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Topic: Telencephalon


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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  
 Telencephalon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species.
Note: As the telencephalon is a gross division with many subdivisions and sub-reigons, it is important to state that this section lists the functions which the telencephalon as a whole serves.
After removing over half of the telencephalon in the developed stage of the clawed frog, the lack of functions within the animal was apparent, manifesting with obvious difficulties in movement, nonverbal communication between other species, as well as other difficulties thought to be similar to those seen in humans.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Telencephalon   (1580 words)

  
 Info and facts on 'Brain'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
An anterior part of the telencephalon called the cerebrum (Anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres; dominant part of the brain in humans) makes up the largest section of the mammalian brain and in humans, its surface has many deep fissures (sulci) and convolutions (gyri), giving a wrinkled appearance to the brain.
In most vertebrates the metencephalon is the highest integration center in the brain, whereas in mammals (Any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk) this role has been adopted by the cerebrum.
An outgrowth of the telencephalon called the olfactory bulb (One of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities) is a major structure in many animals, but in humans and other primates, it is relatively small.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/b/br/brain.htm   (4092 words)

  
 Neurotransmitter enzymes in telencephalon, brain stem and cerebellum during the entire life span of the mouse.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Neurochemical analysis of neuronal function was undertaken by measuring the activities of cholinacetyltransferase (CAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), in the telencephalon, brain stem and cerebellum of the mouse.
Telencephalon CAT activity was unaffected by aging and in the cerebellum, a significantly reduced level of CAT was only found in truly senescent animals.
The decreased cholinergic function during senescence was not due to either increased proteolysis or to alteration in the molecular form of the cholinergic enzymes.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_7421299.html   (270 words)

  
 McConnell Lab: Research
The telencephalon begins to form midway through gestation, and targeted mutations in genes suspected of playing roles in its development often lead to early phenotypes that preclude analysis of their role at later stages.
Recombination occurs invariably in the telencephalon, anterior optic vesicle, otic vesicle, facial and head ectoderm, olfactory epithelium, mid-hindbrain junction, and pharyngeal pouches.
What differs between the control and Fgfr1-deficient telencephalon is that the normal decrease in cell proliferation at the anterior tip of the brain fails to occur during the initial stages of OB morphogenesis, indicating that Fgfr1 is directly or indirectly required to inhibit anterior cell proliferation and promote OB evagination.
www.stanford.edu /group/skmlab/research/r_fgf.html   (917 words)

  
 Misrouting of mitral cell progenitors in the Pax6/small eyerat telencephalon -- Nomura and Osumi 131 (4): 787 -- ...
The pattern of cell migration is abnormal in the telencephalon of Pax6 mutants.
The rostral part of the telencephalon of donor embryos was isolated, and neuroepithelial cells dissociated with enzymes and transplanted into the rostral part of the host telencephalon.
interneurons of the OB are derived from the ventral telencephalon (Anderson
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/131/4/787   (5980 words)

  
 Embryo: Telencephalon   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
This is the basis of the definition of the neural folds rostral to the optic sulcus as 'future telencephalon' e.g.
However, in the 20 somite specimen Carnegie 2053, the division of the forebrain into diencephalon and telencephalon cannot be made according to Davis C.L., (1923) p.
The telencephalon at this stage consists mainly of a ventricular layer but in the olfactory region, a small bulge develops as the terminal-vomeronasal neural crest contacts the brain wall which develops a marginal and intermediate layer.
www.ana.ed.ac.uk /anatomy/database/humat/notes/embryo/nervous/telencephalon/telencep.htm   (1023 words)

  
 Brain - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
An anterior part of the telencephalon called the cerebrum makes up the largest section of the mammalian brain and in humans, its surface has many deep fissures (sulci) and convolutions (gyri), giving a wrinkled appearance to the brain.
In most vertebrates the metencephalon is the highest integration center in the brain, whereas in mammals this role has been adopted by the cerebrum.
An outgrowth of the telencephalon called the olfactory bulb is a major structure in many animals, but in humans and other primates, it is relatively small.
open-encyclopedia.com /Brain   (2515 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
In the 5th week, when the embryo reaches the 7 mm stage, the simple plan of the prosencephalon changes; paired telencephalic vesicles and the diencephalon begin to form; the optic cup continues its development.
Rapid bilateral expansion of the telencephalon results in rearward overgrowth of the diencephalon.
An early separation of the telencephalon and diencephalon occurs through a shallow tele-diencephalic sulcus which deepens and persists in the adult as the horizontal transverse cerebral fissure (filled with duplicated pia and blood vessels, called velum interpositum).
courses.temple.edu /neuroanatomy/lab/embryo/dien.htm   (144 words)

