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Topic: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions


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  The Structure of Scientific Revolutions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Thomas Kuhn, 1962) is an analysis of the history of science.
Kuhn (SSR, section XII) points out that the probabilistic tools used by verificationists are in themselves inadequate to the task of deciding between conflicting theories, since they are a component of the very paradigms they seek to compare.
SSR is interpreted by postmodern and post-structuralist thinkers as having undermined the enterprise of science by showing that scientific knowledge is dependent on the culture of groups of scientists rather than on adherence to a specific, definable method.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/The_Structure_of_Scientific_Revolutions   (3773 words)

  
 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for the investigation of phenomena and the acquisition of new knowledge of the natural world, as well as the correction and integration of previous knowledge, based on observable, empirical, measurable evidence, and subject to laws of reasoning.
The scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence.
Scientific understanding derives from observation, but the acceptance of scientific statements is dependent on the related theoretical background or paradigm as well as on observation.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/The-Structure-of-Scientific-Revolutions   (6121 words)

  
 Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Political revolutions are inaugurated by a growing sense, often restricted to a segment of the political community, that existing institutions have ceased adequately to meet the problems posed by an environment that they have in part created.
In much the same way, scientific revolutions are inaugurated by a growing sense, again often restricted to a narrow subdivision of the scientific community, that an existing paradigm has ceased to function adequately in the exploration of an aspect of nature to which that paradigm itself had previously led the way.
To discover how scientific revolutions are effected, we shall therefore have to examine not only the impact of nature and of logic, but also the techniques of persuasive argumentation effective within the quite special groups that constitute the community of scientists.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/kuhn.htm   (6971 words)

  
 Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions
A scientific revolution is a non-cumulative developmental episode in which an older paradigm is replaced in whole or in part by an incompatible new one.
Because paradigm shifts are generally viewed not as revolutions but as additions to scientific knowledge, and because the history of the field is represented in the new textbooks that accompany a new paradigm, a scientific revolution seems invisible.
Scientific revolutions come about when one paradigm displaces another after a period of paradigm-testing that occurs only after persistent failure to solve a noteworthy puzzle has given rise to crisis.
www.des.emory.edu /mfp/kuhnsyn.html   (4158 words)

  
 ipedia.com: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Article
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is an analysis of the history of science.
Kuhn (SSR, section XII) points out that the probabilistic tools used by verificationistsists are in themselves inadequate to the task of deciding between conflicting theories, since they are a component of the very paradigms they seek to compare.
Kuhn's work has also been interpreted as blurring the demarcation between scientific and non-scientific enterprises because it describes scientific progress without reference to an idealised scientific method that can be used to distinguish science from non-science.
www.ipedia.com /the_structure_of_scientific_revolutions.html   (1581 words)

  
 Thomas Kuhn
Not all the achievements of the preceding period of normal science are preserved in a revolution, and indeed a later period of science may find itself without an explanation for a phenomenon that in an earlier period was held to be successfully explained.
Revolutions are to be sought on Popper's view also, but not because they add to positive knowledge of the truth of theories but because they add to the negative knowledge that the relevant theories are false.
In normal science the key theories, instruments, values and metaphysical assumptions that comprise the disciplinary matrix are kept fixed, permitting the cumulative generation of puzzle-solutions, whereas in a scientific revolution the disciplinary matrix undergoes revision, in order to permit the solution of the more serious anomalous puzzles that disturbed the preceding period of normal science.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/thomas-kuhn   (10597 words)

  
 Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions - outline
A scientific revolution is a noncumulative developmental episode in which an older paradigm is replaced in whole or in part by an incompatible new one (92).
Political revolutions begin with a growing sense by members of the community that existing institutions have ceased adequately to meet the problems posed by an environment that they have in part created—anomaly and crisis.
In its normal state, a scientific community is an immensely efficient instrument for solving the problems or puzzles that its paradigms define—progress is the result of solving these problems.
www.emory.edu /EDUCATION/mfp/Kuhn.html   (8208 words)

