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Topic: The Currents of Space

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  Birkeland current - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Originally Birkeland currents referred to electric currents that contribute to the aurora, caused by the interaction of the plasma in the Solar Wind with the Earth's magnetosphere.
Birkeland currents are also one of a class of plasma phenonena called a z-pinch, so named because the azimuthal magnetic fields produced by the current pinches the current into a filamentary cable.
After Kristian Birkeland suggested "currents there are imagined as having come into existence mainly as a secondary effect of the electric corpuscles from the sun drawn in out of space," (1908), his ideas were generally ignored in favour of an alternative theory from British mathematician Sydney Chapman.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Birkeland_current   (1377 words)

 Electric Currents
With the coming of the space age and the subsequent discovery of magnetospheric-ionospheric electrical circuits, Kirchoff's circuit laws were suddenly catapulted to dimensions eight orders of magnitude larger than that previously investigated in the laboratory and nearly four orders of magnitude greater than that associated with the longest power distribution systems on earth.
The existence of a megaampere flux tube of current, connecting the Jovian satellite Io to its mother planet, was verified with the passage of the Voyager spacecraft.
Currents are therefore expected in a universe of inhomogeneous astrophysical plasmas of all sizes.
public.lanl.gov /alp/plasma/elec_currents.html   (1584 words)

 PlanetMath: current
The space of currents is naturally endowed with the weak-star topology, which will be further simply called weak convergence.
A stronger norm on the space of currents is the mass norm.
This is version 4 of current, born on 2004-07-02, modified 2004-07-12.
planetmath.org /encyclopedia/Mass.html   (260 words)

 Space Weather: How Currents in Space Produce Currents in Power Grids   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Electric Currents In the Earth's Crust and Oceans Are Induced by Electric Currents Flowing in the Atmosphere
Currents as large as a million-amperes flow through the ionosphere at high latitudes producing the aurora and atmospheric heating effects.
During large magnetic storms, the intense currents flowing in the ionosphere induce currents in the Earth's surface called GICs (ground induced currents).
www.windows.ucar.edu /spaceweather/induce_currents.html   (333 words)

The current flows only when the heated wire is more negative, because it is carried by free electrons released from the wire by its heat.
In space plasmas, some currents may be produced this way, but many are inherent to the way ions and electrons move through magnetic fields, e.g.
Space tether--an experiment in which a satellite was released from the space shuttle at the end of a long insulated cable.
www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov /Education/wgloss.html   (3641 words)

 Electric Currents from Space--History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Some scientists disagreed with Birkeland and claimed the electrojets did not connect to space but instead their entire circuit lay inside the ionosphere, like that of other ionospheric currents known at the time, believed to be caused by atmospheric tides.
That same year Naoshi Fukushima in Japan pointed out that such "Birkeland currents" connected to the ionosphere would be almost "invisible" from the ground, producing there only a very weak magnetic disturbance, because magnetic fields contributed by various parts of their circuit tended to cancel out.
Although signs of currents flowing from space along magnetic field lines were occasionally detected by earlier satellites, it was the US Navy's Triad, carrying the instrument of Alfred Zmuda and James Armstrong, that in 1973 traced their full pattern.
www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov /Education/whcurren.html   (517 words)

 Cross Currents : Inner space as sacred space: the temple as metaphor for the mystical experience. @ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Current Article: Inner space as sacred space: the temple as metaphor for the mystical experience.
Start / C / Cross Currents / September 22, 2002 / Inner space as sacred space: the temple as metaphor for the mystical experience.
Inner space as sacred space: the temple as metaphor for the mystical experience.
static.elibrary.com /c/crosscurrents/september222002/innerspaceassacredspacethetempleasmetaphorforthemy/index.html   (261 words)

 Electric Currents from Space
Any electric current, however, must flow in a closed circuit, and since it seemed to be caused (like that of the aurora) by processes taking place in distant space, Birkeland proposed that it came down from space at one end of the arc and returned to space at the other end.
The space shuttle can also generate electric power that way (at the expense of its orbital energy), using a long wire dangling from it into space.
Such a space tether experiment was conducted aboard the space shuttle Columbia on 25 February, 1996, ending unexpectedly when the tether suddenly broke.
www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov /Education/wcurrent.html   (1101 words)

 Tucson Weekly : currents : Space Case
Once in space, the commission could set up a deal with a mortuary and launch people's ashes into the sky.
Once orbital space flight's in the bag, the Space Commission would shift its efforts to conquering the moon and, after that, Mars.
The economic impact of a new interstate, interstellar space race would be astronomical, he said.
www.tucsonweekly.com /gbase/currents/Content?oid=oid:44766   (1500 words)

 Closure element for limiting the convection currents in an annular space about a nuclear reactor component - Patent ...
It is therefore necessary to limit the convection currents between the interior of the vessel containing liquid sodium and the upper part of the component resting on the plate, inside the annular space between component and passage, in order to avoid inadmissable heating of the support structure.
An annular cup has therefore been designed, disposed on the inner surface of the sleeve constituting the passage in the plate and in particular its periphery, inside which a sleeve solid with the outer surface of the component is positioned, when the component is put into position for use in the reactor.
When the component 1 is being removed and this component is raised in the direction along the axis 2, the closure apparatus 14 comes to rest with the lower part of the sleeve 16 on the bottom of the cup 5.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4363777.html   (1202 words)

