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Topic: Kremlin


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 Kremlin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kremlin (Кремль) is the Russian word for "citadel" or "castle" and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities.
This word is often used to refer to the best known one, the Moscow Kremlin.
The name "Kremlin" has often been mistakenly thought of as being Saint Basil's Cathedral because of its distinctive shape, although this is not a part of the Moscow Kremlin.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kremlin   (139 words)

  
 Kremlin
Kremlin (Кремль) is the Russian word for "citadel" and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities.
This article is about the Moscow Kremlin, the Kremlin Palaces and Kremlin Cathedrals overlooking Red Square in Moscow, the one almost exclusively known in the world.
The name Kremlin was also extended to mean the government of the Soviet Union (1922-1991), and its highest members, such as general secretaries, premiers, presidents, ministers and commissars.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/k/kr/kremlin.html   (605 words)

  
 kremlin. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
It is bounded on the south by the Moscow River and Kremlin quay, on the east by Red Square with Lenin’s tomb, the Moscow Historical Museum, and St. Basil’s Cathedral, and on the west and south by the old Alexander Gardens.
Along the Kremlin walls are large palaces, including the 15th-century Granovitaya Palata (the throne and banquet hall of the czars); the 19th-century Oruzheinaya Palata (Armory), built as a museum for crowns, scepters, thrones, costumes, and armor; and the 19th-century Grand Palace (Rus.
The Kremlin’s architectural history may be divided into the three periods: the wooden Kremlin (founded in the 13th cent.), the Italian Renaissance Kremlin, and the modern Kremlin begun by Catherine the Great in the 18th cent.
www.bartleby.com /65/kr/kremlin.html   (479 words)

  
 The Moscow Kremlin: History
The early Kremlin settlement appeared as the center of crafts and trade owing to its extremely advantageous geographic position: it lay at the crossroads of trade routes and waterways meeting at the foot of the hill.
As far as the Kremlin was concerned, it became the treasure house of all national relics and family treasures of the grand princes and tsars handed down from one generation to another.
The Kremlin fortress built anew from red brick retained the peculiarities of the layout of the Old-Russian detinets (fortress) and the form of an irregular triangle with the walls’ total length of 2,235 meters.
www.caroun.com /Countries/Europe/Russia/Kremlin/02-Kremlin-History-1.html   (1944 words)

  
 Kremlin Walls and Towers in Moscow, Russia
The Kremlin's magnificent redbrick walls form an irregular triangle around Moscow's ancient citadel and are 2,235 meters in length, 19 meters high and up to 6.5 meters thick.
The Kremlin's oldest tower is the Tainitskaya Tower, situated facing the bank of the Moscow River and constructed in 1485 by Antonio Bono.
The Kremlin's three corner towers are round in shape and include the Vodozvodnaya (Corner Water Pump) Tower, which stands on the bank of the Moscow River near the Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge.
www.moscow-taxi.com /sightseeing/kremlin/walls-and-towers.html   (1314 words)

  
 Best of Russia --- Architecture --- Kremlin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The ensemble is dominated by the Kremlin and the Lenin Mausoleum which stands by its walls.
Now the Moscow Kremlin is one of the greatest museums of the world.The Kremlin palaces and chambers are keeping the state regalia, invaluable icons and treasures of the tsars.
After its construction, the commandant of the Kremlin doubted the stability of the building's large green dome, which is clearly visible from Red Square, and the architect was forced to climb up onto the cupola and stay there for more than an hour before he was convinced of its integrity.
www.bestofrussia.ca /kremlin.html   (2456 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Moscow Kremlin is the heart of the Russia capital: major thoroughfares of the city either converge on the Kremlin, or form series of concentric circles around it.
At the beginning of the 17th century, during the Polish-Lithuanian invasion, the Kremlin was occupied by King Sigizmund's troops, and the Armoury was plundered.
In the mid-17th century the Kremlin treasures accumulated and were housed as follows: the Treasury held all the Tsar's treasures, clothes and royal caps, vessels in gold and silver, velvets and satins in gold thread; the Cavalry Office Yield precious harnesses, saddles, coaches and horse-cloths.
redsun.cs.msu.su /moscow/kremlin.html   (1011 words)

  
 Kremlin Towers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The present Kremlin walls and towers were erected under the reign of Grand Duke of Moscow and All Russia Ivan III in 1485 - 1495.
The Tainitzkaya Tower (1485) is the oldest tower of Moscow Kremlin, the Tzarskaya Tower (1680) is the youngest.
The only Kremlin bridgehead watchtower to survive to the present day, the Kutafya Tower was erected at the beginning of the 16th century under the supervision of the Milanese architect known as Aleviz Fryazin.
www.moscow-hotels.com /eng/guide/kremlin/towers.html   (819 words)

