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Topic: Gradualism

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 Phyletic gradualism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phyletic gradualism is a macroevolutionary hypothesis rooted in uniformitarianism.
It holds that the species is not a fixed type, and that the population, not the individual, evolves.
Phyletic gradualism has been largely deprecated as the exclusive pattern of evolution by modern evolutionary biologists in favor of the acceptation of occurrence of patterns such as those described on punctuated equilibrium, quantum evolution, and punctuated gradualism.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Phyletic_gradualism   (169 words)

 NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Graduate
A person may be a graduate of several schools, one at each level of education that they have completed.
Punctuated equilibrium is commonly contrasted against the theory of phyletic gradualism, which hypothesizes that most evolution occurs uniformly and by the steady gradual transformation of whole lineages (anagenesis).
The sudden appearance and lack of substantial gradual change of most species in the geologic record—from their initial appearance until their extinction—has long been noted, including by Charles Darwin (1859:301, 1871:119-120) who appealed to the imperfection of the record as the favored explanation.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Graduate   (843 words)

 Gradualism - CreationWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
Gradualism holds that evolution occurs through the accumulation of slight modifications over long periods of time.
This concept, which is also known as phyletic gradualism, is in sharp contrast to the punctuated equilibrium theory later proposed by Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould to explain the absence of the intermediate fossils that Darwin predicted should exist if the theory of evolution were true.
Gradualism is related to, but should not be confused with, the concept of geological uniformitarianism, which was popularized by Charles Lyell.
www.nwcreation.net /wiki/index.php?title=Gradualism   (578 words)

 Gradualism in Applying the Shari`ah
Gradualism refers to the importance of preparing the Muslim people to sincerely and enthusiastically adopt the rulings of the Shari`ah in all their walks of life, so as to guarantee that such a matter would last.
Gradualism was observed in enjoining the obligations of Islam such as Prayer, fasting, et cetera, and in forbidding the prohibitions as well.
Gradualism here refers to preparing people ideologically, psychologically, morally, and socially to accept and adopt the application of the Shari`ah in all aspects of life, and to finding lawful alternatives for the forbidden principles upon which many associations have been founded for so long.
www.ilaam.net /Opinions/Gradualism.html   (997 words)

 Contra Gradualism
And gradualism is inconsistent with the moral foundation of libertarianism.
Before proceeding, it is useful to distinguish gradualism as a policy from gradualism as a fact of reality.
This is gradualism by concealment — a concealment that is justified as a strategic maneuver to facilitate agreement.
www.fff.org /freedom/1197e.asp   (2234 words)

 Catastrophism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Before gradualism, the dominant belief in many cultures of the creation and development of the world was essentially catastrophism.
From around 1850 to 1980, most geologists endorsed uniformitarianism ("The present is the key to the past") and gradualism (geologic change occurs slowly over long periods of time) and rejected the idea that cataclysmic events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions played any significant role in the formation of the Earth's surface.
One of the key differences between catastrophism and gradualism is that to function, gradualism requires the assumption of vast timelines, whereas catastrophism can function with or without assumptions of long timelines.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Catastrophism   (867 words)

 FRB: Speech, Bernanke--Gradualism--May 20, 2004
Gradual adjustment tends to characterize periods of rate increases as well as periods of decreases.
Another potential advantage of gradualism is that, by taking small steps, policymakers give themselves the opportunity to assess the effects of their actions and perhaps to refine their views on how large a policy change will ultimately be needed (Sack, 1998).
In the latter respect, gradualism may be helpful to some degree, because it establishes a relatively forecastable pattern of adjustment by the central bank.
www.federalreserve.gov /boarddocs/speeches/2004/200405202   (5106 words)

 Re: Punk eq vs gradualism
The traditional view of gradualism= > states that evolution is a constant process, while the new view of= > punctuated equalibrium states that evolution occurs in short bursts.
Gradualism is supported by biochemical data that looks at evolution over a longer period and wider phylogenetic scope.
Gradualism is a better model for analysing genus-to-genus or even higher level evolutionary change.
dml.cmnh.org /1996Jan/msg00992.html   (350 words)

 Controversy. Catastrophism and Evolution: The Ongoing Debate
Evolutionary change was slow (an essential feature of gradualism), imperceptible (except over long periods of time) and progressive (though not because of linear development, but as a result of competition between variant forms).
Then, as a result of distortions propagated by Lyell and others, subsequent generations were led to believe that the views of the catastrophists owed more to pre-conceived ideas than to observation, whereas the theories of the uniformitarians were all derived by logical deduction from observed data.
Therefore, with the demolition of the myth that the nineteenth century catastrophists were driven by religious dogma rather than science, there remains no reason for having to distinguish between catastrophism and neocatastrophism in the twentieth century.
www.knowledge.co.uk /sis/controv.htm   (2951 words)