 [No title]
Space is considered a fabric composed of lines of force which like light, can be bent, or interferred with.
However, we are fortunate that stresses in and around matter produce phenomena in a localized area of space, which means an observer and his measurement equipment could exist outside the sphere of influence.
A one volt, 100 milliamp regulated direct current charge was imposed on the capacitor PRIOR to the source crystal contact.
www.amasci.com /freenrg/galli1.txt   (1716 words)

 Currents in Space   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
These auroral current systems are aligned with Earth's magnetic field in the magnetosphere but have cross-branches in the lower ionosphere that are similar to the type of current system that may be generated in the ionosphere by the Tethered Satellite System.
When the field-aligned branches of the auroral currents exceed the thermal current capacity of the plasma to carry a charge, a drop in electrical potential occurs.
Their effects on charged particle distributions can be measured, however, and TSS instruments should be able to detect the presence and motion of tether-generated double layers by measuring electrons beamed from below the satellite and energetic ions created by the collapse of double layers near the satellite.
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov /Shuttle/STS-75/tss-1r/SCI/Space_Currents.html   (218 words)

 SPACE.com -- Iridium Satellites Heed Sciences Call   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
As each satellite passes through the electric current between space and Earths own atmosphere, its magnetometer can detect the distinct signatures of that current.
"With space weather, as we advance technologically, we are actually putting ourselves at greater risk," said Robert Robinson, director of the National Science Foundations magnetosphere physics program, which sponsors the work.
Astrosociology is the study of astrosocial phenomena (social/cultural patterns related to space), a multidisciplinary field open to all scientists and engineers interested in "space and society" issues.
www.space.com /businesstechnology/business/iridium_science_001218.html   (578 words)

 Ocean Surface Topography from Space-Newsroom
Knowing where the currents were a week ago won't help a ship captain chart the best course or a clean-up crew anticipate where an oil spill is heading nearly as much as knowing where the currents are today.
The best way to map global ocean currents is from space with altimetry, measurements of sea surface topography.
The laboratory now produces a daily 72-hour forecast of ocean currents for the area based on computer models that assimilate different types of satellite data, including sea-surface temperature measurements and ocean altimetry.
topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov /newsroom/features/20040730-a.html   (820 words)

 The Currents of Space -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Currents of Space is a 1952 novel by (Literary fantasy involving the imagined impact of science on society) science fiction author (United States writer (born in Russia) noted for his science fiction (1920-1992)) Isaac Asimov.
The action takes place during the time when (Click link for more info and facts about Trantor) Trantor was building a confederation of planets that would ultimately grow into the Galactic Empire.
The main topic of the novel is the possible destruction of (Click link for more info and facts about Florina) Florina, predicted by Rik, a space analyst whose mind has been manipulated and forced to forget this vital information.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/t/th/the_currents_of_space.htm   (197 words)

 The dimension of the space of closed currents of degree p on Gr(N)
Notice that the dimension of the space of cyclic cocycles itself differs from and by a trivial additive constant (the number 1) depending upon the parity of p.
The other method amounts to compute directly the dimension of the space of those symmetric tensors that satisfy the constraint This is a rather tedious work but it is interesting because it is quite explicit and can be used to exhibit a basis of cocycles.
The dimension of the space of symmetric tensors is already known to be equal to.
www.cpt.univ-mrs.fr /~coque/articles_html/grassmann/node11.html   (523 words)

 Electric Currents from Space--History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
When the large-scale pattern of such currentswas finally recognized, in 1973, they were found to flow mainly in two parallel sheets, connected to the electrojets.
The drawing above shows narrow sections of these sheets on the morning and evening side, viewed from midnight, with the current closing around midnight as drawn; only narrow sections are shown, because the full sheets would have obscured each other.
When Triad crossed a current sheet, a characteristic "signature" was generally noted: the direction of the magnetic field rotated fairly abruptly, while its strength stayed the same.
www.geophys.washington.edu /Space/ESS205/Education/whcurren.html   (495 words)

 Amazon.ca: Books: The Currents of Space   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In comparison, Currents is much tighter, and more cleanly written, with a plot that GRIPS you like a good mystery(which, I think, is the type of writer Asimov was at heart).
Asimov's speculations about carbon currents, which are at the center of the plot, are no longer tenable after 50 years, but it doesn't matter.
Currents is solid, exciting, old-fashioned SF that is hard to beat.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0345311957   (843 words)

 Telomere - Reviews
With all this uncaring space around, arguably the most realistic interpretation of space travel, it becomes all the more refreshing when an artist comes along and creates space music in its classic, positive, bright aspect--all fantasy travels with none of the sugary sweetness of new age music.
From the opening long slow synth washes on the first cut, "Departure," any fan of space music knows he or she is headed into the deep but friendly far flung oasis of inter-galactic flness.
And yes, the listener isn't disappointed at all: Telomere composes beautiful space music with great expanding sound textures that starts off with "Departure", and before you know it, you drift somewhere out there in space, voyaging along in your private spaceship toward stars, planets, and towards what may be behind all that to discover.
www.evenfall.com /telomere/reviews.html   (2593 words)

