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# Topic: Theory

###### In the News (Mon 18 Mar 19)

 Theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In science, a theory is a proposed description, explanation, or model of the manner of interaction of a set of natural phenomena, capable of predicting future occurrences or observations of the same kind, and capable of being tested through experiment or otherwise falsified through empirical observation. In this sense, a theory is a systematic and formalized expression of all previous observations that is predictive, logical and testable. In the humanities, theory is often used as an abbreviation for critical theory or literary theory, referring to continental philosophy's aesthetics or its attempts to understand the structure of society and to conceptualize alternatives. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Theory   (2561 words)

 M-theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In the early 1990s, it was shown that the various superstring theories were related by dualities, which allows physicists to relate the description of an object in one string theory to the description of a different object in another theory. The theory of electromagnetism was also in such a state in the mid-19th century; there were separate theories for electricity and magnetism and, although they were known to be related, the exact relationship was not clear until James Clerk Maxwell published his equations. The Type IIA string theory and the Type IIB string theory are connected by T-duality; this means, essentially, that the IIA string theory description of a circle of radius R is exactly the same as the IIB description of a circle of radius 1/R. This is a profound result. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/M-theory   (1914 words)

 Evolution is a Fact and a Theory In the American vernacular, "theory" often means "imperfect fact"--part of a hierarchy of confidence running downhill from fact to theory to hypothesis to guess. But in science, "theory" means "a statement of what are held to be the general laws, principles, or causes of something known or observed." as the Oxford English Dictionary defines it. The theory of evolution is a body of interconnected statements about natural selection and the other processes that are thought to cause evolution, just as the atomic theory of chemistry and the Newtonian theory of mechanics are bodies of statements that describe causes of chemical and physical phenomena. www.talkorigins.org /faqs/evolution-fact.html   (2065 words)

 Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "theory" is rooted in the ancient Greek notion of a spectator's view, the speculation or mental scheme of someone who "looks on". Theory is similar in having multiple meanings to the word "bow", which can mean something that shoots arrows in one context, and a nod of the head in another. Theories are ideas, models or concepts which explain the natural world. www.bigbend.edu /soc/tcas/theory.htm   (404 words)

 Set Theory The language of set theory, in its simplicity, is sufficiently universal to formalize all mathematical concepts and thus set theory, along with Predicate Calculus, constitutes the true Foundations of Mathematics. There are four main directions of current research in set theory, all intertwined and all aiming at the ultimate goal of the theory: to describe the structure of the mathematical universe. Along with the theory of large cardinals it is used to gauge the consistency strength of mathematical statements. plato.stanford.edu /entries/set-theory   (3302 words)

 INI Programme MTH The two main goals of current work in fundamental physics are (i) to find a quantum theory of gravity that avoids the inconsistencies that arise from trying to reconcile Einstein's theory with quantum mechanics, and (ii) to find a unified theory of all the forces and particles of nature. Recent discoveries have revealed that all five superstring theories arise as sectors of a single all-encompassing structure, which has come to be known as "M-theory". The principal aim of the programme is to investigate the structure of M-theory, with an aim of seeking its fundamental formulation. www.newton.cam.ac.uk /programmes/MTH   (405 words)

 11: Number theory Number theory is one of the oldest branches of pure mathematics, and one of the largest. For example, "additive number theory" asks about ways of expressing an integer N as a sum of integers a_i in a set A. If we set f(z) = Sum exp(2 pi i a_i z), then f(z)^k has exp(2 pi i N z) as a summand iff N is a sum of k of the a_i. Questions in algebraic number theory often require tools of Galois theory; that material is mostly a part of 12: Field theory (particularly the subject of field extensions). www.math.niu.edu /~rusin/known-math/index/11-XX.html   (2572 words)

 Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) A theory is an explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon proven hypotheses and verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers. In general, both a scientific theory and a scientific law are accepted to be true by the scientific community as a whole. Theories can be tweaked, but they are seldom, if ever, entirely replaced. wilstar.com /theories.htm   (555 words)

 Home Page The problem with these theories is that not only have the two never been acurately combined, they both exclude General Relativity from their fold. One was that the theory required the existence of a kind of particle that we didn't want -- namely a particle with no mass and two units of spin. The second problem was that the theory required that space-time have ten dimensions (nine space and one time), whereas the correct answer is clearly four (three space and one time). www.superstringtheory.fanspace.com   (1019 words)

 M-theory, the theory formerly known as Strings At first sight, this may be seen as a reason to dismiss the theory altogether, as we obviously have only three dimensions of space and one of time. The principle that compact dimensions may lead to unifying theories is not new, but dates from the 1920's, since the theory of Kaluza and Klein. Apart from the fact that instead of one there are five different, healthy theories of strings (three superstrings and two heterotic strings) there was another difficulty in studying these theories: we did not have tools to explore the theory over all possible values of the parameters in the theory. www.damtp.cam.ac.uk /user/gr/public/qg_ss.html   (1344 words)

 What is Game Theory? The most widely used form of decision theory argues that preferences among risky alternatives can be described by the maximization the expected value of a numerical utility function, where utility may depend on a number of things, but in situations of interest to economists often depends on money income. Probability theory is heavily used in order to represent the uncertainty of outcomes, and Bayes Law is frequently used to model the way in which new information is used to revise beliefs. In recent years, political economy has emerged as a combination of general equilibrium theory and game theory in which the private sector of the economy is modeled by general equilibrium theory, while voting behavior and the incentive of governments is analyzed using game theory. levine.sscnet.ucla.edu /general/whatis.htm   (1118 words)