 Charles Darwin on "Gradualism"
Everyone who believes in slow and gradual evolution, will of course admit that specific changes may have been as abrupt and as great as any single variation which we meet with under nature, or even under domestication.
But as species are more variable when domesticated or cultivated than under their natural conditions, it is not probable that such great and abrupt variations have often occurred under nature, as are known occasionally to arise under domestication.
This difficulty, as in the case of unconscious selection by man, is avoided on the theory of gradual evolution, through the preservation of a large number of individuals, which varied more or less in any favourable direction, and of the destruction of a large number which varied in an opposite manner.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/comdesc/CDgradualism.html   (1317 words)

 Contra Gradualism
Before proceeding, it is useful to distinguish gradual- ism as a policy from gradualism as a fact of reality.
By posing the transition period, gradualism is suddenly shifted into a strategic rather than a moral question.
This is gradualism by concealment - a concealment that is justified as a strategic maneuver to facilitate agreement.
www.zetetics.com /mac/grad.htm   (2089 words)

 Gradualism vs Punctuationism, Psychology, College Term Papers.com
Gradualism vs Punctuationism Gradualism versus Punctuationism Although modern evolutionists are thought to be divided on the issues surrounding evolutionary theory, a close look at the evidence suggests that both the gradualist school of thought and the punctuationist school of thought share many characteristics in common.
This is especially true when evaluating their beliefs about the fossil record, disagreement with the theory of saltation, and the misinterpretation of the word “rapid” in terms of punctuationist theory.
In addition, when comparing the theories of gradualism with punctuationism, it is important to evaluate the theory of saltationism.
www.collegetermpapers.com /TermPapers/Psychology/Gradualism_vs_Punctuationism.shtml   (821 words)

 Gradualism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
Gradualism in biology holds that evolution occurs through the accumulation of slight over a period of generations.
Gradualism holds that every individual is the species as its parents and that there no clear line of demarcation between the species and the new species.
Ruegg's work is a great synthesis of information derived from primary and secondary sources, and explores the ways in which important themes of Indian Buddhist thought (buddha-nature, conceptions of mind and enlightenment) were interpreted and adapted in...
www.freeglossary.com /Gradualism   (479 words)

 JCE 1999 (76) 1297 [Sep] Gradualism: A Method for Primary Instruction on Spectroscopic Analysis in Introductory Organic ...
The pedagogical style of gradualism is described for the instruction of spectroscopic analysis in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory.
Gradualism is defined as a series of steps or lessons that build one upon the other until the student is able to solve complex problems.
Key advantages of gradualism over lecture instruction on spectroscopic analysis include liberation of lecture time for other essential objectives, incorporation of instruction into "wet" laboratories, utilization of an interactive learning process, and enhancement of student independence in the learning process.
jchemed.chem.wisc.edu /journal/issues/1999/Sep/abs1297.html   (378 words)

 Definition of Punctuated equilibrium
The theory is usually contrasted with phyletic gradualism, though critics, notably Richard Dawkins, have argued that phyletic gradualism is merely a straw man.
Punctuated equilibrium is often confused with saltationism and catastrophism, and thus mistakenly thought to oppose the concept of gradualism; it is actually more properly understood to be a form of gradualism.
The lack of substantial gradual change of perhaps most species in the geologic record, from their initial appearance until their extinction, is well known among paleobiologists, and has long been noted.
www.wordiq.com /definition/Punctuated_equilibrium   (806 words)

 Punctuated equilibrium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
It relies heavily on Ernst Mayr's concept of peripatric speciation, and it is usually contrasted with phyletic gradualism, though critics, notably Richard Dawkins, have argued that phyletic gradualism is merely a straw man.
The theory of punctuated equilibrium is often misstated as being an explanation for purported "gaps in the fossil record", i.e.
Recently, computer simulations have provided some insight into how punctuated evolution may work: The equilibrium periods show a gradual accumulation of neutral mutation s, and the jump occurs when some beneficial combination of them reaches a certain threshold percentage.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Punctuated_equilibrium.html   (318 words)

 f26 Phyletic gradualism
Darwinian evolution is gradual change over time in populations because some individuals have acquired (neodarwinists insert here, "by genetic mutation") features more conducive, than the day's run of the mill ones, for successful survival and reproduction.
Phyletic gradualism that has a consistent trend over millions of years is hard to explain by point mutation of structural genes.
A conceptually simple scenario (since found) is of a species that shows gradual variation in opposite directions around (but not across) a barrier so that where the two mingle at the far extremity neither subspecies recognize each other for mating purposes.
www.geowords.com /histbooknetscape/f26.htm   (1309 words)