  
 Outline   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Telencephalon: This is the forward-most region of the vertebrate brain.
In most mammals, the telencephalon is very large and has come to dominate the outer aspect of the brain.
Examine the cerebral hemispheres of the telencephalon on your sheep brain and compare their relative size to those of the telencephalon in models of other vertebrate brains (colored light yellow on the models).
www.cals.ncsu.edu:8050 /course/zo250/Lab9.htm   (1469 words)

  
 Cell Migration and Aggregation in the Developing Telencephalon: Pulse-Labeling Chick Embryos with Bromodeoxyuridine -- ...
Butler AB (1994) The evolution of the dorsal pallium in the telencephalon of amniotes: cladistic analysis and a new hypothesis.
Smith Fernandez A, Pieau C, Repérant J, Boncinelli E, Wassef M (1998) Expression of the Emx-1 and Dlx-1 homeobox genes define three molecularly distinct domains in the telencephalon of mouse, chick, turtle and frog embryos: implications for the evolution of telencephalic subdivisions in amniotes.
Striedter GF (1997) The telencephalon of tetrapods in evolution.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/20/21/8021   (6471 words)

  
 Learn more about Brain in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Sometimes a gross division into three major parts is used: hindbrain (medulla oblongata and myelencephalon), midbrain (metencephalon) and forebrain (diencephalon and telencephalon).
In most vertebrates the metencephalon is the highest integration center in the brain, whereas in mammals this role has been adopted by the telencephalon.
Therefore the cerebrum is the largest section of the mammalian brain and its surface has many deep fissures (sulci) and convolutions (gyri), giving a wrinkled appearance to the brain.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /b/br/brain.html   (682 words)

  
 The Combined Graduate Program in Developmental Genetics
Between E9.5 and E13.5 days of development the telencephalon goes from a single layer of proliferating cells to a structure with a well developed pallial cortex underlain with two prominent basal pallidal structures, the striatum and the globus pallidus.
Analysis of the Shh null mutant demonstrates that ventral patterning in the telencephalon is dependent on Shh signaling.
We are interested in using a combination of transplantation, in combination with the use of transgenic donor cells from Dlx2, Pax6 and Emx1 knockin lines to fate maps how early patterns of gene expression map relate to the ultimate fate of cells transiently expressing these factors during development.
www.med.nyu.edu /Research/G.Fishell-res.html   (888 words)

  
 A role for neural determination genes in specifying the dorsoventral identity of telencephalic neurons -- Fode et al. ...
in the dorsal telencephalon, ensuring that the pallial and subpallial
The up-regulation of Mash1 in the dorsal telencephalon
Mash1 is expressed in a complementary manner with transcripts at high levels in the VZ of the ventral telencephalon and ventral thalamus.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/14/1/67   (7908 words)

  
 EGCRC: Andrew Peterson - Current Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Mutants that we are working with block the induction of the telencephalic primordia (oto), the proliferative expansion of the primordia to form the telencephalic vesicles (flat-top and shrunken-head) or the dorso-ventral patterning of the forebrain (open-mind).
The ventral telencephalon is an embryonic structure that goes on to form parts of the mature brain such as the striatum and the amygdala.
This reporter is expressed selectively in the ventral diencephalon and telencephalon and gives us the means of detecting subtle mutations, those that are not grossly apparent, but which disrupt mechanisms that regulate the development of the ventral telencephalon.
www.egcrc.org /pis/peterson-r.htm   (487 words)

  
 Patterning of the basal telencephalon and hypothalamus is essential for guidance of cortical projections -- ...
Patterning of the basal telencephalon and hypothalamus is essential for guidance of cortical projections -- Marín et al.
molecules in the basal telencephalon and hypothalamus of Nkx2-1
Abnormal guidance of pyramidal tract axons in the ventral telencephalon and hypothalamus of Nkx2-1 mutants
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/129/3/761   (8187 words)

  
 Interactive Fly, Drosophila
These results support a role for the ventral telencephalon in guiding the early development of the thalamocortical tract and identify a new role for the transcription factor Pax6 in regulating the ability of the thalamus to attract ventral telencephalic afferents (Pratt, 2002).
The genetic mechanisms that regulate dorsal-ventral identity in the embryonic mouse telencephalon and, in particular, the specification of progenitors in the cerebral cortex and striatum have been examined.
It is proposed that early patterning along the anteroposterior axis of the presumptive telencephalon occurs across a field that is subdivided by different combinations of genes, with some overlapping areas, but without either sharp boundaries or stable interfaces between expression domains (Bell, 2001).
www.sdbonline.org /fly/neural/eyeles2d.htm   (9611 words)