 Category Theory It could be argued that category theory represents the culmination of one of deepest and most powerful tendencies in twentieth century mathematical thought: the search for the most general and abstract ingredients in a given situation. Still, it remains to be seen whether category theory should be "on the same plane," so to speak, as set theory, whether it should be taken as a serious alternative to set theory as a foundation for mathematics, or whether it is foundational in a different sense altogether. From the foregoing disussion, it should be obvious that category theory and categorical logic ought to have an impact on almost all issues arising in philosophy of logic: from the nature of identity criteria to the question of alternative logics, category theory always sheds a new light on these topics. plato.stanford.edu /entries/category-theory   (11780 words)

 Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) The sequence of broken and solid lines shown on each side of the Pa Qua are indicative of the times during the day when our 108 critical points of the body are safe from injuries which could otherwise cause serious harm. There is a relationship between the theories of Oo Heng and Pa Qua. The Pa Qua teaches when the various critical points of the body are the most vulnerable to attack. www.shaolinhungmei.org /theory2.html   (158 words)

 theory definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta Many coaches have a good grasp of the theory of football but can't motivate players. She believed in the theory that you catch more flies with honey than with vinegar. That's the theory, but it may not work out in practice. encarta.msn.com /dictionary_/theory.html   (200 words)

 Theory Group The theory group brings together researchers in many areas of mathematics and physics to develop novel approaches to problems in computer science and information technology. Among the areas of expertise we have are statistical physics, probability theory, combinatorics, geometry and topology, theoretical computer science, and algorithms. We are also developing topological error correcting codes for quantum computation, and studying the relationship of quantum computation to topological quantum field theory. www.research.microsoft.com /theory   (462 words)

 SUPERSTRINGS! M-Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) Since the intersection of the membrane and a boundary is a string, we see that the 9+1 dimensional worldvolume of the each boundary can contain strings which come from the ends of membranes. Therefore as we take the space between the boundaries to be very small we're left with a 10-dimensional theory with strings and an E8 x E8 gauge group. Perturbation has its limits, so by studying non-perturbative aspects of these theories using dualities, supersymmetry, etc. we've come to the conclusion that there only seems to be one unique quantum theory behind it all. www.sukidog.com /jpierre/strings/mtheory.htm   (503 words)

 M Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04) The understanding of how the IIA and HE theories behave at strong coupling, which is by now well-established, came as quite a surprise. In the IIA case the 11th dimension is a circle, whereas in the HE case it is a line interval (so that the eleven-dimensional space-time has two ten-dimensional boundaries). The eleven-dimensional description of the underlying theory is called "M theory." As yet, it is less well understood than the five 10-dimensional string theories. www.theory.caltech.edu /people/jhs/strings/str154.html   (147 words)

 CA201: Only a theory In the case of the theory of evolution, the following are some of the phenomena involved. Besides the theory, there is the fact of evolution, the observation that life has changed greatly over time. If "only a theory" were a real objection, creationists would also be issuing disclaimers complaining about the theory of gravity, atomic theory, the germ theory of disease, and the theory of limits (on which calculus is based). www.talkorigins.org /indexcc/CA/CA201.html   (324 words)

 Terry Laundry's T Theory Observations This is good to know from a historical perspective, but their seemingly random appearance over time makes us all nervous and often prevents maximizing one's rate of return, mainly due to the needed to continually offset the potential downside risk back to the 200 day moving average which otherwise could "Happen At Any Time". To illustrate an example, let's summarize the T Theory forecast looking out a few months and point out why this combination of the A-D T and the Rate T provide the better approach, assuming we add "stops" for any unexpected behavior that is out of line with their combined expectation. The second aspect of the Kemp criteria is to use a separate moving average of the volume oscillator to track its recovery from a suitable deep oversold condition. www.ttheory.com   (6461 words)

 Theory: SLAC Virtual Visitor Center The name given to the theory that best incorporates all observations to date in the particle realm is "the Standard Model". Gravitational interactions have yet to be successfully incorporated into the quantum field theory and are a tiny effect in high energy particle collisions, so are ignored in the Standard Model. Particle physics theories are written in mathematical language called relativistic quantum field theory. www2.slac.stanford.edu /vvc/theory.html   (210 words)

 theory - Wiktionary I have a theory about who broke into the school last night, but itâ€™s just a theory. The theory of relativity was proposed by Einstein A theory is consistent if it has a model. en.wiktionary.org /wiki/theory   (272 words)

 Art Theory, Art Critcism An international electronic journal on the history and theory of contemporary art, intended for the publication of theoretical analyses by artists. Analyses and reviews of exhibitions and art works by well-known artists of yesterday and today, from da Vinci, Rembrandt through to Picasso and Rothko. Theory of creativity internet links from Edward de Bono's website. www.zeroland.co.nz /art_theory.html   (514 words)

 www.theory.org.uk Resources: Queer Theory Queer theory is a set of ideas based around the idea that identities are not fixed and do not determine who we are. It is a mistake to think that queer theory is another name for lesbian and gay studies. Queer theory has something to say to lesbian and gay studies -- and also to a bunch of other areas of sociology and cultural theory. www.theory.org.uk /ctr-que1.htm   (288 words)

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