 SPLCenter.org: Anything But Gay
Gradualism is a process-oriented approach to learning the physical skills of sexuality in step with gaining maturity in the psychological aspects of sexual intimacy.
Gradualism is anchored on set levels of sexuality activity.
By gradually introducing a young person to the opposite sex, gradualism steers in a heterosexual direction.
www.splcenter.org /intel/intelreport/article.jsp?sid=363   (293 words)

 SPGB Questions of the Day - Gradualism and Revolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
They stood for reformist political action which they hoped would gradually transform capitalism into socialism without the need for class conscious workers' political action: this policy was called gradualism.
Gradualism, as expounded by the Fabians and adopted by the Labour Party, has always been the dominant reformist theory in Britain.
When a majority of workers are socialist-minded and organised, they can use their votes to elect parliament and the local council delegates pledged to use political power for the one revolutionary act of dispossessing the capitalist class by converting the means of production and distribution into the property of the whole community.
www.spgb.org.uk /Q-gradualism.htm   (1328 words)

 Gradualism: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
Gradualism holds that every individual is the same species species quick summary:
In biology, a species is, loosely speaking, a group of related organisms that share a more or less distinctive form and are capable of interbreeding....
(it is one thing to believe that gradual processes predominate in nature and quite another to hold that all evolutionary processes must be gradual.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/g/gr/gradualism.htm   (929 words)

 Evolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Darwin's theory, although successful in profoundly shaking scientific opinion about the development of life, could not explain the source of variation in traits within a species, and Darwin's proposal of a hereditary mechanism (pangenesis) was not compelling to biologists.
In the mid-1970s, Motoo Kimura formulated the neutral theory of molecular evolution, firmly establishing the importance of genetic drift as a major mechanism of evolution.
One prominent public debate was over the theory of punctuated equilibrium, proposed in 1972 by paleontologists Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould to explain the paucity of gradual transitions between species in the fossil record.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Evolution   (9018 words)

 The Harvard Crimson :: News :: Gradualism and The Negro
But gradualism implies more than the ability not to shout when shouting seems justified; it also, and more importantly, recognizes the endless variations in local conditions within the South, within one state, or even within one county.
Gradualism implies one other attribute, more perhaps of mind than of policy.
But what we do say, and what we have tried to show by various case studies in this special supplement, is that the nation's racial wounds can be bound up without malice and with success--if those involved in the delicate art of integration constantly have in mind both principle and practicality.
www.thecrimson.com /article.aspx?ref=129776   (977 words)

 Mises Economics Blog: Gradualism or abolitionism?
If libertarianism, for example, holds that slavery is unjust, then it cannot even theoretically propose that it be eliminated gradually, for this would mean that as long as it is in the process of being eliminated, it is not unjust and condemnable.
Posted by: anarkhos at April 8, 2006 10:29 PM All gradualism requires, theoretically, is the recognition that a lot of different things are going on at once and that an abrupt change might very well make things worse in other respects.
And Garrison plain didn't know what he was talking about; gradualism was successfully carried through in both Brazil and the British West Indies, avoiding the mess and human pain that places like the USA got.
blog.mises.org /archives/004888.asp   (2692 words)

 Citations: Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism - Eldredge, Gould (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
A genetic algorithm with punctuated equilibria is a parallel genetic algorithm in which independent subpopulations of individuals with their own fitness functions evolve in isolation except for an exchange of individuals (migration) when a state of equilibrium throughout all the subpopulations....
The NK landscape model was initially developed to model the fitness landscapes resulting from systems with various levels of interaction between the components, for example a genotype with epistatic linkages between genes [8] By altering the level of epistatic interaction, it is possible to....
Moreover, and more speculatively, it could be that if the new adaptive zone happens to be particularly large and fruitful, and the economic innovation proves particularly advantageous, then the event will appear as the establishment of a key evolutionary innovation, and may lead to the formation....
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/254534/0   (2849 words)

 Punctuated Equilibrium
Phyletic gradualism, also known as the sympatric speciation model, proposes that beneficial mutations occur once in a while and spread through the population, gradually rendering it completely different from what it once was.
Simpson (1953) argues that gradual change is necessary for adaptation because, although its genes act in isolation fron one another, the trait they produce do not.
Phyletic gradualism was described by Eldredge and Gould (1972) as the traditional Darwinistic belief that speciation is driven by the same changes in gene frequency (driven by drift and selection) that cause populations to vary within a species.
www.wsbd.net /research/evolution/macroev.html   (4769 words)

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