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Topic: The Sacred Disease

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  The Internet Classics Archive | On the Sacred Disease by Hippocrates
Of little children who are seized with this disease, the greater part die, provided the defluxion be copious and humid, for the veins being slender cannot admit the phlegm, owing to its thickness and abundance; but the blood is cooled and congealed, and the child immediately dies.
And therefore the disease is protracted, because the influx is thin, owing to its quantity, and is immediately overpowered by the blood and heated all through.
And the disease called the Sacred arises from causes as the others, namely, those things which enter and quit the body, such as cold, the sun, and the winds, which are ever changing and are never at rest.
classics.mit.edu /Hippocrates/sacred.html   (4247 words)

Disease concepts are presented as causal networks that represent the relations among the symptoms, causes, and treatment of a disease.
The symptoms arise from the cause or causes (etiology) of the disease.
Diseases of the liver, gall bladder, and bile ducts
cogsci.uwaterloo.ca /Articles/Pages/Concept.html   (9825 words)

 Sacred Heart Health System - Heart & Vascular Institute
Sacred Heart was named a UnitedHealth Premium cardiac specialty center in 2004 by UnitedHealthcare in recognition of Sacred Heart's high quality, efficiency and broad capabilities to treat all stages of heart disease.
Sacred Heart's program for interventional cardiology and interventional radiology is one of the busiest in Florida.
Sacred Heart Hospital has been designated by UnitedHealthcare as a Cardiac Center of Excellence, based on Sacred Heart’s high quality, efficiency and broad capabilities to treat all stages of heart disease.
www.sacred-heart.org /page.asp?ID=18   (301 words)

 Rational versus Traditional Medicine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The text is a landmark for these reasons: it rejected this disease (and certain others) as being the result of divine intervention; in other words, it rejected a certain kind of explanation and action that was labelled ‘mag­ical’ or occult.
It proposed as a sub­stitute explanation a naturalistic explanation of disease, which itself was tied to a doctrine of the uniformity of nature and the regularity of causes (we are tempted to say, using Kuhn’s celebrated phrase, that this text repre­sented an intellectual ‘paradigm switch’).
The close focus on curing disease may lead to the doctor ignoring the suffering of his patients, their psychological states or the unhealthy state of their environments.
www.classics.und.ac.za /RationalTrad.htm   (1819 words)

 Addiction Disease Concept: Advocates and Critics - Counselor Magazine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alcoholism as a disease is so foundational that one cannot deny it without distancing oneself from the believing community.”There are other circles within which the rejection of the disease concept constitutes an equally dogmatic litmus test of credibility and inclusion.
Sustained and excessive alcohol/drug consumption is not a physical disease but a symptom of an underlying emotional disorder or a failed attempt at self-cure of that disorder.
Such choice is driven not by disease but by weakness of character, “criminal self-indulgence,” or “love of a degrading vice.” The alcoholic/addict is responsible for when, where and how much they use as well as the consequences that accrue from such use.
www.counselormagazine.com /pfv.asp?aid=Advocates_and_Critics.asp   (2328 words)

 Emotions and Disease - The Balance of Passions
Paré, a famous early surgeon, reported on two cases, one of a child born with the body of a calf, and another that occurred in 1517, of a child "born having the face of a frog," produced by the power of the mother's imagination.
As a result, disease processes were progressively "localized," that is, said to reside primarily in the disruptions or "lesions" of the solid parts of the body rather than in the imbalance of humors.
In the process of concentrating their attention on the anatomical abnormalities of the solid parts of the body during an illness and as a result of disease, Laënnec and other physicians of his time gained precision in their diagnoses but began to lose the immediacy and intimacy of verbal contact with their patients.
www.nlm.nih.gov /hmd/emotions/balance.html   (2433 words)

But if these things, when administered in food, aggravate the disease, and if it be cured by abstinence from them, then God is not the cause at all; nor will purifications be of any avail, but it is the food which is beneficial and prejudicial, and the influence of the divinity vanishes.
But when the disease has gained strength from one's childhood, and become habitual, such a person usually suffers attacks, and is seized with them during changes in the winds, especially in south winds, and it is difficult of removal.
And in this disease as in all others, he must strive not to feed the disease, but endeavor to wear it out by administering whatever is most opposed to it, and not that which favors and is allied to it.
www.humanistictexts.org /hippocrates.htm   (3637 words)

 The technological invention of disease -- Hofmann 27 (1): 10 -- Medical Humanities
disease is considered as a technological invention of disease.
weaken the argument for the technological diagnosis of disease.
A commonplace definition of sign in medicine is that it is an objective piece of evidence of disease, ie such evidence as is perceptible to the examining physician, and which is opposed to the subjective sensations of the patient.
mh.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/27/1/10   (5015 words)

 eMedicine - Neurological History and Physical Examination : Article by Kalarickal J Oommen, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Unlike many other fields of medicine in which diseases are visible (eg, dermatology, ophthalmology) or palpable (eg, surgery), neurology is characterized by conditions that may be detected only by applying specific examination techniques and logical deduction, except when telltale cutaneous markers or other stigmata (see Images 1-8) suggest the diagnosis.
The oculomotor nucleus of the nerve is located in the midbrain and innervates the pupillary constrictors; the levator palpebrae superioris; the superior, inferior, and medial recti; and the inferior oblique muscles.
This disease is associated with progressive weakness and wasting of the intrinsic muscles of the feet and calves.
emedicine.com /NEURO/topic632.htm   (8933 words)