  
 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
That interpretation of the nature and function of scientific theory was closely associated with logical positivism which would restrict the range and meaning of an accepted theory so that it could not possibly conflict with any later theory that made predictions about the same natural phenomena.
With this background structure, and its quantitative nature, Lavoisier was able to analyze the observed facts with tools, both cognitive and material, that allowed him to "see" the fact of weight gain in combustion as a process of combination rather than disassociation.
Again, the paradigm view of science pictures the successful scientific community as a consensus group possessing a paradigm with increasing professional acknowledgment and function as the sole authority to confer scientific truth status on theories.
www.thingsrevealed.net /structure.htm   (1762 words)

  
 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Encyclopedia @ HigherPower.org (Higher Power)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-19)
The terms paradigm and "paradigm shift" have become such notorious buzzwords that in many circles they are considered hollow and empty, and rarely have any strong connection to Kuhn's original text.
In his 1970, Steven Toulmin argued that a more realistic picture of science that that presented in SSR would admit the fact that revisions in science take place much more frequently and are much less dramatic than can be explained by the revolution/normal science model.
In order for Kuhn to explain such revisions in terms of the non-paradigmatic puzzle-solutions of normal science, he would need to delineate a, perhaps implausibly, sharp distinction between paradigmatic and non-paradigmatic science.
higherpower.org /encyclopedia/The_Structure_of_Scientific_Revolutions   (2792 words)

  
 buying info: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) argued that scientific advancement is not evolutionary, but rather is a "series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions", and in those revolutions "one conceptual world view is replaced by another".
The University of Chicago Press has released The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions to the benefit of all students of the history of science, philosophy, and the impact of science on society (and society on the development...
A scientific revolutionrevolution means a complete change, especially in methods of government when caused by the overthrow of one system by force [in accordance with Oxford Dictionary].
www.vipul.net /zeroclick   (1447 words)

  
 Kuhn Date: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
The transition to a new paradigm is scientific revolution--and this is the transition from normal to extraordinary research.
Political revolutions begin with a growing sense by members of the community that existing institutions have ceased adequately to meet the problems posed by an environment that they have in part created--anomaly and crisis.
In its normal state, a scientific community is an immensely efficient instrument for solving the problems or puzzles that its paradigms define--progress is the result of solving these problems.
www-static.cc.gatech.edu /~jimmyd/summaries/kuhn1970.html   (8071 words)

  
 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is a book that is so frequently quoted and referenced that I felt I had to read it to find out for myself what made this work so famous (or infamous as the case may be).
He indicates that students don't understand the underlying assumptions that go into a scientific field and carry these assumptions around with them as though they were fact into their professional scientific careers without bothering to ever examine them.
Perhaps the most interesting portion of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is the discussion of the interplay between experience, perception, and presupposition.
www.2think.org /kuhn.shtml   (1192 words)

  
 Amazon.co.uk: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-19)
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is indeed a paradigmatic work in the history of science.
I myself read the Structure of Scientific Revolutions back in my early student days, and at the time I was inclined to look on it quite favourably.
I liked "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" - I think it is a book everyone should read at some point in their lives.
www.amazon.co.uk /exec/obidos/ASIN/0226458083   (2421 words)

  
 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
ur final example of scientific discovery, that of the Leyden jar, belongs to a class that may be described as theory-induced.
Let me now point out that, recognizing the process, we can at last begin to see why normal science, a pursuit not directed to novelties and tending at first to suppress them, should nevertheless be so effective in causing them to arise.
The very fact that a significant scientific novelty so often emerges simultaneously from several laboratories is an index both to the strongly traditional nature of normal science and to the completeness with which that traditional pursuit prepares the way for its own change.
www.tfcbooks.com /mall/more/101ssr.htm   (1627 words)

  
 Structure of Scientific Revolutions - Ask.com Search
Outline of Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions...
The best–known revolutions are associated with Copernicus, Newton, and...
on the nature and structure of scientific revolutions is firmly rooted in, among other things, psychological...
web.ask.com /web?o=0&qsrc=6&q=Structure+of+Scientific+Revolutions   (252 words)

