate tectonics touches on so many different aspects of geology, this means that to understand it properly you must be aware of the fundamentals of petrology, sedimentology, startigraphy, structural geology, geophysics and even paleontology.
www.fiu.edu /~draper/tectonics.html   (381 words)

 Catastrophic Plate Tectonics - The physics behind the Genesis Flood
JOHN R. The wealth of new data, mostly from the ocean bottom, that precipitated the acceptance of plate tectonics during the 1960’s simultaneously also opened the door for the first time in more than 200 years to a technically credible defense of the Genesis Flood.
In addition to this standard treatment of the conservation equations, there is a special method for treating tectonic plates at the top boundary of the spherical shell domain.
Yet another type of evidence for recent global tectonic catastrophe is the large magnitude of the temperature anomalies inferred for the rock near the bottom of the mantle.
www.globalflood.org /papers/2003ICCcpt.html   (6822 words)

 A Science Odyssey: You Try It: Plate Tectonics: Intro   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Plate tectonics is the theory that Earth's outer layer is made up of plates, which have moved throughout Earth's history.
One theory is that convection within the Earth's mantle pushes the plates, in much the same way that air heated by your body rises upward and is deflected sideways when it reaches the ceiling.
Whatever drives the movement, plate tectonic activity takes place at four types of boundaries: divergent boundaries, where new crust is formed; convergent boundaries, where crust is consumed; collisional boundaries, where two land masses collide; and transform boundaries, where two plates slide against each other.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/intro.html   (256 words)

 Plate Tectonics
In particular, the continents have changed because they sit on blocks of the lithosphere that are in horizontal motion with respect to each other, and indeed they continue to change because the horizontal motion continues.
Of course, the timescale for convection in the pan is seconds and for plate tectonics is 10-100 million years, but the principles are similar.
Thus, we see that differentiation is crucial to plate tectonics on the Earth, because it is responsible for producing an interior that can support tectonic motion.
csep10.phys.utk.edu /astr161/lect/earth/tectonics.html   (497 words)

 Nearctica - Paleontology - Paleogeography and Plate Tectonics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
A great, great introduction to plate tectonics and the movements of the major land masses through the geological history of the earth.
This online document has an introduction to plate tectonics, discusses the history of the discovery of this important concept, and finally presents some unanswered questions and the importance of plate tectonics to humans including vulcanism and earthquakes.
An introduction to the relationship between the movement of land masses by plate tectonics and earthquakes.
www.nearctica.com /paleo/tectonic.htm   (675 words)

 Science and Technology - Earth Science (Plate Tectonics)
This colorful overview of the theory of plate tectonics is divided into three sections for beginning, intermediate and advanced students.
This historical examination of the theory of plate tectonics begins with the first presentation of the theory in 1912, and briefly traces its development into today's dominant geological paradigm.
Explore the unifying theory of plate tectonics in this presentation that relates considerable geological activity to the dynamics of continental drift.
www.centerofweb.com /scitech/earth_geo_plate.htm   (526 words)

 Virginia custom home builder -Tectonics
Tectonics, based in Roseland, Virginia near the Wintergreen Resort area, builds an average of 10 custom homes a year ranging in size from 1,600 to over 10,000 square feet.
Tectonics stands for quality, commitment to each and every owner and an organization that maintains the highest standards of excellence.
Tectonics also does residential and commercial renovation projects with the same quality and care as with their new construction.
americanbuilders.com /Tectonics   (286 words)

 Plate Tectonics on CD-ROM
And, in the UK at least, plate tectonics now features in the later stages of National Curriculum (which prescribes what schools should teach children up to the age of 16).
As Fig.1 reveals, The Theory of Plate Tectonics outwardly has the structure of a book being divided into chapters which describe the evidence and then detail the processes on which plate tectonics is based.
It may not have figured in the original plate tectonic hypothesis of the 1970s but that is where the consensus has moved to now.
www.geology.bristol.ac.uk /WWW/TerraNova/tasa/tasa.html   (2117 words)

 Forum on catastrophic plate tectonics
However, a number of creationist geologists are sceptical of the assumptions of plate tectonics and have published papers and monographs expressing their concerns.
Catastrophic plate tectonics: the geophysical context of the Genesis Flood
Although significant papers on catastrophic plate tectonics were presented in 1994, the idea was first presented by John Baumgardner at the 1986 International Conference on Creationism, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
www.answersingenesis.org /tj/v16/i1/plate.asp   (855 words)

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