 Cross Currents: Inner space as sacred space: the temple as metaphor for the mystical experience
In addition, the sacrificial altars mentioned in the oldest scriptures, the Rig Veda, the Epic of Gilgamesh, and the five books of Moses, are generally thought to be open-air altars.
While this may be seen as an outgrowth of sophistication in architecture, it also reflects the belief that humans became separated from God through either ignorance (as asserted in Eastern philosophy) or the transgression of Divine Law as depicted in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
In addition, I will propose ways sacred space can be designed so as to minimize the risk of it becoming a material attachment that retards, rather than advances, spiritual growth.
www.findarticles.com /cf_dls/m2096/3_52/94983824/p1/article.jhtml   (1457 words)

 Ocean Currents   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Ocean currents contribute to the heat transport from the tropics to the poles, partially equalizing Earth surface temperatures.
Ocean currents flow in complex patterns affected by wind, the water's salinity and heat content, bottom topography, and the earth's rotation.
These ocean currents and the resulting global circulation patterns are of interest to scientists studying Earth systems and global change issues.
vathena.arc.nasa.gov /curric/oceans/drifters/ocecur.html   (386 words)

 [No title]
At the end of the nineteenth century Birkeland had laid out a compelling case-supported by theory, laboratory experiments, polar expeditions, and a chain of magnetic-field "observatories" around the world -that electric currents flowing down along the earth's magnetic fields into the atmosphere were the cause of the aurora and polar magnetic disturbances.
In contrast, the electrical currents proposed by Alfvén generated a telltale signature only in the radio portions of the electromagnetic spectrum so they had not yet been observed.
Thus Alfvén's proposal that there were electrical currents in space was received with great skepticism.
public.lanl.gov /alp/plasma/people/alfven.html   (3177 words)

 APL researchers now able to map global space weather
Maps of the electric current in space are then constructed in much the same way that normal weather maps are made from weather station readings.
The maps of electrical current show dramatic shifts due to changes in the solar wind.
"Timely, accurate space weather forecasts will give advance warning of electromagnetic storms that in the past have shown their ability to disrupt communications, degrade GPS accuracy, cripple electrical power grids, and menace astronauts, satellites and aircraft with dangerous levels of radiation," says Anderson.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2000-12/JHU-Arna-1812100.php   (484 words)

 Master of Space Science at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
The program’s objectives are to provide fundamental understanding of scientific and engineering approaches to conceiving and designing complex spacecraft systems; and development of the diverse set of research skills required to evolve the state of the art in the areas of space science and engineering.
Robust optimal attitude control maneuvers of a complex spacecraft required for scientific instruments and the requirements of the measurements that they are performing, such as velocity vector alignment, limb scanning, and image stabilization, are emphasized.
The core courses emphasize the heavily technical nature of the space sciences, and requires an undergraduate degree in Physics, Engineering, or a related field (such as Math or Chemistry) for preparation.
www.erau.edu /db/degrees/ma-spacescience.html   (1309 words)

 Ancient exploration (from Atlantic Ocean) --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
By the close of the 20th century, virtually all of the Earth's surface had been explored, and attention was largely directed toward its subsurface regions and its oceans, particularly the deep ocean floor.
The exploration of outer space also was a major point of interest (see also space...
Includes a timeline of space exploration history, information on rockets and the various kinds that have been made, and a collection of brief profiles of some of the important figures.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-33309   (870 words)

 Advertising and Public Space - Riverwest Currents
Arguments over the appropriate uses of public spaces and municipal facilities are the focus of many local debates, particularly over the renaming of certain places, like stadiums, for corporate sponsors.
Other publicly-owned "spaces" are also being courted by advertisers, including the sides of police cars.
Across the Atlantic, public advocacy groups are calling for strict rules and regulations on advertising in telephone kiosks, utilizing the fact that they are almost always located in the public way.
www.riverwestcurrents.org /2002/November/000264.html   (371 words)

 Currents: 9 From Outer Space (June 13 - June 19, 1996)
Currents: 9 From Outer Space (June 13 - June 19, 1996)
It hasn't been that long since Arizona was mostly wide-open spaces.
Oro Valley's current leaders are backing off the growth Ponzi scheme, but they're also stuck with the zoning decisions of their predecessors.
www.tucsonweekly.com /tw/06-13-96/curr2.htm   (665 words)

 IngentaConnect Space-charge-limited currents in inhomogeneous thin-film insulato...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Numerical solutions for SCL currents in inhomogeneous insulators with non-uniform trap distributions are presented.
It turns out that the non-uniform trap distribution which may be expected in the case of real insulators should have a significant influence on SCL current - voltage characteristics.
A method of determination of the spatial trap distribution at the emitter by means of photo-enhanced SCL currents is also presented.
api.ingentaconnect.com /content/iop/jphyscm/1996/00000008/00000023/art00007   (149 words)

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