  
 Kremlin Towers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In the southwest, the Kremlin is fortified by the Vodovzvodnaya - or Water - Tower.
During the bombardment of the Kremlin in 1917, the top of the tower was destroyed by a cannonball and later restored.
The gates of the Spasskaya Tower were the main entrance to the Kremlin, regarded as holy and awe-inspiring: men had to take off their hats when walking through the gates, and it was forbidden to ride through on horseback.
www.megspace.com /arts/nedda/moscow/kremlin/kremtowers.html   (2541 words)

  
 Kremlin in Moscow
he Kremlin is Russia's mythic refuge, a self contained city with a multitude of palaces, armories, and churches, a medieval fortress that links the modern nation to its legendary past in the ancient state of Kievan Rus'.
This most Italianate of the Kremlin's churches, the last of Ivan the Great's contributions to Cathedral Square, is the burial place of the early Tsars and their predecessors, the princes of Moscow.
The last of the three palaces, the Great Kremlin, was built in the early 19th-century as a Moscow residence for Nicholas I. All three of the palaces possess extraordinary interior decorations belied by their rather unremarkable exteriors.
www.transsib.com /moscow/kremlin_moscow.html   (2011 words)

  
 kremlin_e1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Moscow Kremlin is the ancient centre of Moscow.
The word kremlin itself, or the form kremnik, which is used by the early chroniclers, first appeared between 1339 and 1340.
Although the Kremlin's wooden walls were invulnerable against its enemies, they suffered repeated damage from the relentless onslaughts of fire.
www.moskva.ru /guide/kremlin/kremlin_e1.html   (361 words)

  
 Kremlin History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Kremlin usually contained the prince's palace, a cathedral, and courts of the boyars and the church nobility.
The Kremlin was transformed into a major architectural ensemble whose majestic center was Cathedral Square with its Assumption Cathedral, Church of Climacus and Archangel Cathedral.
One can't say that the Kremlin was totally neglected, but the construction work practically stopped and the Kremlin walls and towers, palaces and chambers deprived of former attention slowly decayed.
www.moscow-hotels.com /eng/guide/kremlin/kremlinhistory.html   (826 words)

  
 The Kremlin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Nizhni Novgorod Kremlin is the central part of the ancient town which occupies a relatively small territory on a hill dominating the confluence of the Oka and the Volga rivers.
Construction of the Kremlin wall on the steep hillside was initiated by the Italian architect Peter Friazin.
The Dmitrovskaya Tower was the defence center of the upper Kremlin.
www.unn.runnet.ru /nn/guide/kremlin.htm   (462 words)

  
 Sights in Moscow: Kremlin, Red Square, Tverskaya street etc. -- WayToRussia.Net Guide to Russia
The Kremlin is the stronghold of Moscow and its historical center.
'Kremlin' doesn't only mean 'fortifications'; this term is used to describe the whole area of the city inside the Kremlin walls.
Nowadays Kremlin palace is an official residence of the President of Russian Federation.
www.waytorussia.net /Moscow/Sights.html   (1536 words)

  
 The Moscow Kremlin: History
The Kremlin walls and towers were built by Russian masons under the supervision of Italian engineers and architects whose names have been retained in the descendants’ memory.
The Kremlin became an island fortress reliably protected on the sides of all the gates (the moat was not evened until 1801).
Despite the fact that the Kremlin was a fortress and in some details resembled a medieval castle, it retained a traditional spatial composition and layout typical of an Early Russian town center.
www.caroun.com /Countries/Europe/Russia/Kremlin/03-Kremlin-History-2.html   (1618 words)

  
 The Moscow Kremlin - Museum collections
The collection was based on valuables that had been preserved in the Kremlin for centuries in the treasury of Moscow Great Princes and Tsars.
They were integrated in one storage of ancient treasures that became the basis for the foundation of the museum in the Kremlin in 1806 on the Decree of Emperor Alexander I. In 1806-1917, the museum’s collections were filled by items from the palace property, gifts to Russian Emperors, archaeological finds and special purchases.
However, the complexes of precious items, many of which have become the symbols of the Russian State and culture, that have been formed in the Kremlin throughout the long Russian history, are of particular value in the collections and make the museum a treasure-house.
www.kreml.ru /en/main/collection   (408 words)

  
 The Kremlin in Moscow, Russia
The Kremlin is the historical, spiritual and political heart of Moscow and the city's most famous landmark and tourist attraction.
The word "kremlin" means simply "fortification" or "citadel" in Russian, and is thought to derive from either the Ancient Greek words kremn or kremnos, meaning a steep hill above a ravine, or the Slavonic term kremnik, meaning thick coniferous forest, that being the likely material from which the original fort was constructed.
With the Bolshevik storming of the Kremlin during the 1917 Revolution the fortress was closed to the public for the next 50 years and the only architectural additions made by the Soviet regime were the 1934 Presidium and the modernistic State Kremlin Palace (previously the Palace of Congresses) in 1961.
www.moscow-taxi.com /sightseeing/kremlin/kremlin.html   (787 words)

