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# Topic: Tension (mechanics)

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###### In the News (Fri 19 Apr 19)

 Motor: 100 years of automotive tools By the late '30s, mechanics were using wrenches that blinked at them (Blackhawks "Torkflash" tension wrench) or beeped (Williams' S-57 "Measurrench") to tell them when they had reached the specified torque. Consider one of the simplest and most useful tools in a mechanics arsenal-the wrench. New Britain's "Nutmaster" was touted in a September 1959 ad as "the greatest open-end wrench design improvement of all time." The scalloped opening was designed to bear on four faces of a hex nut and three faces of a square nut, without burring the corners. www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3828/is_200311/ai_n9306153   (1504 words)

 Surface tension, or interfacial tension (, ) The mechanical properties of the interfacial layer between two fluids, including the equilibrium shape of the surface, may be calculated by applying the standard mathematical techniques of mechanics to the forces associated with the surface of tension. The surface tension may, therefore, also be expressed in terms of energy per unit area: it is not, however, in general equal either to the surface energy or to the surface Helmholtz energy per unit area (see §1.2.6). In particular, surface tension is the intensive factor in the differential expression for the work required to increase the area of the surface of tension. www.iupac.org /reports/2001/colloid_2001/manual_of_s_and_t/node23.html   (322 words)

 Aircraft and avionics equipment mechanics and service technicians Mechanics also may repair sheet metal or composite surfaces; measure the tension of control cables; and check for corrosion, distortion, and cracks in the fuselage, wings, and tail. Mechanics learn many different skills in their training that can be applied to other jobs, and some transfer to other skilled repairer occupations or electronics technician jobs. Most mechanics who work on civilian aircraft are certified by the FAA as an “airframe mechanic” or a “powerplant mechanic.” Mechanics who also have an inspector’s authorization can certify work completed by other mechanics and perform required inspections. stats.bls.gov /oco/ocos179.htm   (2729 words)

 Surface tension, or interfacial tension (, ) The mechanical properties of the interfacial layer between two fluids, including the equilibrium shape of the surface, may be calculated by applying the standard mathematical techniques of mechanics to the forces associated with the surface of tension. The surface tension may, therefore, also be expressed in terms of energy per unit area: it is not, however, in general equal either to the surface energy or to the surface Helmholtz energy per unit area (see §1.2.6). In particular, surface tension is the intensive factor in the differential expression for the work required to increase the area of the surface of tension. www.iupac.org /reports/2001/colloid_2001/manual_of_s_and_t/node23.html   (322 words)

 No. 1598: Surface Tension The escaping vapor is shaped by the forces of surface tension to form a lovely periodic pattern of bubble removal. Surface tension pulls the sheet inward until it closes into a bell shape. For a treatment of the so-called water bells caused by the impact of a jet on a flat surface (like a roofing-nail head) see, e.g., Huang, C. P., and Lienhard, J. H., Influence of Gravity upon the Shape of Water Bells, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. www.uh.edu /engines/epi1598.htm   (713 words)

 CFM Current approaches in nonlinear fatigue and fracture mechanics utilize a phenomenological description of events (material response and loading) in the vicinity of crack-like defects in structures. The key to realistic correlations is a fundamental understanding of crack-tip conditions in both laboratory test specimens and actual structures for a complex array of loading (static, dynamic, tension, bending) and material behavior (brittle to fully ductile). For brittle mechanisms the models incorporate a range of probabilistic treatments to quantify effects of micro-scale material variability on macroscopic fracture toughness. cern49.ce.uiuc.edu /cfm/home.html   (410 words)

 Paul N. Siegel: The Meek and the Militant (Chap.2) This exclusive application of the standards of mechanics to processes of a chemical and organic nature – in which processes the laws of mechanics are, indeed, also valid but are pushed into the background by other, higher laws – constitutes the first specific but at that time inevitable limitation of classical French materialism. predominantly mechanical, because at that time of all natural sciences only mechanics, and indeed only the mechanics of solid bodies – celestial and terrestial – in short, the mechanics of gravity, had come to any definite close... ‘The motion of matter is not merely crude mechanical motion, mere change of place, it is heat and light, electric and magnetic tension, chemical combination and dissociation, life and, finally, consciousness’ [1] (On Religion, p.171). www.marxists.de /religion/siegel-en/chap02.htm   (410 words)