  
 Subliminal Message2: Read Kuhn...Read Kuhn...Read Kuhn
Kuhn defines scientific revolution as tradition shattering complements to the tradition bound activity of normal science.
Kuhn now moves past his initial topic of paradigm to scientific discovery saying that in order for there to be a discovery, an anomaly must be detected within the field of study.
The questions, "what are scientific revolutions and what is their function in scientific development?", and "why should a change of paradigm be called a revolution?" are addressed in this chapter.
carbon.cudenver.edu /stc-link/bkrvs/kuhn/overview.htm   (1424 words)

  
 FT March 2000: Thomas S. Kuhn: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-19)
The best—known revolutions are associated with Copernicus, Newton, and Einstein in physics, but equally fundamental revolutions occurred with Lavoisier in chemistry, Maxwell in electromagnetism, and Planck in atomic theory, among others.
Kuhn, by pulling back the curtain on real scientific practice, showed scientific reasoning to be just a species of dialectic, perhaps more disciplined than others, but not in principle different or indubitable.
The exciting result is that scientific reason can now be seen to be of a piece with the other great forms of dialectical reason in history: the Greek dialectic of Plato and Aristotle and the Scholastic disputationes of Aquinas.
www.firstthings.com /ftissues/ft0003/articles/kuhn.html   (1023 words)

  
 Thomas Kuhn
Overview of Structure of Scientific Revolution, by Andreas Ehrencrona.
Another overview of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, by Kim Neyens and Tracy Q. Gardner.
Synopsis of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, by Frank Pajares.
webpages.shepherd.edu /maustin/kuhn/kuhn.htm   (453 words)

  
 . The Structure of Scientific Revolutions .
Revolutions as changes of world view [What were ducks before are rabbits afterwards:
during revolutions scientists see new and different things when looking with familiar instruments in places they have looked before.
sadly remarked that "a new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it." (p 151)
alcor.concordia.ca /~dwharton/rpt/117.htm   (617 words)

  
 Amazon.com: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: Books: Thomas S. Kuhn   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-19)
"Scientific knowledge, *like language*, is intrinsically the common property of a group *or else nothing at all*" (my italics).
As someone solely responsible for a scientific revolution occurring in a sub-branch of physics, I can verify based on my experience, i.e., on the reaction to our work that Kuhn is right on the money.
Kuhn lays out what is required for a scientific revolution to take place and how the proceses happens.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0226458083?v=glance   (3617 words)

  
 Citations: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions - Kuhn (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-19)
Citations: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions - Kuhn (ResearchIndex)
Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago, 1962.
Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The University of Chicago: Chicago (IL), 1962.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/64304/0   (420 words)

  
 Amazon.ca: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-19)
Buy The Structure of Scientific Revolutions with The Road Since Structure: Philosophical Essays, 19...
This relatively easy read while, focusing on the history of changes in scientific paradigms, really is applicable to a much wider audience.
Real revolutions that propel fields forward are rarely achieved by discoveries of new data, but instead by viewing pre-existing data from novel perspectives.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0226458083   (1194 words)

  
 Doug Renselle's review of Thomas Kuhn's 'The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.'
Perhaps he means there are separate paradigms for scientific 'communities' and separate paradigms for scientific 'research.' He did n¤t say that, however, and if he had it would disagree with what follows.
Classically inures scientific expectations, blinding 'scientists' to novel phenomena, and restricting their anticipations of change — all of which ensures a current paradigm's momentum, protecting it from unwanted change.
Kuhn claims that Paradigms and Community Structure are separate concepts and should not commingle in minds of scientists and scientific historians.
www.quantonics.com /Review_of_Thomas_Kuhns_SoSR.html   (9676 words)

  
 STRUCTURE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS: KUHM AND HIS CRITICS.
STRUCTURE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS: KUHM AND HIS CRITICS.
This paper describes Kuhn's theory of scientific paradigms as the basis for normal science and change.
Details sociological features of the scientific community and describes the criticism of Kuhn's theory by Popper and Labatos.
www.academictermpapers.com /abstracts/6000/06705.html   (170 words)

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