 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004.12.11
The themes are disease as linked to ideas of the self, causation, purification and pollution, expertise and authority, the impact of diseases on both individuals and society, and the soul-body analogy.
His systematic countermoves opt for nature and causes of disease as natural, though, as L. points out, without fully eliminating the divine: by declaring nature as divine, he is "able to neutralize his opponents' view that there is something special about the sacred disease" (46).
He continues with a discussion of the theories of disease and whether the approach was naturalistic or not, and the relative ignorance some philosophers displayed about advances in medical theories.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/2004/2004-12-11.html   (3171 words)

 Hippocrates   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
It is thus with regard to the disease called Sacred; it appears to me to be nowise more more sacred than other diseases, but has a natural cause from which it originates like other affections.
And they who first referred this disease to the gods, appear to me to have been just such persons as the conjurors, purificators, mountebanks, and charlatans now are, who give themselves out for being excessively religious, and as knowing more than other people.
And they forbid to have a fl robe, because fl is expressive of death; and to sleep on a goat's skin, or to wear it, and to put one foot upon another, or one hand upon another; for all these things are held to be hinderances to the cure.
homepage.mac.com /kvmagruder/hsci/05-Hellenistic/hippocrates.html   (1048 words)

 Rejection of Pascal's Wager: Christianity and Medical Science
Furthermore diseases had always been taught by the Bible to be the result of the action of God or evil spirits.
He continued that epilepsy was no more "divine or sacred than any other disease" and postulated that the "brain is the cause of the condition as it is of other most serious diseases." He did not just postulate the cause, he actually suggested dissecting a goat to test the hypothesis.
All diseases and their cures are predicated on the actions of supernatural beings like God and Satan.
www.geocities.com /paulntobin/medicine.html   (6554 words)

 BRILL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This volume examines the fifth-century medical treatise, On the Sacred Disease, as a sophistic speech, and considers its position within the scientific tradition.
Traditional views are shown to have influenced ideas concerning physiology, and disease aetiology and transmission, Competition, expressed in the terms of sophistic debate, sharpened the author's arguments.
On the Sacred Disease is important evidence for the influence on fifth-century medicine of both sophistic rhetoric and of older medical traditions.
www.brill.nl /product.asp?ID=9507   (346 words)

 Sacred Heart Hospital On The Emerald Coast
Smoking, elevated cholesterol, high blood pressure and excess weight are all factors that can put you at risk for heart disease.
Once patients are discharged, they are frequently referred to Cardiac Rehabilitation, which is owned and operated by Sacred Heart Hospital.
Over the past 30 years, Sacred Heart Hospital in Pensacola has established itself as the largest and most innovative provider of cardiovascular health care in Northwest Florida.
www.sacredheartemerald.org /page.asp?ID=37   (218 words)

 Alexander the Great - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In 338 BC Alexander assisted his father at the decisive Battle of Chaeronea against the Greek city-states of Athens and Thebes, in which the cavalry wing led by Alexander annihilated the Sacred Band of Thebes, an elite corps regarded as invincible.
According to one story, the philosopher Anaxarchus checked the vainglory of Alexander, when he aspired to the honors of divinity, by pointing to Alexander's wound, saying, "See the blood of a mortal, not the ichor of a god." In another version, Alexander himself pointed out the difference in response to a sycophantic soldier.
A strong oral tradition, although not attested in any extant primary source, lists Alexander as having epilepsy, known to the Greeks as the Sacred Disease and thought to be a mark of divine favor.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Alexander_the_Great   (9165 words)

 Red Gold . Innovators & Pioneers . Hippocrates | PBS
The latter work also protests against "narrowing down the causes of death and disease." But there are indeed attempts to apply to medicine the speculative method of early Greek philosophy, as in REGIMEN I and NUTRITION.
Experimentation obviously played its role in the Hippocratic view of medicine, because the individual approach to disease as exemplified in the case histories of EPIDEMICS I, though basic and undeveloped, is nothing more than experimentation.
The SACRED DISEASE describes dissections of animals, the results of which permitted analogies to the human body to be drawn.
www.pbs.org /wnet/redgold/innovators/bio_hippocrates2.html   (613 words)