 Popular Mechanics - How To Build 3 Basic Hand Planes After each adjustment, you should check the tension on the wedge, as it may need tightening. Rip a strip of wenge to width for one of the plane wedges, place a piece of masking tape on one edge and lay out the wedge shape. You will know when the fit is correct when you see an evenly burnished line across the wedge face at the point where it contacts the crosspin. www.popularmechanics.com /home_improvement/furniture/1273456.html?c=y&page=5   (746 words)

 Proarq Modules are available for the solution of commonly encountered problems in the soil and rock mechanics fields. Cable and bolt tension an external loading can be specified. is used for the analysis of a tetrahedral wedge formed by the intersection of two planar discontinuities in a rock slope. members.tripod.com /paceit/Software/Prokon/Proarq.html   (484 words)

 ENGS 33 - Solid Mechanics This course is concerned with the mechanics of rigid and deformable solids in a state of equilibrium. Be able to determine the states of stress and strain at any point within a linearly elastic solid loaded in tension or compression. "Handbook on Experimental Mechanics" edited by A.S. Kobayashi engineering.dartmouth.edu /~engs033   (919 words)

 2 In other words, in Newtonian mechanics the time derivative of the momentum, or the force F, is in the direction of the acceleration; but this will not hold in PM because the quantity m is itself an indeterminate vector associated with a non-zero extension, x. Quantum mechanics in fact goes so far as to require this complex time representation, in the form of a procedure for reduction of the state vector which is technically equivalent to mixing (>c, -t) and ( That is, an infinitely large compression implies the inevitability of collocation (singularity); an infinitely small tension does not, and preserves duality at the point where the string ‘goes slack’. www.parcellular.fsnet.co.uk /FoundPM2-3.htm   (9371 words)

 Newtonian mechanics allows us to ``weigh'' the Sun! Note that the constant of proportionality is established by Newtonian mechanics; it is inversely proportional to the central mass of the Sun. We need only compare two forces: the one provided by the gravitational attaction of the Sun on a planet, the other, the ``tension'' required to maintain the planet along a circular path with the Sun at centre. The scale factor in this proportionality is the Newtonian constant of universal gravitation which was first well measured in the laboratory by Cavendish in the 1800s: travesti.geophys.mcgill.ca /~olivia/terrestrial_planets/lectures/node33.html   (9371 words)

 Fluid Mechanics Surface tension suppresses short wavelength fluctuations, and hence the inertial effects manifest themselves at a rather long wavelength at which there are available stabilizing mechanisms. The initiation of the aircraft free fall creates inertial ringing in the fluid superposed upon which is a higher frequency "g-gitter". In real time the fluid flows as if it were highly viscous, until it gathesr enough mass to break free of the container. www.geology.yale.edu /~jw378/fluid_mech/fluid_mech.html   (9371 words)

 Citebase - Quantum Statistical Mechanics of Nonrelativistic Membranes: Crumpling Transition at Finite Temperature Quantum Statistical Mechanics of Nonrelativistic Membranes: Crumpling Transition at Finite Temperature Authors: Borelli, M. Kleinert, H. Schakel, Adriaan M. The effect of quantum fluctuations on a nearly flat, nonrelativistic two-dimensional membrane with extrinsic curvature stiffness and tension is investigated. The Statistical Mechanics of Membranes [ Abstract/Citations, Cached PDF ] citebase.eprints.org /cgi-bin/citations?archiveID=oai:arXiv.org:cond-mat/9905241   (1167 words)

 088-Inspectibility of Tension Leg Platform Tendons Designs for Tension Leg Platform (TLP)Tendon elements were analyzed by a fracture mechanics approach making use of the critical flaw concept. Halkyard, J., Inspection of Tension Leg Platform Tendons, Minutes of Steering Committee No. 2 of April 29, 1986, Offshore Technology Corporation, Escondido, California, October 13, 1986. Bossi, R. H., Inspectibility of Tension Leg Platform Tendons, Phase IIA, Interim Report, SIGMA Engineering, Seattle, Washington, May 21, 1986. www.mms.gov /tarprojects/088.htm   (1167 words)