  
 KREMLIN CUP - 2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Myskina played at the "Kremlin Cup" tournament with such sense of self-assurance, that it was absolutely evident that the stretch of unlucky tournaments that started at the 2004 Olympics is over and done with.
After the surprise defeat of the "Kremlin Cup" favorite Marat Safin the public was anxious to see the match Igor Andreev vs Keneth Carlsen (DEN).
The defeat of the favorite of the 15th edition of the "Kremlin Cup" men's tournament Marat Safin is for sure the main highlight of the third day of the tournament.
www.kremlincup.ru /index-eng.shtml   (444 words)

  
 The Kazan Kremlin
The Kazan Kremlin, a magnificent architectural ensemble bearting traces of many centuries of building activity, is enclosed by high, white stone walls with characteristic loop-holes and thirteen hippedroofed towers.
On this part of the Kremlin is the complex of buildings housing government offices and the consistory court, all of wich occupy the site of the former khan's palace, later, the sovereign's or supreme commander's residence.
Entry into the Kremlin from the Kazanka side is through the Tainitskaya (Muraleev) Tower, which commands a broad panorama of stretches of the Great Volga, the bridges over the Kazanka and the quarters of the city across the river.
www.kcn.ru /tat_en/kazan/kazkreml.html   (1251 words)

  
 Kremlin in Moscow, Russia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Kremlin is the heart of the government of Russia.
Kremlin literally means fortress, and from the picture above, you can see it is the case.
On the left is one of the palaces in the Kremlin.
acs2.aucegypt.edu /hekman/Moscowkrem.html   (324 words)

  
 Kremlin Fried Chicken: A Brief History
Kremlin Fried Chicken seizes all assets and introduces the Soviet Onion.
Kremlin Fried Chicken's attempts at establishing franchises in the United States are blocked by government action.
Kremlin Fried Chicken becomes the first Communist Chicken Restaurant, founded in Russia in the first part of the century, to have a Web site.
www.vgg.com /kfc/kfchistory.html   (621 words)

  
 The secret life behind Kremlin walls exposed - PRAVDA.Ru
Nowadays, the Kremlin line of the Moscow metro cannot be used for passenger transportation at all: it requires capital repairs.
Kremlin officials use free of charge mobile communication, they are provided with state vehicles.
Kremlin cooks work there for 20 or 40 years, their secrets literally go from one generation to another.
english.pravda.ru /main/18/90/363/13497_Kremlin.html   (1028 words)

  
 BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Key Kremlin figure 'quits'
The Kremlin's chief-of-staff has resigned, Russian newspapers reported on Wednesday, suggesting hardliners may be strengthening their position.
Chief-of-staff Alexander Voloshin is seen as a member of the Kremlin's old guard - not among the powerful incomers appointed by President Vladimir Putin.
But Mr Voloshin's appointment to the Kremlin dates back to the Boris Yeltsin era - making him a member of a group sometimes called the "family", whose influence is believed to be waning.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/world/europe/3223847.stm   (567 words)

  
 The Kremlin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Inside the Kremlin walls is a mix of buildings, ranging from somewhat drab Soviet-era government offices to antique churches, such as the Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles (second from left) and the Cathedral of the Assumption.
Despite the abundance of buildings, the southeast part of the Kremlin interior is a large garden, almost a small forest, with carefully maintained walkways.
The most famous of the Kremlin's towers is the Spasskaya (Savior) clock tower, also visible from Red Square, but there are eighteen others, including the Tainitskaya and the Beklemishevskaya, both seen here from the walkway along the south side of the Kremlin interior.
www.midwinter.com /~koreth/russia/kremlin   (200 words)

  
 Commentary: The Kremlin's spin machine - (United Press International)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Not since he predicted the Kremlin's crackdown against what was believed to be a pending "oligarch coup" two years ago (resulting in the Yukos affair) has Belkovsky's crystal ball worked over time.
The Kremlin is believed to working on plans not only to create a parliamentary republic, but also to abolish direct popular election of the president.
The basic outlines of the policy change are provided to the "outsourced contractor." The "outsourced contractor" is of course paid handsomely, and is expected to come up with it's a plan for the said policy proposal and can even advertise that an alternative plan is being devised to compete with a still "unofficial" state plan.
www.washtimes.com /upi-breaking/20050301-112855-5233r.htm   (1010 words)

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