  
 Neurogranin in the development of the rat telencephalon.
We have used a novel antibody to map the distribution of the protein kinase C substrate protein RC3/neurogranin during the development of the rat telencephalon.
Neurogranin appearance in the rat brain is biphasic: it shows an early stage of anatomically restricted, low-intensity expression, and a juvenile stage of anatomically widespread, high-intensity expression.
It is proposed, on this basis, that neurogranin could be implicated in neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis during telencephalic development.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_8783271.html   (322 words)

  
 Retinoic Acid Synthesis for the Developing Telencephalon -- Smith et al. 11 (10): 894 -- Cerebral Cortex
Most of the Pax6 expression is on the inner, ventricular part of the dorsal telencephalon, where it forms a rostro-caudal gradient, as is visible in the flat mounted preparation.
The asterisk indicates the ventricular lumen and the arrowheads the outer surface of the ventral telencephalon.
eminence with adjacent ventral telencephalon and the meninges
cercor.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/11/10/894   (7010 words)

  
 Disruption of Early Events in Thalamocortical Tract Formation in Mice Lacking the Transcription Factors Pax6 or Foxg1 ...
Global chimerism and chimerism for the medial part of the ventral telencephalon and the dorsal thalamus are shown for each chimera, with the numbers above each bar indicating the percentages of Tg cells.
Stoykova A, Treichel D, Hallonet M, Gruss P (2000) Pax6 modulates the dorsoventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon.
Wilson SW, Rubenstein JL (2000) Induction and dorsoventral patterning of the telencephalon.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/22/19/8523   (6052 words)

  
 Telencephalon-specific Rb knockouts reveal enhanced neurogenesis, survival and abnormal cortical development
Figure 2 Rb is completely deleted from the telencephalon of conditional mutants.
In the absence of cre, the floxed and wild-type alleles remain intact, as determined by 283 and 235 bp fragments, respectively.
Rb protein was undetectable in the mutant telencephalon (n = 4).
www.nature.com /emboj/journal/v21/n13/fig_tab/7594556ft.html   (846 words)

  
 Divergent functions of the proneural genes Mash1 and Ngn2 in the specification of neuronal subtype identity -- Parras ...
of the ventral telencephalon and olfactory epithelium in Mash1
Neurons differentiating from Ngn2-expressing progenitors in the ventral telencephalon acquire a normal phenotype, as shown by their expression of ventral markers such as GAD67 (E") and by the lack of misexpression of dorsal-specific genes such as NeuroD (F").
telencephalon and V2 interneurons in the spinal cord.
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/16/3/324   (8528 words)

  
 References and Links
Butler, A.B. The evolution of the dorsal pallium in the telencephalon of aminotes: cladistic analysis and a new hypothesis.
Northcutt, R.G. Evolution of the telencephalon in nonmammals.
Watanabe, M., Ito, H., and Ikushima, M. Cytoarchitecture and ultrastructure of the avian ectostriatum: Afferent terminals from the dorsal telencephalon and some nuclei in the thalamus.
www.pigeon.psy.tufts.edu /avc/husband/avc6conc.htm   (1441 words)

  
 Cats in Space: Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
In part 2 we discussed some of the theoretical aspects of brain design and briefly went over the spinal cord, cerebellum, and hindbrain.
The telencephalon is the most recent area of the brain, in terms of evolution, and it is also the place where learning memory and philosophy all take place.
The basic point of this exercise is that for different animals, the telencephalon is divided along modalities -- with the largest regions belonging to the most important modalities.
catsinspace.com /library/lib52.shtml   (1090 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Brain Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Sometimes a gross division into three major parts is used: hindbrain (medulla oblongata and metencephalon), midbrain (mesencephalon) and forebrain (diencephalon and telencephalon).
The cerebrum is the largest section of the mammalian brain and in humans, its surface has many deep fissures (sulci) and convolutions (gyri), giving a wrinkled appearance to the brain.
From synapses in the brain stem, nerve signals from other peripheral sensory area are routed through a mid-brain section to related areas of a cerebral cortex.
www.ipedia.com /brain.html   (771 words)

  
 Astroglia-microvessel relationship in the developing human telencephalon   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
ABSTRACT The telencephalon of 12 and 18 week-old human foetuses was examined for evidence of astroglia-microvessel relationship.
A TN-C-rich ECM is revealed around the vascular plexus of ventricular zones at the 12th week, and around the newly growing radial microvessels and the microvessel branching sites at the 18th week.
The observations taken as a whole, suggest that during the telencephalon morphogenesis the immature astroglia cells play a role in the early establishment of the distribution pattern of the neural microvessels and in their growth and maturation.
www.ijdb.ehu.es /abstract.nov98/42_812.htm   (213 words)

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