 Physics Complex problems that seem like they could be solved by a clever application of dynamics and mechanics, like the formation of sandpiles, nodes in trickling water, the shape of water dropletdroplets, mechanisms of surface tension catastrophe theorycatastrophes/, or self-sorting in shaken heterogeneous collections, still remain insufficiently characterized, and more importantly, poorly understood. In quantum mechanics, the outcomes of physical measurements are inherently probabilityprobabilistic/; the theory describes the calculation of these probabilities. For instance, the theory of classical mechanics accurately describes the motion of objects, provided they are much larger than atoms and moving at much less than the speed of light. www.infothis.com /find/Physics   (3518 words)

 Tension Leg Platform: a State of the Art Review While a variety of engineering disciplines are involved in that process, the subjects chosen for inclusion in the book are hydrodynamics, structural mechanics, environmental considerations, materials selection, and model testing that are used in the analysis and design of TLPs. A Tension Leg Platform (TLP) system consists of many components. Although there might be some duplication, each chapter is written so that it helps the reader understand the basic principles while at the same time giving the designer enough information for his design. www.pubs.asce.org /WWWdisplay.cgi?8902069   (3518 words)

 BME 403: Respiratory Section By lowering the surface tension and compression surfactant becomes an important advantage to the physiological function or mechanics of the lung. The lung with its numerous tiny alveoli has the benefit of having a large surface area for the diffusion of gases but unfortunately this benefit is counter-acted by another complication known as surface tension. Surface tension is caused due to the unequal attraction forces between water molecules at the surface of the alveoli. www.usc.edu /dept/biomed/bme403/Section_1/surfactant.html   (3518 words)

 JAMES R 165) Y. Sun, G. Beltz and J. Rice, "Estimates from Atomic Models of Tension-Shear Coupling in Dislocation Nucleation from a Crack Tip", Materials Science and Engineering A, 170, 1993, pp. 411-442; also, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 17/18, 1979, pp. 124) J. Rice (Editor), Solid Mechanics Research Trends and Opportunities (Report of the Committee on Solid Mechanics Research Directions of the Applied Mechanics Division, American Society of Mechanical Engineers), Applied Mechanics Reviews, 38, 1985, pp. esag.harvard.edu /rice/RicePubs.html   (3518 words)

 Mechanical Engineering / Northwestern University / Espinosa H.D. Espinosa, B.C. Prorok and B. Peng, "Plasticity Size Effects in Freestanding Submicron Polycrystalline FCC Films Subjected to Pure Tension," to appear in Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 2003. H.D. Espinosa, B.C. Prorok, and M. Fischer, "A Methodology for Determining Mechanical Properties of Freestanding Thin Films and MEMS Materials," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. Pugno and H.D. Espinosa, "Analytical Modeling of Nanotube NEMS Devices," submitted to Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 2004. www.mech.northwestern.edu /dept/people/faculty/espinosa.htm   (391 words)

 AEM Research: T. W. Shield Shield, T. W., "Orientation Dependence of the Pseudoelastic Behavior of Single Crystals of Cu-Al-Ni in Tension," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 43(6), 1995, pp. Crone, W. C., Shield, T. W., Creuziger, A., and Henneman, H., "Orientation Dependence of the Plastic Slip near Notches in Ductile FCC Single Crystals," to appear in the Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 2003. Shield, T. W., and Kim, K.-S., "An Experimental Study of Plastic Deformation Fields near a Crack Tip in an Iron-Silicon Single Crystal," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 42(5), 1994, pp. www.aem.umn.edu /people/faculty/shield   (1022 words)

 Biomechanics Pertinent to Fracture Etiology, Reduction, and Fixation Mechanics, in turn, is the analysis of any dynamic system, be it the relative motion of quanta and subatomic particles or the motion of galaxies. Because bone as a structural component of the musculoskeletal system must withstand large axial loads (both compressive and tensile) to sustain weight bearing and locomotion, it, by adaptation, exhibits greater strength when subjected to tension directed longitudinally versus tension directed transversely. Since its inception, the scope of biomechanics has expanded immensely, now incorporating all of continuum mechanics in physiology and the mechanics of medical application in the health sciences: from clinical problems in the cardiovascular system to quantitative physiology and rheology of biologic tissues to orthopaedic implants and the kinematics of the musculoskeletal system. www.ivis.org /special_books/ortho/chapter_12/12mast.asp   (1022 words)