 Lecture Notes: Hippocratics and Atomists   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Author claims that those who think the disease is divine are impious themselves, for they think they are stronger/ more powerful than the gods, who can be made to act however the witch-doctor wants them to: "The divine power has been overcome and forced into subjection by the human will".
Against the view that contact with goats, supposedly unholy animals, causes the disease: (a) Libyans eat goat all the time, make their clothes out of goats, and sleep on goatskin blankets -- but they do not appear to suffer from the disease any more than anyone else.
Goats are liable to the disease, and if you cut open a sick goat's head, "the brain is wet, full of fluid and foul-smelling".
www.pitt.edu /~ggfst/MMSlecture4.htm   (2381 words)

 Philosophy 100
In his book On the Sacred Disease, he gave something very close to what we would now think of as a scientific description of this disease.
Nevertheless, because it is completely different from other diseases, it has been regarded as a divine visitation by those who, being only human, view it with ignorance and astonishment....
I do not believe that these diseases have any less claim to be caused by a god than the so-called 'sacred' disease but they are not the objects of popular wonder.
www.chsbs.cmich.edu /John_Wright/presocratics.htm   (3064 words)

 The Hippocratic Oath (I)
The typical Hippocratic method of treatment (as shown in the medical writers of the Hippocratic corpus) was to prescribe a particular regime of diet and exercise, specific to the disease and to the patient.
Disease was believed to reflect a disharmony in the body, and in particular in the four humours: blood, yellow bile, fl bile and phlegm.
This is an important point because it implies a certain view of disease and a certain view of the role of medicine.
www.catholicdoctors.org.uk /CMQ/Aug_2002/hippocratic_oath.htm   (4618 words)

 MedHist: The gateway to Internet resources for the History of Medicine
The essay is startling for two things: the misunderstanding of the nature of the disease (which he describes as "a melting down of the flesh and limbs into urine"), and the distressing description of the sufferer's symptoms.
The full-text of On regimen in acute diseases by Hippocrates.
Common illnesses of the Elizabethan period and the subject of royalty and disease are briefly touched upon, and the alleged deformity of Richard III warrants several paragraphs.
www.medhist.ac.uk /browse/mesh/detail/D049690.html   (5826 words)

 Hippocrates: Sacred Disease
377 BC) is considered by many the "Father of Modern Medicine" for both emphasizing the role of observation in understanding disease and emphasizing that diseases are natural phenomena that are not attributable to the gods.
In this excerpt, he discusses the disease known today as epilepsy, but which was in his day known as the "Sacred Disease."
In these ways I am of the opinion that the brain exercises the greatest power in the man. This is the interpreter to us of those things which emanate from the air, when the brain happens to be in a sound state.
www.thenagain.info /Classes/Sources/Hippocrates.html   (2431 words)

 On Target - Weekly Journal, Issue September 8, 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In his treatise entitled “On the Sacred Disease,?Herodotus attributed Cambyses' erratic behavior as ruler of Egypt to either the retribution of an aggrieved god or to the fact that he had the sacred disease.
Herodotus considered the possibility that the sacred disease was a somatic illness, agreeing with later Hippocratic authors that epilepsy has a natural rather than a divine cause.
However, the view of epilepsy as a somatic disease and uncertainty about the cause of madness shows Herodotus as a transitional figure between supernatural and naturalistic medical theories.
www.targethealth.com /ontarget/2002/09082002.htm   (1949 words)

 WHO | Epilepsy: historical overview
The Babylonian view was the forerunner of the Greek concept of "the sacred disease", as described in the famous treatise by Hippocrates (dated to the 5th Century BC).
The term "seleniazetai" was also often used to describe people with epilepsy because they were thought to be affected by the moon's phases or by the moon god (Selene), and hence the notion of "moonstruck" or "lunatic" (the Latinized version) arose.
Hippocrates, however, believed that epilepsy was not sacred, but a disorder of the brain.
www.who.int /mediacentre/factsheets/fs168/en/index.html   (1160 words)

 On Target - Weekly Journal, Issue December 12th, 1999   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
First about the so-called sacred disease and about those who are stricken.
Expression of guanylyl cyclase C mRNA was found in all patients with recurrent disease but not in those without recurrent disease.
Overweight and obesity are known risk factors for diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallbladder disease, stroke and some forms of cancer.
www.targethealth.com /ontarget/1999/121299.htm   (2328 words)

 Dictionary of the History of Ideas
of disease and disease as a lack of health.
the spleen; the disease “hepatitis” is attributed to the
aim was to correlate the course of the disease and its
etext.lib.virginia.edu /cgi-local/DHI/dhi.cgi?id=dv2-45   (6917 words)

 Epilepsy (1) The Disease
Nowadays, although more is known about epilepsy, it is still not fully understood and it remains a condition without a cure.
In people developing epilepsy over the age of 50 years, up to 50 per cent of cases are caused by cerebrovascular disease.
Thrombotic, haemorrhagic and embolic stroke are all associated with epileptic seizures and up to 25 per cent of patients may develop epilepsy after a stroke.
www.pharmj.com /Editorial/19990227/education/epilepsy_disease.html   (2777 words)

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