 Physics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Complex problems that seem like they could be solved by a clever application of dynamics and mechanics, such as the formation of sandpiles, nodes in trickling water, the shape of water droplets, mechanisms of surface tension catastrophes, or self-sorting in shaken heterogeneous collections are unsolved. These theories continue to be areas of active research; for instance, a remarkable aspect of classical mechanics known as chaos was discovered in the 20th century, three centuries after the original formulation of classical mechanics by Isaac Newton (1642—1727). For instance, the theory of classical mechanics accurately describes the motion of objects, provided they are much larger than atoms and moving at much less than the speed of light. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Physics   (3578 words)

 O.E. Jensen: Research Interests Pulmonary airway mechanics: Small, liquid-lined, flexible-walled airways can become blocked with liquid because of a surface-tension-driven instability (leading to airway closure), which may be accompanied by wall buckling and collapse. Spreading of surfactant monolayers on viscous fluids: pulmonary surfactant plays an important role in lung mechanics, by reducing the surface tension forces acting on the liquid lining of lung airways. O.E. Jensen (1999) (presented at a seminar on Cardiovascular Fluid Dynamics at the Institute of Mechanical Engineers in London in December 1999). www.maths.nott.ac.uk /personal/oej/resint.html   (3578 words)

 NatHaz Modeling Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame Ahsan Kareem and Yousun Li (1994), "Stochastic Response of a Tension Leg Platform to Viscous and Potential Drift Forces", Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, Vol.9, No.1-2, pp.1-14. Kareem, P. Lu, T. Finnigan and Shin-Lin V. Liu (1987), "Aerodynamic Loads on a Typical Tension Leg Platform", Ocean Engineering, Vol.14, No.3, pp.201-231. Kareem, A., and Li, Yousun (1992), "Effect of Displaced Position of TLP Drift Forces", Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, ASME, Vol.114. www.nd.edu /~nathaz/paper_cate.html   (3578 words)

 Biotensegrity - A New Biomechanical Model for the Shoulder Girdle A new model of the shoulder girdle, based on the tension icosahedron described by Buckminster Fuller, is proposed that permits the compression loads passing through the arm and shoulder to be transferred to the axial skeleton through its soft tissues. In this model the scapula "floats" in the tension network of shoulder girdle muscles just as the hub of the wire wheel is suspended in its tension network of spokes. The compression members, the rim and the hub, do not press on each other, there is no fulcrum or levers analogy for shoulder girdle mechanics. www.biotensegrity.com /paper1.html   (2289 words)

 Special:Allpages/3M Company Definition / Special:Allpages/3M Company Research Tape moves at 3¾ inches per second, pulled by tension, but this tension is dampened by a lubricant, usually graphite, on the back of the tape to prevent a tape's tension from damaging the tape and/or player. 3 body problem The n-body problem is the problem of finding, given the initial positions, masses, and velocities of n bodies, their subsequent motions as determined by classical mechanics, i.e. 3 Valleys Les Trois Vallées or the three valleys is a ski region in the Savoie département of France, near the town of Moûtiers and within the Vanoise National Park and the Tarentaise.... www.elresearch.com /Special:Allpages/3M_Company   (2289 words)

 Features Item : Treading Water With Surfactants Foam is a visual presentation of surface tension by allowing water to transform itself from its liquid phase. It’s hard to believe that water has tension but at one time or another, I’m sure we’ve all seen water bugs walking on top of water. Surface tension is expressed as dynes per centimeter with water being at 76. www.icsmag.com /CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP__Features__Item/0,3035,10521,00.html   (991 words)

 Tensegrity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In mechanics and biomechanics, tensegrity or tensional integrity is a property of objects with components that use tension and compression in a combination that yields strength and resilience beyond the sum of their components. Tensegrity is the name for a synergy between a co-existing pairs of fundamental physical laws; of push and pull, and compression and tension, or repulsion and attraction. All geodesic domes are tensegrity structures, whether the tension-islanded compression differentiations are visible to the observer or not. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Tensegrity   (999 words)

 Scalable Parallel FE Computations of Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni Problems in a Microgravity Environment Of particular interest are the nonlinear interactions associated with the Marangoni effects in a microgravity environment where surface tension effects dominate buoyancy. The second component of the work involves fluid mechanics experiments in thin layers which are able to duplicate the high marangoni number effect of interest in space applications. To develop and implement efficient parallel algorithms for solution of incompressible Navier Stokes and heat transfer including surface tension effects in a microgravity environment and to carry out supporting experimental studies of nonlinear instabilities and flow phenomena. www.cfdlab.ae.utexas.edu /otherresearch/nasa_hpcc/nasa1.1.html   (999 words)

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